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The Catholic 

Theological Union 

LIBRARY 

Chicago, IH. 



The 
Fortnightly Review 



Founded, Edited and Published 

By 

ARTHUR PREUSS 



VOLUME XXVII 
1920 



Xo S 





ST. LOUIS, MO 
1920 



The Catholic 
^Theological Union ^ 
LIBRARY 
Chicago, III. 



THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 1 



— Can You Talk to the Dead?— = 

"7/ trill be oj the greatest value to Confessors, Doctors, Lawyers — 

ami to all men a)id women who prefer saniti/ of thought 

— a)i(l act ion. ^^ 

Spiritism and Religion 

Can You Talk to the Dead ? 

By Baron Johan Lil jencrants, A. M., S. T. D. 

With Foreword by Dr. Maurice Francis Egan 

and 

Foreword Appreciations by Cardinal Gibbons and John A. Ryan, D. D. 
the well-known Sociologist 



No matterVhat our religion, our iniiuls 
have been confronted daily with the 
awful yet wonderful and thrilling pres- 
ence of the Hereafter. No one can es- 
cape the thought of it, the fact of it ; nor 
can any one escape the relentless ques- 
tioning that it forces upon everj- mind 
capable of even momentary thought. 

This book on Spiritism is scholarly; 
it is scientific; it is sound in its think- 
ing. I consider it a real advance in the 
literature of Spiritism 

J. C.\RD. Gibbons 



Spiritism and Religion is beyond 
doubt the best book on that subject in 
the Knglish language. In its clear and 
comprehensive account of the phenom- 
ena and practices of Spiritism, its con- 
cise presentation of the opinions of 
authorities in this field, and its keen 
analysis and criticism of both phenom- 
ena and authorities, it is easil}^ without 
a rival. It is scientific without being 
dry, and its conclusions will not easily 
be overthrown. 

John A. Ryan, D.D., 

Professor of SocioloKy, 
Catholic Uiiiveisity of America, 
Washington, D. C. 



Really as interesting as a high-class novel, it should he used jor 
supplementarg reading in all Academies and Colleges, jor it is chiefly 
the rdxcated classes who are now wasting time, mind, money and 
character, flocking to and enriching mediums, not one oj whom can 
possibly tell them or you half as much that is both satisfying and 
assuring as will br found in SPIRITISM AND RELIGION — 
CAN YOU TALK TO THE DEADf 

Priop $'^00 j>ostp;ii(] ;if Hookstoro.s or 



THE DEVIN-ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 



425 Filth Avenue 



New York, U. S. A. 



1119 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. xxvir, NO. 1 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



January 1, 1920 



The Aims of Labor 

In a noteworthy paper on "The ^Vinis 
and Claims of Labor,'' the editor of 
Tlic Month (No. 665) says, we Catho- 
lics must not allow Socialists to deceive 
and alienate us. "No one," he says, 
"can better realize what is wrong with 
the world, or can set about rectifying 
it with better assurance, than those who 
have been called by God to the privilege 
and responsibility of the Catholic faith, 
with its clear and definite message to 
every generation, its divinely guaran- 
teed standard of morality, and the 
hoarded wisdom of its centuries of 
social experience." 

Members of the Catholic Church, 
sharers in her commission to be the 
light of the world and its preservation, 
should be particularly keen to further 
the just claims of the workingmen. 
They must shake off that unreflecting, 
careless acquiescence in the traditional 
order of things that is productive of 
such toleration of abuses, put their faith 
into practice and remember that popes 
and bishops are not uttering empty 
rb.etoric when they denounce mammon 
worship, plead for justice for labor, 
and call upon the members of the 
Church to take their part to restore 
society to Christian practice. 

The first rec[uisite, says Fr. Smith, is 
to distinguish between what is right and 
what is wrong, whether in aim or meth- 
ed, in the conflict at present raging be- 
tween w^orkman and employer. 

The situation is then briefly described 
as follows : 

"The ideal of democracy, the innate 
value of every human soul endowed 
with the supreme prerogative of liberty, 
is extending from the political to the 
economic sphere. Men and women, w'ho 
have now the opportunity at least of 
sharing, however indirectly, in the gov- 
ernment of the nation, realize the in- 



congruity of being powerless in the rul- 
ing of their own lives. The wage-system 
renders the worker dependent in almost 
every department of his existence. Leg- 
islation, deferred for generations, has 
secured him a certain amount of leisure, 
but he has httle choice in regard to the 
character, condition, and duration of 
his work. For in spite of much State 
interference he is still generally regard- 
ed as a 'hand,' an intelligent instrument, 
an adaptable bit of machinery, engaged 
for his employer's profit exactly as his 
employer wants, and discarded when he 
is no longer wanted. . . . 

"Lailess the possessing classes, espe- 
cially those who hire the labor of others 
in order to increase their wealth, recog- 
nize practically the just claims of the 
worker, there will be an outbreak of 
revolutionary violence." 

As to the various positive schemes 
put forward by the workers and others 
ill order to remedy the injustice of their 
present status, syndicalism, nationaliza- 
tion, guild Socialism, and the like, Fa- 
ther Smith rightly says that, "so far as 
they are merely economic, they must be 
considered on their merits. Christian 
teaching would apply to them only two 
ethical tests in order to determine their 
morality. First, do they in the long run 
make for human welfare? Secondly, 
can they be put into operation without 
injustice?" 

»-»k5^»-« 

— The people who now proclaim 
Theodore Roosevelt the greatest of 
Americans are not the people who have 
it in their power to give immortality. 
The massive monument of William 
McKinley stands at Niles, Ohio, lonely 
and unfrequented. It is likely that 
within a generation the great monument 
planned for Oyster Bay, N. Y., will be 
like that at Niles, O. 



THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 1 



Love 

By Henry Van Dyke 

Let me but love my love witliout disguise, 
Xor wear a mask of fashion okl or new, 
Nor wait lo speak till I can hoar a clew, 

Xor play a part to shine in otliers' eyes. 

Xor bow my knees to wliat my heart denies ; 
But what I am. to that lot me be true, 
And let me worship whore my love is duo, 

And so througli love and worship let me rise. 

I-'or love is but the heart's innnortal tliirst 
To be completely known and all forgiven, 
Even as a sinful soul that enters lieaven; 
So take me. dear, and understand my worst, 
And freely pardon it. because confessed, 
And let me Imd in loving thee, my best. 



Some Light on the Mystery of Evil 
III 
September 6, ipoo 

"Yoii mention science as confirming 
the truths of Faith. I shotild prefer to 
say : preparing the ground for Faith, or 
disposing it for a more intelligent ap- 
prehension and reception of supernatu- 
ral Truth. It is true that science does 
not always lead to this happy result ; 
but this appears to be because 'it puffeth 
up' without real humility, without be- 
ginning with number One — with God. 

"I am not- aware that I inherit any 
'psychic powers' and I have certainly 
not made any attempt to induce them 
by experiment. In my early childhood 
I saw an apparition which I afterwards 
believed to be that of St. Dominic — 
after I had seen a statue of the Saint in 
church. I had not seen any representa- 
tion of him before the apparition. I 
covered my head several times, but saw 
the apparition again and again. He 
looked smilingly towards me as if anx- 
ious to draw my attention." 
♦ ♦ * ♦ 

"I am convinced of what you term 
the objective character of these appari- 
tions." 

"But how do I reconcile the incur- 
sions of evil spirits with God's justice 
and goo^Incss? .... In Cardinal New- 
man's 'lectures to Mixed Congrega- 
tions,' you will sec a reference to the 
brute creation which will help much to 
illustrate the goodness and jtlstice of 
God in [K-rmitting rebellious spirits to 



attack men and in leaving it so much in 
man's own hands to stibdue them — just 
as He does in the case of the savage 
brutes. It is to be read in the lecture 
on Nattire and Grace. Of course, it is 
all very dreadful — but sin! sin! there- 
fore, how drcadftil !" 

* * * * 
"As regards stiperstition I hold it to 
be the perversion of religious belief, or 

the confusion of it We have a lot 

of exercises and manners of devotion 
got up by piously-disposed persons, but 
not really approved by the Church, and 
we have beliefs and deductions and a 
lot of nonsense, seemingly plausible, but 
not tinlike the devil's arguments with 

Christ In some peoples' minds 

the devil causes sound doctrine to be 
'dirtied over,' as it were, resembling a 
picture which has been bespattered with 
mud." 

September 7, ipoo 

"In view of what you have under 
consideration, I have taken a little time 
to write the enclosed short account of 
my experiences. I may add a few more 

points later on There is no doubt 

in my mind that hyper-sensitive people 
only can, as a rule, hear spirits, and then 
only when they have endured sufferings 
that try very severely, or else are 
brought into a certain condition by some 
eqtially potent causes, calculated to 
weaken their power of resistance to in- 
cursions. Now I have often thought of 
a theory which I do not believe is contra 
/idem in the least. We have reason 
enough to know that utterly wicked 
persons are made the devil's instruments 
in this life. Is it not tenable that lost 
souls accompany devils all over this 
earth in the unseen world? And must 
th.ey not be increasing in numbers to 
the greater persecution of the living, 
until the Day of Judgment, when, with 
body and soul united, they shall be set- 
tled in the pit of hell? This seems very 
likely to me, and it should account for 
all this diabolical incursion discovery ; 
for it is discovery to those who have 
had little or no genuine belief in the 
unseen or in life after death 

"Wc can consider any further point 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEw 



respecting the objectivity of phenomena. 
As to the question of inheriting 'psychic 
powers' or 'gifts,' I may, I think, after 
all, answer in the affirmative. My par- 
ents had such in some degree — at least 
so far as seeing apparitions goes." 

September lo, ipoo 

"As we have numerous references to 
spirits, both good and evil, in the New 
and Old Testaments, there would not 
appear to be any error in holding the 
theory — which seems to me to be sound 
enough — that there are associates of 
devils who qualified on this earth, and 
who would therefore be spirits of the 
dead." 

* * * * 

"I wish you could receive my faculty 
sufficient for your purpose ; but I could 
not wish any one anything worse than 
to have it as fully as I have it." 

September ij, ipoo 

"In reply to your further remarks 
respecting the eliciting of spirit-mani- 
festation, I have never in any way con- 
sciously done or desired such a thing. 
I have never even attempted to take any 
initiative in efifecting or disposing to, 
intercourse with the spirit-world. I say 
'world,' for our Lord calls it 'the world 
of this darkness,' and does He not call 
Satan the prince of it ? Those that serve 
that princedom are not of His Kingdom 
and cannot accept the light, and there- 
fore do not receive power to be made 
sons of God. 

"You speak of inherited tendency (if 
there be such a thing). How much this 
would open up ! All have inherited, we 
know, the consequences of the Fall and 
the Loss, save ^lary. That some inherit 
such gifts in a special sense, seems quite 
clear just as people inherit musical gifts 
or certain diseases. My mother from 
time to time saw apparitions, but never 
heard a voice from the other world, so 
far as I know. As regards my father, 
I believe from his sickness, at the end 
of his life, that he was a victim to in- 
cursions This may be of use to 

you in the pursuit of your researches." 

"Of course, I hold that in all that 
happens. Providence, or God, is the 



ruling Power, making all lo work out 
for the great end. It is only in this 
way, I think, that He has let me know 
these things 

"I am to any observer the picture of 
a robust and healthy man, and I am not 
aware of any disease in me. After all 
I have endured and still endure, my 
health has never seemed to fail. Of 
course, I have felt the strain. I am at 
no high degree of spirituality, but wish 
to be a little one in the Church, and am 
so, I believe, except for my sins, where 
alone I am great. All I say and do is 
c|uite sincere, as far as human infirmity 
may permit. I am not a mortified man, 
except in so far as my sufferings make 
me so, and these are not self-inflicted. 
Of course, I try to do something; but 
am like a child trying to walk, and I 
bear in mind St. Philip's words : 'Hold 
my hand, O Lord, or this day I shall 
betray Thee.' 

"I think my sufferings enough with- 
out adding another cross — so I help my 
poor body up the hill ; as far as I am 
concerned the spirit-manifestations are 
objective, of that I am absolutely cer- 
tain, and you may rely on my word as 

sound and solid on this point I have 

received intimation of things I have 
never heard or read of, but such intima- 
tions are unreliable." 

J. GoDFRijv RaupErt 
(To be continued) 



-^ 



— It has been said that when woman 
appears naked on the stage, a nation 
is doomed to destruction. We read in 
the N. Y. Evening Post (Dec. 2) a de- 
scription of a voluptuous Oriental play, 
based on a story by Pierre Louys which 
is forbidden in this country. In this 
play, which is running unobstructed 
at one of New York's leading theatres, 
the heroine appears "in the scantiest of 
scant apparel," while "the most sensa- 
tional scene" is "the appearance of a 
living woman, wrapped only in white 
grease paint, as the figure of Aphro- 
dite." It was such scandals as these 
that preceded the debacle of Germany 
and because of which the bishops are 
now exhorting the people to do pen- 
ance. God help America ! 



6 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Jaiiuarj' 1 



Profit-Sharing as a Compromise 
Between Capital and Labor 

Col. r. H. Callahan, in a recent ad- 
dress to the Louisville \\'elfare Associa- 
tion, indorsed a statement made by 
Charles ^L Schwab, that "labor has 
never had its just share of profits and 
will not be satisfied in the future with 
its former compensation, and especially 
its status." 

Colonel Callahan is one of the more 
progressive employers who have taken 
time by the fore-lock. He installed 
profit-sharing in the Louisville Varnish 
Co., of which he is i)rcsident, seven 
ytars ago. on the basis of the plan sug- 
gested by Rev. Dr. John A. Ryan in his 
books, "A Living \Vage." and "Distrib- 
utive Justice." This plan may be briefly 
described as follows : 

First : — Every business must first of 
all earn its operating expenses and 
depreciation, which of course iticlude a 
living wage to its workers, sufficient to 
enable them to live in a becoming man- 
ner. 

Second : — The workers having receiv- 
ed their compensation, or rather their 
living wage. Capital should now receive 
h^ compensation or wage ; six per cent 
heretofore on the actual investment 
being a fair return, although at the pres- 
ent time long-time securities produce a 
better return, so that this rate should 
r.ot be fixed arbitrarily, but to meet ex- 
isting conditions, subject to the approval 
of the workers ]>roperly represented. 

Third: — Any profits over and above 
these compensations to workers and 
rppital should be divided on a fair per- 
centage basis l>etween the capital used 
in th^ business and the workers en- 
gaged. 

Fourth : — In neither case should all 
oJ these profits be immediately with- 
«^lrawn from the business, but left there 
ior a reasonable length of time, so as 
to increase the financial strength and 
safety of the company, and in the case 
r»f the employees, this additional com- 
jxnsation should be distributed in some 
form of a security representing an 
ifiterest in the business, and each em- 
ployee should be required to hold such 
scriiritv for a reasonable length of time. 



with first preference to "own-ycur- 
own-home." 

Col. Callahan described how the 
Lt.uisville Varnish Co. divides its 
profits on a "fifty-fifty" basis with its 
employees, the share of the workers 
being pro-rated according to the wages 
of each. He said that the plan has 
interested the employees in their work, 
thereby increasing i)roduction and im- 
proving quality, and redounded to the 
prosperity of the company. A very 
close relationship has been established 
between all the employees, who are 
given information every day as to daily 
sales, with comparisons of the corre- 
sponding days and periods, as well as 
information regarding the finances of 
the company. There was no "benevo- 
lence" attached to this plan, Mr. Calla- 
han said, for since the introduction of 
this system the stockholders had receiv- 
ed a larger profit than under the old 
v.i'.ge system. 

Col. Callahan ciuoted at length from 
a paper by George \V. Perkins, as fol- 
lows : "Bonus systems do more harm 
than good and stir up trouble rather 
than alleviate it. The giving of bon- 
uses, he claimed, caused employees to 
feel that the employers were making 
v;;st sums of money out of which a sop 
was thrown to them to bribe them into 
feeling kindly disposed or to ward off 
a demand for a general increase in 
wages." 

The employer who objects to profit- 
sharing because he is making so much 
money that he is afraid to let even his 
own emj)loyees know how nuich he is 
making, was declared by the speaker to 
be "more than any other responsible 
for the serious differences to-day exist- 
ing between Capital and Labor," for, 
"with the growing intelligence of the 
masses, how can we expect such a sit- 
uation to continue? Every year, yes. 
every day, it becomes clearer and 
clearer that such a condition will no 
longer be tolerated and must speedily 
pass away. Would it not be better to 
use some intelligent foresight and meet 
what dearly are to be the immediate 
futiu'e demands of public opinion?" 

'I'lic I,f)nisvillc Varnish Company 



1920 



THE I'ORTNIGHTI.Y REVIEW 



])racticed the bonus system before de- 
veloping- the profit-sharing plan, and 
from actual experience Col. Callahan 
agrees fully with the criticism of ^Ir. 
Perkins, and in closing his speech said 
that the laboring men at this time were 
not so much interested in wage matters 
as in getting their status in connection 
with business more clearly recognized 
by some arrangement to bring about 
])c.rtnership relations, and a genuine 
profit-sharing or partnership plan 
seemed to be the best agency therefore 
to remove the objections to our exist- 
ing' system." It is a compromise between 
the autocracy of Capital and the radi- 
calism of Labor, and along these lines 
production and quality can be im- 
])roved, for Capital and Labor will 
iiave a sense of contentment and se- 
curity ^yhich they do not now possess." 
\\'hether the plan here outlined can 
})rcvent the threatening social upheaval, 
is not certain ; but it is imdoubtedly a 
step in the direction of that "democracy 
in industry" demanded by the workers, 
and therefore eminentlv worthy of be- 
ing tried. 

,_»-^-»-» . 

Cancer Curable Without Surgery? 

Dr. Robert Bell is a British physician 
who " has been studying cancer for 
twenty-five years, making notes and 
printing them, and restoring to normal 
health people doomed, either by their 
habits or their surgeons, to die of 
cancer. Apart from his four books on 
the subject, (the latest is entitled, "A 
Plea for the Treatment of Cancer 
Without Operation" ; London, Eveleigh 
Nash), his successful private practice, 
and his no less successful practice at 
Battersea Hospital, his vice-presidency 
of the International Society of Cancer 
Research, all combine to make it im- 
possible to suppress entirely his con- 
tention that cancer is curable without 
surgery and not curable with it. 

Dr. Bell's chief difficulty is that his 
method undermines both the surgical 
and medical vested interest in disease. 
It is generally admitted by surgeons 
themselves that cancer is not curable 
by surgery ; indeed, some of them are 



shocked at the virulence with which 
cancer begins, or recurs, after opera- 
tion. We use the word "begins" ad- 
visedly, for Dr. Bell quotes cases in 
which there seems to be no doubt that 
the cancerous change followed the 
operation. 

Dr. Bell's contention that patients 
die more quickly after operation than 
they do if left to the normal progress 
of the disease, robs surgery of its only 
claim to usefulness in this respect ; it 
does not prolong life, on the contrary, 
it shortens life — and if that opinion 
becomes widely known and accepted it 
will deprive the surgeons of a consider- 
able portion of their income. 

The hostility of the surgeons to Dr. 
Bell's method is intelligible ; but the 
dietetic portion of the cure strikes no 
less surely at the medical vested inter- 
est in disease. There is nothing more 
certain in medicine than that errors of 
diet, with their accompanying disturb- 
ances, malnutritions, toxemias of the 
organism, are at the root of many of 
the diseases that distress man. A re- 
formed diet will certainly diminish the 
demand for medical attention ; "an 
apple a day keeps the doctor away" ; 
and so long as the medical profession 
is organized for private profit, and not 
for public use, doctors are naturally 
chary of adopting or advising anything 
that might diminish the demand for 
their services. Lentil we learn to pay 
our doctors while we are well, and fine 
them when we are ill, we must expect 
them to be more interested in the dis- 
covery or invention of disease than in 
its prevention or cure. But a scourge 
such as cancer is so horrible in its 
ravages that, let us hope, simple hu- 
manity will override self-interest, as 
it does so often in individual doctors 
and so seldom in the organized profes- 
sion. Anyhow, the fact remains that 
the public have a right to know that 
cancer is both preventable and curable ; 
and if the medical profession will not 
permit the circulation of that knowl- 
edge it is the duty of the public press 
to acquaint its readers with the fact. 

A. E. R. 



8 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Januaiy 1 



To All Women 

This appeal has reached lis from 
\'ienna : 

To the women of the world : moth- 
ers, sisters, daughters, wives ; to all 
who hold one life most dear ; to all who 
have love and sympatliv in their hearts; 
to all these we would address a crv for 
help. 

How can you endure it longer, even 
one day longer, that in far away Siberia, 
in the Caucasus, in Turkestan, and 
in X'ladivostock. men still sit in captiv- 
ity, while anxiety and longing are driv- 
ing their relatives at home to madness 
and despair? 

You women of the world, listen to 
what you cannot know (for otherwise 
vou could not live in peace, go about 
your daily tasks, care for your children. 
sleep, eat, and be glad when tlie sun 
shines). 

Hundreds of thousands of prisoners 
of war are still exiled, working in sla- 
very, living in infected camps, and dy- 
ing by thousands of typhoid and under- 
feeding. They go about in rags ; and 
in order to get enough to eat they must 
beg. borrow, and steal. 

It is now a year since weapons of 
warfare were laid aside, but the 
wretched men may not return to their 
homes and families. Only an appeal 
for help conies through from them 
frcni time to time. Words cannot ex- 
press what they suffer ; but all the 
pathetic postcards which they are occa- 
sionally allowed to send reiterate the 
same woeful cry : We arc forsaken and 
forgotten, defenceless, helpless, and 
hopeless. 

German-.Vustria has 150,000 of her 
sons there in captivity, whose only 
wish and thought is to return home. 

Whv do not the prisoners return? Is 
it our povertv or our helplessness? Or 
is it the indifference of the human heart 
that has caused all the misery in the 
world ? 

You women of the world, think if it 
were vour son. your brother, away 
out there among these unhappy men. 
Could vou wait fjuietly until ihe prace 
is ratified? Could 'you be silent and 



let the time slip by? No, you could not 
do it. and you would not do it. 

Every one of you is guilty of this in- 
justice if you do not do all that lies in 
your power to release the prisoners. P'ill 
the world with your protests. Do not 
cease to compel, to demand, to plead, to 
warn! Hklene Sciiku-Riess 



The French-Canadians 

In "The Birthright" (Toronto: Dent) 
Arthm- Hawkes examines the ques- 
tion: "Are we [Canadians] a nation? 
Are we altogether self-governing, or 
are we a dependent people ?" He shows 
that the politicians during the war 
period have given away their country's 
liberties and sold their birthright for 
a mess of pottage. He calls the day 
before the Union government went into 
its famous secret session, "Fool Tues- 
day," on account of the official follies 
and ineptitudes that were committed, 
when the country was subjected to a 
censorship law that "seemed to have 
come out of Russia," — so drastic and 
so flagrant were its main provisions. 

Speaking of the French-Canadians, 
Mr. Hawkes has many illuminating 
things to say. For instance : "Nobody 
can grow up nationally in Canada who 
forgets two millions of his fellow coun- 
trymen. They [the French-Canadians] 
were here before him. and luiless he 
minds his birth-rate, they may be here 
afier him. There is as much reason to 
be afraid of the French as there is to 
be afraid of ourselves." The habitant 
is shown by history to be the true-born 
Canadian. "Ic Canadicn f^ar cxccllciu-c." 
Those, therefore, who decry him and 
v^ho would abolish or hamper his 
speech, show themselves by this very 
fact to be narrow and provincial in 
their outlook. Canada is big enough 
and broad enough for all her diiTerent 
races to live in mutual regard, respect. 
and confidence. 



^^ 



His Mother's Eyes 

I'y ClIAKI.KS J. (Jl'IKK, S.J. 

How often Jesus saw God's I'aradise 
Mirrored witljin His La<ly IMotlicf's eyes! 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Marechal Foch — Is He a Catholic? 

Is jMarechal Foch really a Catholic, — 
a i)ractical Catholic? Again and again 
this question must arise in the minds 
of those who read his utterances as 
reported in the press. Thus, in an inter- 
view with Mazie E. Clemens, an Amer- 
ican newspaper woman, printed in the 
St. Louis Globc-Dcniocrat of Nov. 30, 
the Marshal is quoted as saying, among 
other things : 

"The German soldier's determination 
was founded only on materialism. It 
was devoid of idealism. They have no 
scruples, respect nothing and have for 
their religion a doctrine of gross and 
hrutal materialism. They fought for 
conquest, for loot, in spoils, in territory 
and in power. They lived and acted 
and fought the material view of their 
'Deutschland iiber Alles.' The French 
soldier's determination was based on 
idealism, on spirituality. . . . The French 
soldier fought as a duty to himself, to 
his children and his God — and his God 
was not a helmeted, spur-booted bit of 
clay." 

When one considers that at least one- 
third of the German army consisted of 
men who were Gen. Foch's brethren in 
the faith, — many of them good, zealous 
Catholics, as good and as zealous as any 
found in France, — this utterance strikes 
one as particularly ill-timed and un- 
charitable. 

The Germans in America, accordinp; 
to Foch, quoted in the same interview, 
are "harmless, good-natured, beer- 
drinking yokels." 

The Marechal, if he is really a Cath- 
olic, ought to read and ponder the let- 
ter lately (Oct. 7) sent by Pope Bene- 
dict XV to Cardinal Amette, Archbishop 
of Paris. The Pontiff therein insists, 
with all the energy at his command, 
that Catholics should bury the hatred 
engendered by the war and love their 
([uondam enemies as their brethren. 

The Queen's Work and other Cath- 
olic periodicals have pictured Marechal 
I'^och as an ardent devotee of the cult 
of the Sacred Heart. "If we wish to 
venerate the Sacred Heart in a manner 
agreeable to Jesus," writes the Holy 



Father to Cardinal Amette {Acta Apost. 
Sedis, Nov. 3, p. 413), "we must excite 
in our hearts a twofold love, — love of 
God and love of our neighbors, even 
though they are our enemies or have 
been our foes" ; and he adds that no 
man can hope to obtain forgiveness of 
his own sins if he does not freely for- 
give others, and that a real and lasting 
peace can be based only on charity and 
mutual respect. C. D. U. 



The National Shrine of the Immacu- 
late Conception 

The Board of Trustees of the Cath- 
olic University of America has decided 
to proceed with the erection of the Na- 
tional Shrine of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, which has been planned for a 
number of years. According to a 
descriptive circular sent out by the 
Rector, this Shrine, which is to be 
erected between the University grounds 
and the National Soldiers' Home, at 
Washington, will be a noble Roman- 
esque church, 420 feet in length, with 
a fagade 124 feet in width and a dome 
surmounting the whole, measuring 254 
feet from the groimd to the top of the 
cross. A campanile or bell-tower, 380 
feet in height, will rise at one end of 
the fagade. The church will have no 
pews. It will hold about 3,000 persons. 
There will be twenty-nine altars and 
twenty-five beautiful side chapels. The 
total cost is estimated at about five 
million dollars, to be raised by gifts 
from the faithful. It is hoped that at 
least one million will be available when 
the work begins next May. 

We hope the undertaking will re- 
dound to the honor of our Blessed 
Mother, though we cannot suppress 
the thought that if the enormous sum 
of money which is to be put into this 
Shrine, were used to start two or three 
powerful daily newspapers, the Catho- 
lic cause would be more effectively 
served. 

•-♦-<*>♦-• 

— Luck is often nothing more than an- 
other mode of expressing the success tliat 
usually attends foresight; chance favors the 
wise calculation. 



10 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Jauuary 1 



The Falsehood of Atrocities 

Mr. Xoriuan Angoil writes in the 
London Daily Herald (.No. 1196) : 

"Assume, if you will, that all these 
stories — of the German atrocities dur- 
ip.g the war, of the Russian atrocities 
tliat we are now exploiting — are true. 
practically everyone of them. Never- 
theless, we are using them in such a 
ways as to make of them a gross false- 
hood and to involve injustice, dishon- 
esty, degradation to ourselves, and a 
perversion of jiolicy for which our 
country is destined one day to pay a 
very bitter price 

"If side by side with every story of 
cruelty by a German or Russian we 
placed first the numberless acts of kind- 
ness, humanity, and even heroism, 
which in the past Russians and Ger- 
mans have done for our people; if by 
the side of every atrocity of which we 
accuse them we had to place every 
atrocity of which they can accuse us 
or our Allies — the severity which 
marked in the early days the invasion 
of East Prussia, the conduct of the 
blacks employed by France, the chil- 
dren we have killed with our blockades 
(even after the war was ended), the 
sort of things our own soldiers (c. g., 
Mr. Stephen (iraham) calmly relate in 
their own books — if these things were 
also told, we could not use atrocity 
stories in the way we do. We should 
not draw the conclusions that we do. 
We should see that these abominations, 
past and present, are not crimes which 
we must impute to some sj)ecial wicked 
ness in Germans, Russians, Americans, 
Belgian, French. Catholic Inquisitor, 
Protestant ("on([ueror, but to evil and 
the misguided passions cfjmnion to 
mankind; to the obscene lusts of vio- 
lence which, once let loose and placed 
at the service of myopic tribal instincts. 
of a perverted nationalism, of race 
hatred, mob passion, and detestation of 
the heretic, jxjlitical or religious, render 
their victims blind, deaf, hardly cf»n- 
scious. 

"This temper that we are now culti- 
vating may easily be transferred to the 
conflict of the clas.ses. Those who now 
fight this exploitation of hate will be 



blamed for its inevitable results in the 
class war, and blamed by those who 
have deliberately cultivated the passions 
that will have made those results \\\- 
evitable. 

"This 'falsification by atrocity' is en- 
veloping the world in hate and tear and 
the passion of vengeance, destroying" aii 
the courageous idealism that should 
inspire the new time. It is blinding 
us to the right policy for our country, 
and it is of infinite menace to our na- 
ti( nal safetv and our social welfare." 



Was Las Casas the First Priest 
Ordained in America? 

Was Father Las Casas, the defender 
of the Indians, the first priest ordained 
in America, as has frequently been as- 
serted? One of the latest to make or 
rejieat the statement is the Rev. Jjmes 
Higgins, a priest of the archdiocese of 
Boston, in a book for Catholic schools, 
entitled "Stories of Great Heroes," 
])ublishcd with the imprimatur of the 
Archbishop of Boston^. But if Father 
Las Casas was ordained in America, 
who ordained him? The book above- 
named says he was ordained "toward 
the end of 1510," but this can hardly 
be, for, as the Catholic Historical Rc- 
viexv pointed out a year or two ngo, 
"w^e know of no bishop in Spanish- 
America before 1514." The Rcvie7^' 
writer thinks that possibly Las Casas 
said his l"irst Mass here, "but an au- 
thentic record of his ordination is not 
forthcoming." If a new edition of Fa- 
ther Miggin's book should ai)pear, it is 
to be hoped that either the cha])ter title, 
"The b'irst Priest Ordained in Amer- 
ica," will be changed, or that the au- 
thority for the assertion will be given. 
It serves no good purpose to teach 
children in Catholic schools "facts" of 
history which tlicv may have to tmlearn 

later.' 0. 

•-»/$>^« 

— God always kivcs tis strciiRlli ciionf;!! 
for the (lay, ;is lie nivfs it, witli all tliat He 
|)iils inio il ; hut if wc insist on draKKi'iR 
iiack tomorrow's cares anrl piling.,' tliem on 
top of to-day's, tlie slrcnKtli will not hf 
cnonKli fr)r tlic load. T.od will nol add 
<-tn:n«tli just to hnmor our wliinis of anxiety 
and <listrnst. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



11 



Thoughts on the So-Called Mission 
Style 

[A venerable old seminary professor, a 
monk of -the Order of St. Benedict, zclw has 
demoted a great deal of lime and study to 
ecclesiastical art, sends us the subjoined 
notes, ichich afford food for thought. — Ed.] 

We live in an age of contradictions, 
novelties and paradoxes. Is not the 
movement in favor of the so-called 
Mission style of architecture merely a 
fad? I would like to ask: By what 
right can this manner of building be 
called a styleF What is its essence, its 
construction, its peculiar character? 
Wherein does it comply with the laws 
of aesthetics ? What are its possibili- 
ties of development ? What is its spir- 
itual content? 

These are all very pertinent ques- 
tions, to which I have not yet been 
able to obtain an answer. I regard the 
^lission style merely as a purely tech- 
nical modification or adaptation of the 
so-called Spanish architecture of the 
Renaissance period to the climatic and 
local requirements of the American 
Southwest. The early missionaries found 
i< necessary to build their churches and 
convents massively, so as to insure 
them against earthquakes and hostile 
attacks, and coolly, so as to be protected 
against the intense heat. In making 
the necessary adaptations they were 
inspired by no higher spiritual idea 
like those which created the ancient 
classic and the Christian medievil 
styles of architecture, and which were, 
in a measure, still active during the 
Renaissance. Hence the Mission style 
i^ really no style at all, in the true sense 
of the term, but merely a modification 
of an already existing style. \\'e are 
ruled by fashion and catch-phrases, and 
imder their influence we are but too 
prone to set aside approved old in favor 
of doubtful new things; and if we can- 
not find or invent anything new, we 
coin a name and attach it to the old 
thing. 

True art is manifestly on the decline. 
If i>laced before what ancient artists 
would have regarded as a great task, 
modern art is sure, by adding or chang- 
ing some essential feature, to make a 



Jiiess of it. This decay is a result of the 
l;ick of principle from which our time 
suffers. 

Those Michigan Tablets 

\.\propos of the article on -"The Michigan 
Tablets," in Xo. /y of the last volume of the 
V. R., zve have received the follozcing from 
a Catholic scholar zcho has folloz<.'ed the his- 
tci-y of these discozrries z^nth more than 
cr dinar y interest. — Ed.] 

-\Isgr. Savage recently wrote me that 
he has not yet given up the battle in 
favor of the genuineness of the ^lichi- 
gan tablets. The Ethnological Bureau 
of the Smithsonian Institution is going 
to make a careful investigation. To 
me the main question seems to be this : 
If, as is so generally maintained, the 
tablets are the work of forgers, what 
was the purpose or object for which 
they were manufactured and buried? 
And why did the conspirators leave it 
to chance for the tablets to be dis- 
covered? Intimately connected with 
this important question is the equally 
important one: Whojvere the forgers? 
On a number of occasions when stran- 
gers were present by invitation at the 
excavations, nothing was found. In 
my opinion the best way to solve the 
riddle would be for an impartial com- 
mission of archaeologists to make new 
excavations on their own hook, without 
being influenced by anything or any- 
body. I am told there are in ^lichigan 
several other counties with large 
moimds similar to those which have 
been explored. If these also contain 
tablets, it must be proved that the 
forgers commanded large means and 
had many helpers, and that they worked 
for a definite end. which they felt sure 
of attaining. This seems to me to be 
the pimctuvi saJicns in the whole con- 
troversy. 

The fact that the tablets show new 
and hitherto unknown combinations of 
signs and letters ("an epigraphical sal- 
magundi," as Fr. Drum calls it ; F . R., 
XX \T. 19. 295), is not a sufficient rea- 
son for rejecting them as forgeries so 
long as no intrinsic contradictions can 
be i)ositively demonstrated. B. AI. 



12 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Jauuary 1 



The Need of Social Study 
Reconiniending the Catholic Social 
Guild in the Month (No. 665), Fr. Sid- 
ney F. Smith. S.J., says that there is 
great need of study among us in social 
n^.atters, not because the subject is ab- 
stract or abstruse, but because of the 
conrticting theories not yet empirically 
tested, and the confusion that results 
when "arithmetic becomes tinged with 
emotion." 

Catholics, he says, have still another 
reason for studying the social qtiestion 
caiefully, because if they do not, they 
may be foinid condemning what may 
I)erhaps be justifiable, and thus bring 
their faith into disrepute. "They should 
not be misled by mere phrases but en- 
deavor to get at realities, and avoid, 
above all. the fettering of liberty of 
speculation by undue dogmatism. The 
.Vrchliishop of Liverpool recently ut- 
tered a timely warning on this point. 
Speaking of economic theories, his 
Grace said : *\\'hen the Church has not 
spoken there is always liberty: if Rome 
speaks, there is an end to the matter." 
It is not for any cleric or layman, how- 
ever zealous, to go ahead of the deci- 
sions of authority in moral matters. So 
long as there is social theory which is 
merely economic, and social arrange- 
ments which are merely conventional, 
liberty of discussion and action is 
therein unfettered. There are Catho- 
lic.*, for instance, who hold that for one 
man to employ another primarily for 
his own profit is. not intrinsically im- 
moral, but so inevitably connected with 
injustice as to be incapable of being 
rendered morally right. Production. 
they say, should be for welfare not for 
wealth, for use not for profit : the wage- 
sy.stem must go the way of slavery and 
serfdom. To others the evil of the sys- 
tem seems accidental, and readily re- 
movable by admitting the wage-earners 
tf» partnership and a share in the profits. 
The difference is rather a f|uestion of 
fact than oi principle, and each may 
alx^iund in his own sense." 

In this country there is even greater 
need of social study than in ICngland 
because our ignorance of social jirob- 
lems is abysmal; yet. unfortunately. 
every systematic effort so far made. to 



build up social study clubs, especially 
among the working people, where they 
are most needed, has met with failure. 



The Spanish Armada 
Rev. Father Ernest R. Hull, S.J., the 
indefatigable editor of the Bombay 
Iixa miner, has started a new "History 
of England Series," which is to be 
written "from the ecclesiastical point 
of view," and intended to correct tradi- 
tional Protestant lies and errors. He 
begins with "The Spanish Armada," 
which Protestants assert was "the 
Pope's attempt to establish his power 
by force in England. ' In reality, as Fr. 
Hull shows, the Armada was a desper- 
ate attempt by Spain to put an end to 
the long series of English aggressions 
against the Spanish colonies and pos- 
sessions, and what encouragement and 
support this attempt got from the Pope, 
\\-as purely accessory and altogether 
jrstifiable, not only on grounds of re- 
ligion, but also on the ground that the 
English piracy against Spain was radi- 
cally unjust and outrageous. 

The argument is somewhat redun- 
dant in spots, owing to the fact that it 
was first published serially in Fr. Hull's 
paper ; but the author has brought to- 
gether and critically sifted a vast 
amount of testimony, and his brochure 
will have to be reckoned with by the 
prevaricators of history hereafter. (B. 
Herder Book Co.) 

»_»<g>-,_» 

A Disappointment 

The Catholic Photoplay Pre-Review 
Service, to which we referred in our 
edition of November 1, is a disappoint- 
ment. In the Jiducational Film Maga- 
zine, a New York publication, for 
November, it recommends "Footlight 
Maids." ";\ Roaming P,ath-tub," and 
"Back to Nature (iirls," three so-called 
"Sunshine comedies" released by Mr. 
Fox. which are by no means worthy of 
recommendation. Evidently Mr. Mee- 
han. the gentleman who conducts this 
service, is not c|ualified to judge films 
from the Catholic standpoint, or is us- 
ing his position for purely commercial 
purposes. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



liJ 



Assisting at Mass 

To the Editor: — 

Recent issues of the F. R. contained 
notices of the "incssc dialogucc." Most 
probably many readers would like to 
hear more about this form of assisting 
at Mass. In some churches songs are 
sung, or prayers said, which correspond 
to the different acts taking place upon 
the altar. These are wonderful helps to 
hear Mass with devotion and benefit. 
They rivet the attention of the faithful 
upon the Holy Sacrifice. Even the blind, 
or those who cannot read, thus know 
which part of the Mass is taking place, 
and non-Catholics begin to understand 
something of that tremendous act at 
which Cardinal Newman desired to 
assist for all eternity. 

The "in esse dialognce" may be an 
improvement on the better known 
modes of assisting at Mass. Do not 
drop this important subject until it is 
thoroughly understood and everything 
is done that human ingenuity can devise 
to unite the faithful with the spirit and 
intention of the Church in attending the 
Holy Sacrifice. 

(Rev.) Raymond Vernimont 
,^,^^^ 

The Salary of the Clergy 

A Texas pastor writes to us : 
In these days of the H. C. L. the 
salaries of pastors form a never-ending 
topic of discussion. I see the F. R. 
advocates raising salaries all around. 
The pastors in charge of poorer mis- 
sions are not so much in favor of hav- 
ing their salaries raised as of actually 
receiving what the diocesan regulations 
allow them. If salaries in general are 
raised, it is the pastors of the wealthier 
parishes who are benefited, not those 
most in need. The wealthier parishes 
can easily afford to pay the raised sal- 
aries, whereas in the poor missions 
there will be want in spite of the "raise'' 
(on paper). 

Permit me to add that in the opinion 
o^ many, if not most, of the pastoral 
clergy it would be a wise thing to fix 
the salaries of the bishops. At present 
each one takes what he can get. Some 
get very little, whereas others enjoy 



large incomes, of which they are under 
no obligation to give an account to any- 
one. It does not seem fair for a bishop 
to receive $10,000 or more a year, 
whilst many poor missionaries must eke 
out a living on from $200 to $400. 

The "Martyred Cathedral" 

The Ave Maria (N. S., Vol. X, No. 
22) reprints an interview with Cardinal 
Luqon, Archbishop of Rheims, in which 
that prelate is quoted as saying: 

"My cathedral destroyed! Why, no! 
The damage is much more easily re- 
pairable than is generally believed. A 
few ancient parts, it is true, can not 
be replaced ; but the beauty of the 
cathedral lay, first, in its stained glass; 
secondly, in its sculptures ; and, thirdly, 
in its statuary. Of the stained glass, 
nine-tenths has been saved, and the 
remaining tenth can be restored. As 
regards the sculptures, we shall use the 
numerous moldings we have of them. 
Many have had to be restored anyway 
in the course of centuries, such as, for 
instance, the large piece representing 
the Assumption. As for the statuary, we 
have so many moldings that it will be 
easy to reproduce the damaged parts. 
The pillars, with their ornamented 
capitals, have suffered little; only the 
two side doorways have been badly 
damaged by fire." — 

"Thus," comments our esteemed 
Notre Dame contemporary, "is explod- 
ed the tale of the 'martyred cathedral,' 
as many another invention of the war 
will sooner or later be driven from 
notice and acceptance." 



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14 



THE FORTXIGHTLV REv^lEW 



January 1 



XOTES AND GLEANINGS 

— The former Protestant Episcopal 
Bishop of Delaware, Dr. F. J. Kinsman, 
whose resif^iation we reported in our 
is^ue of Sept. 15. 1919. has been re- 
ceived into the Catholic Church In- 
Cardinal Gibbons and is preparing for 
.the priesthood. 

— The demise of The Public means 
another independent journal less at a 
time when independent journals are 
more than ever needed. Capitalism is 
relentless in exterminating all organs 
cT opinion which it cannot control. The 
Fortnightly Review, too, feels the 
pressure, and we often wonder how 
long it will be able to withstand it. 

— President Hadley. of Yale, made 
"a bad break" when, in welcoming 
Cardinal Mercier. he said {}^alc Alit))i)ii 
Weekly, Oct. 10, p. 55) : "To find a 
parallel to this occasion we must go 
back a century to the visit of Talley- 
rand, or two centuries, to that of 
Berkeley. In you we find conjoined the 
qualities of both these men — the states- 
manship of the one, the philosophic 
acumen of the other." Cardinal Mer- 
cier — smiled. 

— The Rez'itc Internationale des Su- 
cietcs Secretes, of Paris, which we fre- 
quently quoted before 1914, but which 
was compelled to suspend publication 
a: the beginning of the war, — mainly 
because of the government censorshij), 
as we now learn, — will reappear in 
January. It is to be issued quarterly 
until the number of subscribers ]>ermits 
bimonthlv, or, better still, monthly 
publication. This review, among other 
things, published a complete French 
translation of "A .Study in American 
Freemasonry," edited by Arthur 
Preuss. Its bound volumes arc a 
rej)Ository of rare and valuable infor- 
n)ation concerning secret societies and 
their doings throughout the world. The 
subscription price of the new series is 
to be twenty francs. Orders may be 
addre.sscd to 96. P.oulevard Males- 
hfrl>es. Paris (XVfl), France, either 
directly or through any Catholic book- 
.seller. 



— In view of the fact that, for forty 
years, the vote outside the Republican 
and Democratic parties has varied from 
only 1.1 to 7.5 per cent of the total, 
(with the one exception of 1892, when 
it rose to 10.9 per cent), it is not likely 
that the newly established National La- 
bor Party will materially change the 
result of the next presidential election, 
unless the Republicans are so stupid 
as to nominate a man like Gen. Wood 
on a reactionary platform. This might 
drive the discontented elements of both 
great parties into the Labor camp. We 
hope the new party will poll a large 
vote, — to counteract Socialism, and 
because it would compel the old parties 
to adopt new ideas. 

— The Chinese government is sending 
fifty young men to America to complete 
their studies. Father G. AI. Stenz, S. V. 
D., a Chinese missionary, points out that 
none of these fifty are Catholic. The 
reason is that there are scarcely any 
Catholic high schools in China. "To 
offset the menace of the Protestant 
schools."' he says, "it is necessary that 
the number of our Catholic schools be 
increased. We, too, must send Chinese 
students to America. These are the 
ones who after a few years will return 
to their country, will hold the offices 
and govern the people." Contributions 
for Father Stenz's school fund may be 
send to the Society of the Divine Word, 
at Techny, III. 

— The people of Illinois in November 
voted to hold a constitutional conven- 
tion, and, distrusting the politicians 
who have so long disregarded their 
wishes, have voted in addition three 
mandatory i)rovisions which must be 
incorporated in the new constitution, 
viz.: the initiative and referendum, the 
so-called "Gateway" amendment, de- 
signed to make constitutional changes 
easier than they have been under the 
old constitution of 1870. and a ])rovision 
permitting i)ublic ownership of public 
utilities. As radical influences are 
strong just now, the Catholics of Illinois 
had better see to it that they are ade- 
(|uately represented in the constitutional 
convention, and closely watch its doings 
after it meets. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



15 



— "Discussion as to the real cause of 
the war," says the Ave Maria (N. S. 
X, 22), "has already become so aca- 
demic that most persons have entirely 
forgotten the declaration made by Pres- 
ident Wilson in a speech delivered in 
Sl. Louis on Sept. 5, 1919: 'The seat of 
war in the modern world is industrial 
and commercial rivalry.' Who is so 
simple as to believe that the sole object 
of the World War was to make the 
world safe for democracy?" 

— A priest who has devoted many 
years to the study of the juvenile prob- 
lem writes to us to say that even with 
Catholic scoutmasters and purely Cath- 
olic troops for our boys, it is a question 
whether the hoped for results will be 
attained. "The boy scout idea origin- 
ated with non-Catholics," he says, "and 
is more or less a fad, based on the idea 
that if you keep a boy busy, you will 
keep him out of mischief. The respon- 
sibility that belongs to the parents is 
shifted to the scoutmaster, and the camp 
takes the place of the home. This is 
fundamentally wrong and involves a 
great danger." 

— In his recent message President 
Wilson warns Congress against meet- 
ing vmrest with impatience. "With the 
free expression of opinion," he de- 
clares, "and w^ith the advocacy of or- 
derly political change, however funda- 
mental, there must be no interference." 
But in the same paragraph in which 
Mr. Wilson lays down this principle, 
he recommends the adoption of Attor- 
ney-General Palmer's anti-sedition bill 
as a check upon that sort of agitation 
which leads to "crime and insurrec- 
tion." He does not seem to have even 
a suspicion that the Palmer measure 
goes far beyond crime and insurrection, 
and, in the words of the Nczi' Republic 
(No. 262), "crushes freedom of speech 
with better thoroughness than any gen- 
eration of Americans has yet tolerated." 

— At the American Freedom Conven- 
tion, held in Chicago lately, the fact was 
brought out that, although the Espion- 
age Act was passed to catch German 
spies, not a single German has been 
convicted under it, whereas 363 Amer- 



icans were in prison as a result of the 
method of enforcing it, while the cases 
of 497 others are still pending. Dean 
Lovett, of the University of Chicago, 
said that two-thirds of these were held 
on charges involving only the expres- 
sion of opinion in private. The conven- 
tion formed a permanent organization 
( American Freedom League, with head- 
quarters in Chicago) to carry on the 
fight against autocracy, to restore the 
constitutional rights of freedom of 
speech and the press, and obtain amnes- 
ty for political and industrial prisoners. 



-•-^'-•-»- 



Literary Briefs 



— Fallier Thomas Flynn's "Sermons on tlie 
Mass. tlie Sacraments, and the Sacramentals" 
average about twelve octavo pages each and 
belong to the practical, instructive kind now 
so much in demand. The style is simple and 
direct. ( Benziger Bros.; $2.50 net). 

—"Whom the Lord Loveth," is a series of 
"consoling thoughts for every day in the 
year," compiled by Henriette Eugenie Dela- 
mare, from the Bible, the writings of the 
Saints, and other ancient and modern Cath- 
olic authors. The l)ook is neatly printed. 
(J. P. Kenedy & Sons; $1.10, postpaid). 

— Father Hartmann Grisar, S.J., in defend- 
ing his "Luther" against a number of Prot- 
estant critics in the Thcologischc Rcviic 
(Vol. XVIII, No. 1-2), says that thevvork 
was not intended to be a biography in the 
strict sense, but that he intends to pu1)lish a 
regular biography of the monk of Witten- 
berg on a much smaller scale some time in 
the future. 

—"The Bible of Nature and the Bible of 
Grace," by Joshua A. Miller, Ph.D., is an 
attempt, evidently by a Protestant, to "rec- 
oncile" natural science with Holy Scripture. 
The chapter on "Prophecy in Nature" em- 
bodies some curious astrological speculations. 
We cannot imagine why this book was sent 
to a Catholic journal for notice. (Boston: 
The Roxburgh Publ. Co.). 

—"Dean" (the V. Rev. W. R.) Harris has 
collected and reprinted in book form a num- 
ber of papers contributed by him to the On- 
tario Archaeological Reports. They are rich- 
ly illustrated and deal with the following sub- 
jects: Earth's First Man. The Ape Man, The 
Pre-Christian Cross, Primitive Civilization 
of the American Indian. Practice of Medicine 
and Surgery by the Canadian Tribes, and 
The Mystery of a Land that Disappeared, 
/'. e., the mythical Atlantis, which Dean 
Harris conceived as the bridge over whicii 
men first crossed from the old world to the 
new. We shall print a synopsis of the last- 



16 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 1 



mentioned paper in an early issue of this 
magazine and meanwiiile cordially reconi- 
niend Dean Harris's book, which bears the 
title. "Prehistoric Man in America," to tliose 
interested in arciiaeological studies (.To- 
ronto: The Rycrson Press). 

—Under the title. "The Underlying Trag- 
edy of the World." Father W. F. Robison, 
S.J.. has published a series of six Lenten 
lectures delivered in St. Francis Xavier's 
Church. St. Louis, during the season of igig. 
liider the following titles: Judas and Dis- 
loyalty. The Sanhedrim and Duplicity. Pilate 
and Time-serving. Herod and Lust. The Sol- 
diers and Cruelty, and The People and Apos- 
tasy, they deal with some of the outstanding 
vices of the present day in the author's best 
style. (B. Herder Book Co.; $1.50 net). 

— "Requiem Mass and Burial Service from 
the Missal and Ritual." by John J. Wynne. 
S.J. (The Home Press. 23 E. 41st Str., New 
York) is an English translation of the Mass 
for the dead, with the prayer for the day of 
decease or burial, "month's mind" and anni- 
versary, also the ritual for the bearing of the 
body to the churcli and for tiie interment. 
The new preface for the dead is inserted. 
This little publication may be had in four 
styles of binding, ranging in price from five 
t ) sixty cents. It is in pursuance of Father 
Wynne's efforts to acquaint the layman with 
the texts of the liturgy, and is to be greeted 
as one more step in that most desirable pro- 
cess. Once establish in Catholics a knowl- 
edge of the Church's prayers, even though it be 
by translations, and you will strengthen their 
faith, correct erroneous tendencies and plant 
the seeds of real sincere devotion. It would 
be well in the next edition of this prayer- 
bc-ok to include the prayer of the Common 
Mass for the dead, since that is most often 
used, aside from the funeral Mass. 

— In his latest novel, "Saint's Progress" 
(Scribner), Mr. John Galswortliy presents a 
nasty phase of English life in the war. An 
almost inevitable concomitant of every war 
is a certain loosening of morals His lieroine, 
therefore, presents by no means an improba- 
ble or even an uncommon case. There were 
tloubtless plenty of erotic girls in England 
and elsewhere who persuaded themselves in 
a moment of "brain-spun arrogance and sex- 
uality" that they were doing something ratlier 
fine in giving themselves to their khaki-clafl 
lovers without waiting for the ceremony of 
marriage. But Mr. Galsworthy by his presen- 
tation of the case ra'ses it from an accidental 
to a typical phenomenon and treats it as a 
sign of the time that is to be. He even 
regards Noel's case with .1 good deal of com- 
placency. She is an erotic type, and her 
"self- realization" has to come through eroti 
cism; that is to say, she cannot realize lier 
self except in company with a male, and so, 
wl.cn her Iov<t of an hour is killed in hrance 
and she is left with a baby, she quickly con- 
soles herself by marriage with a man who 
had just ceased to l>e the imloving lover of 



her father's cousin. This is the sort of thing 
that wholesome people instinctively feel to 
be nasty, and the artistry of the workman- 
ship blurs but does not obliterate the 
nastiness. For his main thesis, the break- 
down of a certain kind of formal religion, 
^Ir. Galsworthy has made out a fairly good 
c;!se, and his picture of his Saint's progress 
— the Saint being a tompct^amental Protestant 
clergyman— is touched at times with rare 
pjithos. Many will agree that the conven- 
tions that liave grown tip around the office 
make it almost itiipossible for a Protestant 
minister to mingle on terms of equality with 
his fellow men. But it is a far cry from 
granting this to accepting the stoicism which 
Mr. Galsworthy admits witli complacency in 
the death scetie of the young soldier at the 
end of his last chapter: "Waste no breath on 
me — you catmot help. Who knows — who 
knows ? I have no hope, no faith ; but I atn 
ridventuring. Good-by!" If Mr. Galsworthy 
insists oti presenting to us such a gloomy 
world in the present, the least he can do is 
to allow us to hope for something better in 
the future ! 

— Under the title, "Here and There in 
Mexico," our venerable friend "Dean" (the 
V. Rev. W. R.) Harris, of Toronto, pub- 
lishes in book form a number of travel 
sketches, one of which, "The Opal City," 
oiiginally appeared in this Review (Vol. 
XXVI. Nos. 14, 15. and 16). The others are 
written in the same vein and contain much 
curious and out-of-the way information, 
c. g., on the lost mines of Mexico, the cactus 
of the desert, the wonderful caves of Ca- 
cahuampila, etc. Like all the author's writ- 
ings, this book is well worth reading, though 
the proof-reader lias been remiss in dis- 
charging his duty. (Chatham, Ont. : Con. 
E. Shea Ptg. & Publ. House). 





Wanted ! 




Position 


as an organist. 


Apply to 


N.N., c. 


0. Fortnightly Review | 




St. Louis 


Mo. 



Victor J. Klutho 

Architect and 
Superintendent 

Churches, Schools, and Institutions 

Syndicate Trust Building 
Tenth and Olive Streets 
Saint Louis, Missouri 
lUinotH I.icrniied Knginecr 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXVII, NO. 2 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



January 15, 1920 



A Catholic's View of the "Community 
Church" 

[Perhaps the subjoined reply to an invita- 
tion to join in a movement to establisli a 
"Community Church" in Boston will interest 
our readers. The author is Mr. Denis A. 
McCarthy, the well-known journalist, poet 
and lecturer, who occasionally contributes to 
tiie Fortnightly Review. — Ed.] 

Dear Sir : — 

I have your communication of the 
5th, in which you call my attention to 
the proposed Community Church, de- 
scribe what it intends to be, and ask 
my aid toward making it a success. 

With your first two sentences I am 
in thorough agreement. We are indeed 
living in troublous days, and, for many 
people old faiths and beliefs have c|uite 
broken down and coimtless men and 
women are drifting rudderless. But 
when you say that there is "deep need 
of a religion which will be close to life 
and everyday living — a religion which 
Vv'ill express itself in active service," 
may I be pardoned for replying that 
I for one feel no such need, as the re- 
ligion I already profess is exactly what 
}ou describe. 

The Catholic Church is and always 
has been a church of active service. It 
has never stressed faith to the exclusion 
of good works. It has always been a 
church of the poor and lowly as well as 
of the rich and high-placed. Here in 
America it has borne the reproaches 
of those who called it the church of the 
servant girls, the church of the poor 
and ignorant. All classes and colors 
find themselves at home in the Catholic 
Church. At its communion rail the 
poorest negro may kneel side by side 
with the wealthiest and most highly- 
cultured white man or woman. I have 
been a student all my life of religious 
and secular institutions. Nowhere else 
than in the Catholic Church do I find 
what vou are seeking to establish, a 



church which shall be "the spiritual 
expression of the world movement for 
democracy." 

I know there are millions of people 
outside the Catholic Church who do not 
know this, who indeed, in their ignor- 
ance, would scofif if it were told them. 
For them doubtless your Community 
Church may do a great deal in teach- 
ing them the foolishness of sectarianism 
and class and creed hatreds. But per- 
haps it would be better to call it frankly 
a forum and not a church. A church to 
my mind is a place where people go to 
worship God, not to debate about Him. 
And now it occurs to me that this or 
any other church founded by men will, 
after all, only be one more added to the 
list of sects which make our "divided 
Christianity" a by-word and a reproach. 

I therefore can not contribute toward 
tliis new venture of yours, although I 
shall gladly be counted in with, any 
movement on a purely civic basis which 
endeavors to bring men together to 
know the good there is in one another. 
I believe there is a time coming when 
Christians again will be one, btit I do 
not believe that this is going to be 
brought about by the multiplication of 
churches, community or otherwise. 
Sincerely yours, 

Denis A. McCarthy 



— The "^Meditations of an ex-Prel- 
ate," now running in the Ecclesiastical 
Rcvicxv, must have been written a good 
many years ago, since the author, in 
his December installment, speaks of 
Brownson, Hickey, Manly Tello, Fa- 
ther Phelan, and McMaster as among 
Hving Catholic editors. The mention 
of these names serves as a reminder 
that we have no more great Catholic, 
as we have no more great secular, edi- 
tors. Capitalism has annihilated edi- 
torial independence and individuality. 



18 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIl-W 



January 15 



The Seeds of Light 

By John Galsworthy 

Once of a mazy afternoon, beside that south- 
ern sea, 

I watched a shoal of sunny beams come 
swimming close to me. 

Each was a whited candle-flame a-flickerins 
in air. 

Each was a silver daffodil astonished to be 
there; 

Each was a diviner summer, star, its bright- 
ness come to lave. 

And each a little naked spirit leapina: in the 
wave. 

And while I sat and wiiile T dreamed, bosido 
that summer sea. 

There came the fairest thouglit of all that 
ever came to me : 

The tiny lives of tiny men, no more tliey 
seemed to mean 

Than one of those sweet seeds of li.ght sown 
on that water green : 

N"» more they seemed, no less they seemed 
than shimmerings of sky — 

The little sunny smiles of God that glisten 
forth and die. 



Some Light on the Mystery of Evil 
IV 
Scf<tcwhcr 26, IQOO 

"The photograi>s which you have sent 
me correspond with what I should ex- 
pect photograi)lis of the spirits I see to 
be like. There is one point, however. 
which I must mention. In your pictures 
the eyes of the spirits come out very 
ckarly. In the figures I see I can never 
C'tch the eyes as fixed on me, even when 
they seem to he turned on me. The look 
seems never to he fixed upon me in sucli 
a way as to make me conclude that the 
apparition saw me. . . ." 

"I have never thought of the possi- 
bility of photographing spirits ; but I 
can now see that this may be possible 
when the necessary conditions exist. I 
h?-ve never tried anything of the sort. 
I think now that it is a very good ])roof 
of the objectivity of these beings. As 
for myself, no proofs are needed, for 
I know beyond all shadow of doubt." 

"Reading Cardinal Newman's lecture 
over, with my knowledge of spirits, etc.. 
I can see a great deal more in what he 
says than perhaps he himself knew. l>ut 
undoubtedly the mysteries that cfjn front 
us all over the visible world are wonder- 
ful, and there are still greater mysteries 



in the unseen world. Verily, Thou art 
a hidden God. Xothing wdll be revealed 
— to the great bulk of mankind at least 
— that could make a true exercise of 
Faith uiuiecessarv. That I certainly 
hold." 

October 2, 1^00 

"The more one knows of God the 
more one can know of other mysteries, 
for that knowledge is the golden key 
that unlocks all treasures and opens 
every door — Revelation, in its entirety, 
of course, made in the Incarnation. His 
Word or ivevelation, is made flesh, 
sp.oken by (k)d to man, so that Jesus 
Christ Himself said He came out from 
God. No other word embodying all 
God's Revelation came out. He Him- 
self is the Word and the Word was 
with God and (jod was the Word." 

"1 would call Jesus Christ the Incar- 
nate Expression of God's revelation or 
nianifestatiot^ of Himself to us. If 
those who write on mysteries, etc., 
know Him not. then neither can they 
know the blather nor the Holy Ghost." 
October 14, igoo 

"I am quite certain that the forms 
do ai)pear to the human eye, and that 
spirits do speak, and that they are con- 
tinually 'edging in' on all human minds 
to influence them, and, if possible, to 
gain them." 

"These spirits appear to get 'into 
swing' (so to speak) with the pulsations 
of the soul or the being, and to accom- 
modate their manner of communication 
to the movements of our being, so that 
it becomes most perplexing to distin- 
guish their action from the thought of 

the mind." 

* * * * 

"I have an idea that I may get more 
light on all this, and, in fact, it seetiis 
to cotne gradually — whether or not it 
mav go so far as to disclose the secret." 

October _'5, 1(^00 

"It is clear to me that these si)irits 

know our l)usiness The chief 

])oint with ])ersons who sufTer frotn 
them is not to be nervous. All that 
tends to calm the mind and to remove 
anxiety, etc.. helps to give strength 
against the danger Of course, 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



19 



some sufifering must be borne in this 
life; but all worry, giving occasion for 
the activity of spirits, must be avoided 
as far as possible. The solicitude which 
our Lord forbids, gives the occasion for 
attacks. St. Peter was to have been 
'sifted as wheat,' and the trial must be 
endured more or less by all, but it tends 
to our perfection. 

"It is our infirmity. We see on Cal- 
vary the whole of the salvation and 
judgment of mankind — one on the right 
and the other on the left — both under 
the Cross, both crucified ; but one dying 
with Christ, the other without Him. 
The two sections of the human race are 
typified there, both deserving death, but 
one receiving eternal life through Jesus 
Christ." 

November 8, ipoo 

"Thank you for letter and enclosure, 
which I return. It does seem sad to see 
that diabolical spirits play such pranks 
with poor wanderers. Of course, it is 
nothing new that friends and, relatives 
are personated by such pests. I can well 
understand their helping people in some 
worldly way when it suits their purpose. 
In fact, as I have said to you before, 
they suit themselves to circumstances 
and fall in, in some degree, with the 
bent of people's minds. It is something 
of the putting on of the angel of light. 
But their real and chief purpose is to 
gain control and to influence our lives 
for evil. The writer of the letter should 
see that the effects upon her proved to 
be evil — she was made ill and had to go 
to a Home for a time. Surely, friendly 
spirits would not cause such trouble. 
But I have noticed that diabolical spir- 
its act in such a wav as to make people 
believe that the influence comes occa- 
sionally from evil spirits as well as good 
ones. It has been well said that the 
devil tries to ape God, and we have 
something of a diabolical imitation of 
God's ways in the devil's pretensions. 
That the 'all sorts and conditions of 
spirits' mentioned in the letter are dia- 
bolical, is my belief. In all such cases 
of supposed communications from the 
dead, I hold that the actors are diabol- 
ical spirits only " 



"It is something to see that a low 
state of mind or health is mentioned as 
a cause for a change in experiences ; 
but the change is only in the circum- 
stances, etc.. not in the spirits, as the 
writer supposes." 

"It do not know if I told you that the 
spirits which I now hear do not address 
me directly, but evidently mean to make 
me hear all they say." 

"Another rather strange thing is that 
many events continually happening seem 
to me not to be new or strange, but 
such as I can recognize in some myste- 
rious way, to be familiar to my mind." 

[On this phenomenon see the article, 
"The Mystic Plav of Memory." in the 
F. R., VoJ. XIX, No. 18, and also "The 
Curious Sensation of the 'Deja Vu'," 
F. R., Vol. XXII, No. 15.— Ed.] 

-r T* '1^ 'K 

"I know nothing of writing under the 
influence of spirits in the manner men- 
tioned in this letter." 

February 12, igio 

"You may imagine how greatly inter- 
ested I have been in reading your book. 
I hope that you are able to keep ofif feel- 
ings of exhaustion which must at times 
follow upon your extensive and pro- 
longed researches. I have derived much 
benefit from reading your book. It 
tends to confirm the conclusions I have 
formed on several points. It suggests a 
method, moreover, of getting rid of 
spirit molestations and incursions." 
* * * * 

"It is one of the most difficult things 
in the world to get clear of the spirits. 
The best advice is to watch against their 
activity as one watches against tempta- 
tions, and to measure all one's thoughts 
and words and acts by common sense 
and Religion, and to pr.\y." 

!H =i= 51= * 

"You ask : Do you think that an at- 
tempt is being made to develop your 
'mediumship" ? Has this never been sug- 
gested to you? ]\Iy reply to both ques- 
tions is : No ! — not in the sense in 
v/hich you write of mediumship in your 
book. 

"Their attempt to develop my ideas 
on this subject is another matter; they 



80 



THE FORTNIGHTLV REv^lEW 



January 15 



do this in the way 1 have explained to 
you in my letters." 

"You further ask : Is your religion 
and your priestly life in any way affect- 
ed? Well, I have been led to trust and 

believe in our Lord like a child 1 

sutYer nuich, especially before 1 obtain 
any favor desired by nie (^or before any 
favor unexpectedly received), so that 
whenever 1 get a good slashing 1 know 
to expect something desirable directly. 
I can say Mass, etc., and do all my 
work in church without the spirits inter- 
fering; but 1 know that they are there. 
The only thing 1 have to mind is to 
keep to the business I am at. It is not 
so in writing and in other pursuits ; 
they cause me tribulation there, and I 
have to pause in order to be able to 
follow my own thoughts." 

* * * * 
February i^, ipoj 

"The spirits telll me that we are face 
to face with a mystery of which we can 
learn more, but which will become a 
greater mystery the more we know of it. 
What, if after all science can do, you 
have to come to the higher science for 
an explanation of the origin and mean- 
ing of the phenomena? Will science, 
after having shown us so much of the 
wonderful, force us to seek in a higher 
sphere for the meaning and origin of 
it all?" 

"You ask : Have you ever tried to 
ascertain from the intelligences them- 
selves what their aim, etc., is? I reply: 
I have let them speak of it at times — 
that is, I have fixed my attention upon 
this thought (for they know one's 
thoughts), and I have waited. They 
say that they are here for our good and 
benefit — that (jod would not permit 
anything of the kind unless it was so. 
They say : Wc will never reveal our- 
selves to such people as seek to ascer- 
tain our business by a scientific meth- 
od." (To be concluded ) 

J. GODFRKY RaUIMCKT 

— When the flcsirc for struKgIc leaves a 
man, he in getting oUl in years or in niinil. 
St'fcly the (>eauty of youth lies in the struR 
gle after i'leals. 



The Real Peril 

Even the capitalistic N. Y. Evening 
Post, after a careful study of the gov- 
ernment reports on the subject, fails to 
see that we were or are confronted with 
anything like a real "peril" from the 
Comnumists who are being arrested and 
deported by wholesale. 

"It is a matter of record," says our 
contemporary (Jan. 5), "that the steel 
strike and the coal strike and the long- 
shoremen's strike have been compara- 
tively free from violence. Whatever 
may have been the ultimate purpose of 
the leaders, the history of these strikes 
show not the least approach towards 
'direct action' in the Communist sense, 
not the least attempt to widen the strikes 
into a revolution. New York before this 
has witnessed in the course of a single 
teamsters' strike a greater menace to 
public order than has been exhibited by 
nearly a million unskilled v\rorkers, 
spread all over the country, on strike at 
a time when the Communist virus is 
sui:)posed to have been at work." 

The Post does not hesitate to con- 
demn "a method of repression to which 
only a government in dire distress might 
be expected to resort" and "the applica- 
tion of a method of panic and its in- 
evitable reaction upon the public mind." 

"Deporting the alien Communist," it 
says, "martyrizes him and advertises 
him. It forces him upon the attention 
of the steel striker who has hitherto 
given the Coninutnist no thought. It 
forces him upon the attention of native 
American radicalism. It raises doubts 
ill the minds of most Americans to 
whom the spectacle of wholesale arrests 
and wholesale expulsions is a new thing 
in oiu' history, it empliasizes that very 
feeling of the country in danger which 
is the worst possible state of mind for 
dealing with a serious problem. It sets 
into motion an endless chain of repri- 
sal." The worst feature of the "drive 
against the reds" is that behind the de- 
portation in mass of foreign agitators 
there looms up the threat of denatural- 
ization in mass, with all that this means 
for America. Is the last vestige of 
democratic liberty to be swept away 
under the Wikson Administration? 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



21 



An Important Apostolic Letter 
on the Missions 

A very important Apostolic letter 
is published in the Acta Apostolicac 
Scdis of Dec. 1st. It deals with the 
subject of foreign missions and is ad- 
dressed to all the bishops of the uni- 
versal Church. The Holy Father de- 
votes special attention to the new prob- 
lems that have arisen in the missionary 
field in consequence of the World War. 

After emphasizing the duty resting 
upon the entire Church, and himself as 
its chief pastor, to promulgate the 
Gospel among all nations, Benedict XV 
addresses a threefold exhortation to the 
episcopate, and through it to the lower 
clergy and the faithful in general. 

First, he bids the bishops and Apos- 
tolic vicars laboring in the missions to 
keep before them the one essential 
object of all missionary activity, and 
warns them against all expressions of 
national pride or prejudice. No con- 
sideration of nationalism must hence- 
forth be allowed to stand in the way of 
ample provision being made, wherever 
possible, for members of all religious 
societies and orders, no matter of what 
nationality or whence they come. The 
Vv'ork of the missions shall no longer 
be hampered by the stubborn determi- 
nation of vicars to retain jurisdiction 
over vast areas, to the needs of which 
they are unable properly to attend. 

In this connection His Holiness in- 
sists on the urgent need of providing 
a native clergy for the different peo- 
ples, since the withdrawal of mission- 
aries during the recent war resulted in 
demoralization and untold injury to 
sculs. 

Secondly, the Holy Father counsels 
the missionaries themselves to watch 
with care lest they be led to pay greater 
attention to matters of worldly advan- 
tage and national prestige than to the 
salvation of souls, which alone matters. 
No less than a page and a half of the 
letter is devoted to this theme, and the 
Pontiff concludes by asking what im- 
pression will be made upon the heathen 
if they observe the Catholic clergy ham- 
pering their own work, and neglecting 
the souls they have come to save, on 



account of racial distinction or preju- 
dices. He demands a complete setting 
aside of all merely personal aims and 
a more careful preparation for the work 
of the missions by the acquisition of the 
native language and study of the men- 
tality of the natives. Above all he asks 
the missionaries to pray for the spirit 
of devotion, a renewal of piety, and a 
spirit of Unreserved sacrifice to the 
cause of Christ, without which quali- 
ties no permanent good can be accom- 
plished. 

Lastly, the Pontifif calls the attention 
of the hierarchy to the importance of 
active participation in the work of the 
foreign missions by the faithful at 
large. After quoting Ecclus. X\TI, 12 
("He gave to every one of them com- 
mandment concerning his neighbor") 
he shows how the interests of all na- 
tions are bound up in the duty of every 
man to consider the needs of his neigh- 
bor. Whose needs, he asks, are greater 
tlian those of the pagans who sit in 
darkness and are slaves of Satan? 

Three means of co-operation are 
recommended as of paramount import- 
ance: (1) Prayer for the missions and 
missionaries ; (2) vocations to the mis- 
sionary priesthood, now so sorely 
depleted in consequence of the war ; 
(3) material support. This can be 
effectively rendered, he says, through 
active membership in the Society for 
the Propagation of the Faith, the 
Association of the Holy Childhood, and 
the Work of St. Peter. The clergy are 
encouraged to affiliate with the "Priests' 
Missionary Union," a society which has 
recently been founded in Italy and is 
spreading rapidly to other countries. 

By way of modest comment we may 
be permitted to say that we consider 
this Apostolic Letter as a most timely 
pronouncement, which is sure to have 
its effect upon the recently established , 
"American Board of Catholic T^lissions." 
This Board has already forwarded its 
constitution, etc., to the Holy See and 
now awaits the formal sanction of His 
Holiness before proceeding to inaugu- 
rate an energetic campaign for the 
support and extension of the Catholic 
foreign missions. 

(Rev.) Bruno H.\gspiel, S.V.D. 



82 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



The Great Failure 

"Is i: luerel) a paradox to assert that 
a>> war was waged in order to make 
war impossible, so a peace was made 
that will render peace impossible?" 

So Dr. E. J. Dillon characterizes the 
work of the Peace Conference. His 
book C'The Peace Conference"; Lon- 
don: Hutchinson) explains the Great 
Failure. It is not a history of the Con- 
ference ; it is an accoimt of the way 
things were done at I\iris. written by 
a man of wide outlook, who knows his 
way about the diplomatic world. The 
style is always clear and adequate, often 
brilliant. The passage beginning "Never 
was iH)litical veracity in Europe at a 
K>wer ebb than during the Peace Con- 
ference," is in its telling antitheses al- 
n;ost Thucydidean. 

Doubtless there will be many volumes 
written on the Peace Conference, but 
few are likely to be so valuable to the 
historian as this. Dr. Dillon analyses 
with pitiless clearness the motives of 
those chosen by democracy to represent 
its "ideals." l^>oth the English and 
French Premiers were dominated by 
pledges given to their majorities at 
home. Consi)icuous among these was 
the promise that (jcrmany was to be 
made to pay the whole cost of the war. 
Mr. Wilson's aim was to take back with 
Inm some sort of covenant. 

W hat is perhaps most surprising is 
the ignorance shown by the delegates. 
Lloyd (jeorge's admission regarding 
Teschen is easily surpassed. One dele- 
gate confused Silesia with Cilicia, an- 
other asked what I'Vederick the (jreal 
had to df) with Poland, a third wanted 
t'; know the connection between D.il- 
matia and I-'iumc. .\ .Secretary of .State: 
thought that Danzig was an Italian 
|K>rt on the Mediterranean. Such w( re 
the prritagonist'^ of democratic diplo- 
* macy. 

With pcrhajis one ( xccptifjn, tlic nun 
oi outstanding ability represented the 
smaller .State*;, and they bad to rely on 
wire-juilling an*! flattering the weak- 
ne}»s<-s of the P»ig I'our. Of the latter 
excellent character-sketches are given. 
^L Clenicnceaii is "the professional 
dtstrover who rati boai^t that be rtvcr- 



threw eighteen cabinets, or nineteen if 
we include his own." The author pays 
tribute to the success of the French 
delegates in obtaining a settlement 
which gives F'rance the military and 
cultural hegemony of Europe, based on 
control of the Rhineland and the alli- 
ance of the New States of Eastern 
Juuope. 

Of Mr. Wilson "the mythopoeic 
faculty of the peoples had created a 
messianic democrat." But the Presi- 
dent's mind was fixed primarily, not 
on ending the war and the blockade, 
but on returning to Washington with a 
paper covenant. To that end his "prin- 
ciples" were violated in accordance with 
the desire of every interest powerful 
enough to threaten the covenant. Dr. 
Dillon speaks with bitter indignation of 
the clause in the original treaty which 
handed over to France the entirely 
German population of the Saar Valley 
as the equivalent of a sum in gold, and 
he notes that even this was not incon- 
sistent with Mr. Wilson's conception of 
"self-determination." 

.\s for Mr. Lloyd George, "the only 
approach to a guiding principle one can 
find in his work at the Conference, was 
the loosely held maxim that Great Brit- 
ain's best policy was to stand in with 
the United States in all momentous 
issues and to identify Mr. W^ilson with 
the United States for most purposes of 
the Congress. Within these limits Mr. 
George was unyielding in fidelity to the 
cause of France. . . . Essentially a man 
of expedients and shifts, he was in- 
capable of measuring more than an arc 
of the i)olitical circle at a time. His 
lack of general equipment was prohib- 
itive. A comprehensive survey of a 
complicated situation was beyond his 
rcacli. There is a line beyond which 
opportunism becomes shiftiness, and it 
would be rash to assert that Mr. George 
i^ careful to keep on the right side of it. 
( luided by no soimd knowledge ... he 
was tossed and drawn hither and 
thither like a wreck on the ocean." 

Dr. Dillon describes in considerable 
detail the methods pursued by the dele- 
gates. The French plan of preparatory 
commissions was rejected by Messrs. 



1920 



THE I'ORTNIGHTI.Y REVIEW 



23 



George and Wilson. Three and a half 
months were spent in "informal con- 
versations," at a time when Europe in 
hunger and misery was daily sinking 
deeper into Bolshevism. Bolshevism, 
indeed, was fostered by the Conference, 
not from design, but through stupidity. 
The Prinkipo invitation, the Bullitt 
"mission," and the snubbing of Kolt- 
chak's representatives encouraged it in 
Russia ; its infection of Hungary was 
directly produced by the treatment of 
the Karolyi governmeitit, which had 
saved Hungary from anarchy in No- 
vember to December, 1918. And Dr. 
Dillon might have added that the later 
refusal of the Conference to recognize 
the Friedrich government, which fol- 
lowed Bela Kun, showed that Paris had 
learnt nothing. The author asserts that 
there was at Paris a section of opinion 
which definitely played for delay in the 
settlement, in order that Bolshevism 
might break out in Germany. 

In the disregard shown for the rec- 
ords and the political aptitude of the 
people whose destinies were being 
settled, Mr. Wilson was the greatest 
offender. The peace was based on 
interests uninformed by the knowledge 
possessed by the older diplomacy, and 
distorted by the capricious application 
of Air. Wilson's theories in the case of 
peoples not strong enough to resist. A 
peace based on enlightened views of 
self-interest might at least have been 
consistent and intelligible ; but the 
treaty of \'er.sailles was based on the 
short-sighted views which commended 
themselves to the democracies, and was 
made especially irritating to those 
whom it penalized Ijy being smeared 
over with the unction of Mr. Wilson's 
"principles." Hence the vogue of the 
phrase "making the world safe for 
h\pocrisy." The result in the author's 
summing-up is that to-day "in Europe 
every nation's hand is raised against its 
neighbors, and every people's hand 
against its ruling class .... the huge 
sacrifices offered up by the heroic 
armies of the foremost nations are 
being misused to give one-half of the 
world just cause to rise up against the 
other half." 



Thou Shalt Not Criticise! 

According to an official announcement 
published in the local press of the occu- 
pied territory, the French Commandant 
of the Rhine Army has definitely pro- 
hibited the introduction, sale, and circu- 
lation of the Frankfurter Mittagsblatt 
and of five Belgian papers, of a Socialist 
juid Communist character, within the 
French occupied zone. Within the Brit- 
ish and Belgian zones a similar prohibi- 
tion has been extended to the World, an 
English paper published at The Hague, 
and Met Vlamish Front, of Antwerp, 
while the Frankfurter Zeitung and the 
Frankfort Socialist organ, Die Volks- 
stimme, are banished from the French 
and British-Belgian zones for a period 
of three months. All this merely be- 
cause the said papers continue to criti- 
cize now and then the way things are 
being carried on by the military author- 
ities. Yet there are still those who 
imagine that the one real great achieve- 
ment of our age is the general recogni- 
tion of the freedom of the press in times 
of peace. 



Dumas' Only German Work 

The performance last month in 
Vienna of "A Friend of Women," by 
the younger Dumas, recalls an incident 
in his life that is not without signifi- 
cance at present. Dumas was remark- 
ably handsome except for his long nose. 
A Viennese writer, with more thorough- 
ness than tact, referred to his la^ck of 
facial symmetry in a review of his 
works. When this was brought to the 
I-renchman's attention, he placed his 
l)est photograph, one in which the nose 
had been toned down, in an envelope 
and sent it to his German friend \yith 
these lines written in old German script : 
"Um Sic zu bedanken uber Ihrer Auf- 
satz und um Ihnen zu bewuisen dass 
ich nicht die Nase so lange habe wie 
Sie sagen. A. Dumas, f." This note of 
ai)preclation, with its grammatical mis- 
takes, is the only work Dumas ever 
wrote in German. 

•-»<g>*-» 

— Tlie public schools will remain "in poli- 
tics" a<: long a.s education is one of the prm- 
cipal things for which public money is spent. 



24 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 16 



The Mission Style of Architecture 

The notes by a Benedictine Father 
in No. 1 of the F. R., on the ^lission 
st\le. bring up many interesting points 
for discussion. The dechne in art, as 
the writer states, is not confined to the 
piesent. but dates back to the revohition 
ui the 16th century. The growtli and 
development of art stopped with the 
ascent of Protestantism, commercial- 
ism, and materialism. Up to that time 
there was a gradual unfolding and 
development of architecture from the 
Eg>ptian and Greek ]ieriods to the 
dazzling heights of medieval Gothic. 

After the lamp of Gothic art was ex- 
tinguished, the first conscious efTorl at 
copying an art of a bygone age began, 
when the masters of the Renaissance 
revived the architecture of pagan Ronie 
and adapted it to the conditions of their 
day. This adaptation was so cleverly 
done that a new style was added to the 
history of architecture. 

The absence of a living architecture 
to-day, owing to the chaotic condition 
of modern civilization, leaves the archi- 
tect no sensible alternative except to 
adapt and apply the essential forms 
u>ed in former styles to the building 
conditions of the present. These essen- 
tial architectural forms, based on con- 
struction, are. of course, the column, 
the lintel, and the arch. When these 
are used logically, with fine artistic 
feeling, with due regard for good j)ro- 
I>ortions, and a i)roper relation to each 
other and the wall surfaces, and when 
the building on which they are used ful- 
fills all practical requirements, then we 
have gcx>d architecture. It does not. 
then, matter from what period or style 
the ornamental features are borrowed. 
adapted or changed, so long as they 
meet the basic laws of good design. 
which laws underlie every style. Indeed 
a building may have style and beauty 
without following any historical style 
or ornament whatsoever. This is proved 
by the new work in Ciermany, about 
which the well-known Henedictine art 
critic. Dr. AllK-rt Kuhn. has written an 
interesting lxx>k. "Die Modcrne." 

The reason why the so-called Missi(»M 
style has been found so interesting and 



beautiful is that it is indigenous to the 
soil, in fact was made from it, fulfills 
the essential requirements of good 
architecture by adhering closely to the 
laws of design, of honest and logical 
construction, is governed by local con- 
ditions of climate and material, and an- 
swers the practical needs. The build- 
ings erected in this style have in them 
something of the ruggedness and natu- 
ral i)eauty of the mountains which 
form their background. 

The exact adaptation of these works 
to the climatic conditions and the func- 
tions involved makes them classics. It 
is deemed by every writer on architec- 
ture from V'itruvius to Ferguson that 
art. as an art, consists primarily in 
meeting the requirements and, further- 
more, in discreetly and tastefully dis- 
posing the structural materials. 

The merit of the Mission structures 
does not lie in the fact that they con- 
tain decorative elements of the Spanish 
Renaissance. These details do not assist 
the composition, nor the masses, which 
are quite satisfactory without them. 

It is, of course, a mistake to trans- 
plant this style to the colder climate of 
the north or east of this country, where 
it would be entirely out of place. But 
to the south and southwest these build- 
ings exemplify logical, artistic, and 
economical building principles, without 
which no work of architecture can 
claim lasting distinction. 

To (piote from your esteemed con- 
tributor : "We are indeed ruled by 
fashion and catch phrases and too 
prone to set aside approved and old, 
in favor of doubtful new things." The 
Mission buildings do not set aside old 
things, but. on the contrary, follow the 
oldest and sanest architectural prin- 
ciples, the neglect of which has brought 
Catholic architecture in this country to 
its lowest depths, lower perhaps than 
it has ever fallen in its whole varied 
history. 

Once we grasp these basic ])rinciples 
and ap])ly them to our building prob- 
lems, as well, for example, as the saint- 
ly Father Junipero Serra applied them 
to his, the ((uestion of style, in capable 
hands, will take care of itself. 

John T. ("omf>:s 



5920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



25 



For a Six Hour Day 

It was hitherto widely beHeved that 
sufficient food, clothing, fuel, trans- 
portation, and housing could be pro- 
vided for the human race only at the 
cost of long hours and fatigue on the 
[art of at least a considerable number. 

Lord Leverhulme is the most promi- 
nent of a new generation of thinkers 
who demand that fatigue be done away 
with in :hc interest of productive effi- 
ciency. 

In ''The Six Hour Day and Other 
Industrial Questions" (Henry Holt & 
Co.) Lord Leverhulme. who is a prac- 
tical business man arid has conducted 
iiidustrial enterprises of the first mag- 
nitude, contend > that six hours work- 
yields a greater output per man than a 
longer day. 

The six hour day. he says, lends it- 
self to the ]:)lan of working two shifts, 
from seven in the morning to one and 
from one to seven. No worker would 
grumble about the confining character 
of his work if he had either the whole 
morning or the whole afternoon to 
himself. Nor would it be impossible 
to work a third shift, from seven to 
one, or even a fourth shift, from one 
in the morning to seven. The worker 
would sacrifice half the night, but would 
enjoy leisure through the whole day. 

The emplover's side of the question 
Icioks even more rosy. In many indus- 
tries the charges for interest on capital 
and depreciation, or rather, obsoles- 
cence, equal or exceed the charges for 
wages. Those capital charges remain 
practically the same, whether the fac- 
tory operates one shift or four. It 
would therefore pay richly to institute 
a six hour day permitting two or more 
shifts, even if the product j)er hour did 
not increase and wages per day re- 
mained stationary or were even some- 
what advanced. In many industries 
where that is not now the case, it would 
become the case upon the introduction 
of more efficient and costly machinery. 

The six hour day is a problem anal- 
ogous to the problems of mechanics. 
The heavier than air Hying machine. 
Sir Hiram Maxim pointed out long ago, 
would become feasible as soon as a 



motor should be built which would 
generate one horse power for the 
weight of a hen. There is a definite 
(juantity of machine power that will 
make the six hour day feasible in in- 
dustries where it would not pay under 
existing conditions. It is the duty of 
industrial engineering to find this 
(juantity and apply it. 

Wages and hours lie at the basis of 
the labor problem. Without solving the 
problems of a living wage and a toler- 
able day, no progress can be made. But 
Lord Leverhulme recognizes that these 
are not the whole solution. The worker 
can not remain a mere hand ; he must 
have a living interest in the process 
v;hich employs him. For years Lord 
Leverhulme has been at work evolving 
a system of copartnership by which the 
workers are given an interest in the 
profits of the business, while abating 
nothing of their claim to standard 
wages in bad times as well as good. 
But control, he feels, belongs to those 
v/ho take the risks, and labor neither 
takes nor ought to take risks. Yet he 
wavers a little here, and often makes 
concessions to the idea that when the 
workers have become educated, as they 
can be under the six hour system, there 
may be a steady flow of ability from 
the routine workers through the man- 
cigement and into the directorate. 

It is a safe forecast that Lord Lever- 
hulme will eventually make a greater 
place for labor participation in the con- 
trol of industry. At present he inter- 
prets risks too narrowly. The laborer 
does in fact bear some part of the risk ; 
it the enterprise fails he loses his job — 
no small loss under a system of over- 
supplied labor markets. Apart from 
the question of equity there are cogent 
practical arguments for labor participa- 
tion in control. 

•^m^^^^ 



— In the Ninctccntli Century for De- 
cember Sir Oliver Lodge writes in as 
plain a way as the subject allows him, 
of the Einstein theory and its bearings 
on the theory of gravity. He indicates 
that neither of these two theories 
throws any light on the reason for the 
mutual attraction of heavv bodies. 



«6 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



Private Ownership 

J'hc Month {Xo. 005) says in the 
course of a timely article : 

"The heaven of heaven is tiit: Lord's : 
but the earth He hath given to the sons 
of men. " God does not in the New 
L)i>pensation dictate any form of eco- 
nomic polity. Private ownership, for 
instance, of any commodity, as distinct 
trom use. gets its sanction not from 
any direct divine enactment but from 
its obvious necessity for individual and 
social welfare. It is a natural right, 
though not so absolute as the right to 
life and liberty. It may be freely re- 
signed by individuals or communities : 
it may in circumstances be incapable of 
being exercised without any real loss to 
the individual. Many of the race have 
reached their eternal home without 
having possessed anything save the con- 
sumable goods given them by others 
for their subsistence. All the same. 
man has by nature, and not merely by 
social convention, a right to own the 
goods of this world, the land and its 
varied products ; therefore, to institute 
such a system of industry and econom- 
ics in the State that the citizens general- 
ly could not exercise that right would 
Ix* unjust, unless the present system 
should cease to be necessary for social 
and individual welfare. Modern Cath- 
olic teaching is practically unanimous 
on that head. Though it does not con- 
sider the wage-system as evil and un- 
jiist in itself, since in all human his- 
tory men in every station have; accepted 
money as something practically ecpiiva- 
Knt to services rendered, still it con- 
sitlers that normally a certain amount 
of personal property is necessary for 
the due development of the individual 
and the right ordering of family life. 
'I'hat a large proportion of the |)opula- 
tion should have nothing but a precari- 
ous means of livelihood, dciKiubnl on 
a scries of accidents — the fluctuations 
of trade, the whims of employers, the 
discovery of mechanical devices, mis- 
management, the chances of health, the 
very "reasons themselves — is clearly 
bad for thf individual and for the Stat( 
zs well. Socifty has driftcfl into this 
rr-ndiiion through long ncgl'ct of 



Christian principles : it must disavow 
in practice what have long been dis- 
credited in theory — the Godless eco- 
nomics of the Manchester school, which 
are still the gospel of the unscrupulous 
capitalist. The difference between the 
Catholic sociologist and the Socialist is 
precisely this, that the former aims at 
directing and moderating ineradicable 
liuman instincts, whilst the latter wants, 
vainly, to suj^press them. The new 
"status" with which the thorough-going 
Socialist wotild endow the worker in- 
volves merely a change of masters, and 
a change for the worse — from a servi- 
tude which is partial and intermittent 
to one which is perfect and permanent, 
from a master who is human and po- 
tentially humane to one that is a soul- 
less cori)oration. But the true reformer 
would increase at once the independence 
and the security of the worker by 
identifying his work with his own inter- 
est and freeing him from the degrada- 
tion of being exploited for the profit of 

another That, obviously, can only 

be done by a considerable modification 
of present conditions. The Socialist says 
the modification must go so far as to 
destroy all private ownership in the 
means of productoin (land and capi- 
tal) : we maintain, on the contrary, 
that a wider and better distribution of 
land and capital is all that is required. 
"The problem to be solved fsays Car- 
dmal Bourne in 'The Nation's Crisis'] 
is to find a way of distributing the 
surj^lus wealth so that the poor man, 
mantial worker or inferior clerk, inay 
have the additional remuneration that 
he so urgently needs ; and the rich man 
I'lO longer receive the heaped-up incre- 
ment which he in no sense requires and 
cantiot efficientlv control." 



-•-»<j>-»-»-- 



— The Bishop of St. Cloud has given 
up the attempt of publishing an official 
organ. His paper. My Message, lasted 
four years and died for lack of sup- 
port. It was in no way distinguished, 
and we need not wonder, therefore, 
that il failed in spite of strong episcopal 
pressure exerted u])on ])astors and 
])eople. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIE^ 



27 



Dr. Erzberger and the League of 
Nations 

[The London Saturday Review (No. 3332), 
we are pleased to notice, has kindly words 
for Dr. Matthias Erzberger, the much- 
maligned leader of the German Centre Parly. 
In a notice of the English edition of Erz- 
berger's brochure on "The League of Na- 
tions" (tr. by Bernard Miall; London: Hod- 
der & Stoughton) the great British Tory 
organ says, inter alia:] 

"Erzberger inspired the revolt of the 
Reichstag in 1917 when, following its 
famous peace resolution in July of that 
year, it overthrew first Dr. Bethmann- 
Hollweg and later Dr. Michaelis. Given 
a few hours' conversation with Mr. 
Lloyd George and M. Clenienceau, and 
he declared that he could make peace. 
If our interpretation of its purpose is 
correct, the present volume represents 
a further attempt on the part of the 
author to provide a basis for a 
negotiated peace. To what extent, 
indeed, he was expressing his real 
belief in September, 1918, when he 
said that the war was 'little likely . . . 
to end in a definite decision in favor 
of either side' is uncertain. But the 
point is immaterial, for his previous 
endeavors towards peace amply attest 
his sincerity. He realized that the con- 
dition precedent of a negotiated peace 
was the inclusion in the settlement of 
some feature which would enable l)oth 
belligerent governments to declare that 
their moral aims had been achieved. 
This he found in the establishment of 
a League of Nations, to be constituted 
by the adhesion of England, France, 
Germany, Russia, and the United 
States. Jhe constitution and ftmctions 
of such a League are here accordingly 
described." 

"Herr Erzberger," the Saturday 
Rcinezv continttes, "combines a mind 
trained in historical and political think- 
ing with a proven dexterity in practical 
politics which is part of the tradition 
of capable leadership of the Reichstag 
Centre from Windthorst onward. In 
his book an historico-political examina- 
tion of previous attempts to secure 
world-peace serves as a basis for his 
treatment of the concrete problems in- 
volved. It must be admitted that the 



historical argument for the League has 
seldom been put with so much ability. 
.... He certainly establishes that the 
repeated peace-efforts of the papacy 
during the recent war were in line with 
its honorable age-long pacific tradition. 
A concise but comprehensive account is 
given of the many kinds of interna- 
tional agreements before the war, such 
as those relating to publication of the 
world's tariffs, the metric system, rail- 
way goods traffic, posts and telegraph ; 
and of previous arbitration treaties. 
The author establishes by quotations 
from President Wilson, Viscoimt Grey, 
Mr. Asquith, and Count Hertling, sub- 
stantial agreement in regard to the ideal 
aimed at, and makes that ideal definite 
In- incorporating in it a programme. 
Apart from the estaljlishment of an 
Administrative Council, consisting of 
the member-States' diplomatic repre- 
sentatives accredited ad hoc, and a 
permanent Bin-eau to deal with admin- 
istrative and technical matters, this 
jji ogranime consists of six points: 
Obligatory Arbitration, Disarmament, 
iMeedom of the Seas and international 
commerce Equality of Economic 
Privilege. The Common Opening Up of 
Africa, and the Protection of Neutral 

States." 

•-♦.$-•-• 

Lies 

"In making the prediction that it will 
take fifty years to untell all the lies told 
in the last five years," savs the Catholic 
Advance (Vol. 32, No. 13), "His Grace 
[the Archbishop of St. Louis] shows 
himself an unconquerable optimist. 
Historic examples of lies would lead 
one to extend the term by at least a cen- 
tury. There is the calumny fastened 
on St. Ignatius Loyola that the end jus- 
tifies the means. Truth has been after 
k for four hundred years, and whilst 
she catches its tail once in a while, the 
lie always escai)es. Unless Truth 
changes her speed gear and lies slow 
down to a more even measure, the un- 
eqaal race will go on until Macauley's 
lone New Zealander, when he sketches 
that ruined arch of London Bridge, 
will set it down as the work of th.e Irish 
dtiring the ^^'orld War." 



28 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Jauuary 15 



The Salaries of Bishops 

I am not a little surprised at the re- 
marks of a "Texas Missionary" in the 
last issue of the f. R., under the liead- 
ing "The Salary of the Clergy." 

Speaking of the bishops he says quite 
bluntly and unceremoniously that "at 
present each one takes what he can 
get." — 

Was this "Texas Missionary " al- 
lowed perhaps a special look behind the 
scenes? He boldly asserts that some 
bishops get S 10.000 and more a year. 
I wonder how he knows it all so well. 
Has he seen the returns in the different 
chanceries or perhaps at the Income 
Tax offices? 

And what about the princely salaries 
of our Southern bishops? 

Judging from the rather meagre 
personal estates left at death by our 
-Kmerican bishops, each one evident Iv 
belonged so far to that body of men 
whose praise is given by the Holy 
Ghost with the words "Beatits vir qui 
post auruui uon obiit." 

Undoubtedly, placed as our bishops 
arc in authority and administering the 
various funds of their dioceses the 
"potuit trausgrcdi" may be predicated 
of each of them; but thanks be to (]od. 
thus far we can api)ly to the members 
of our Hierarchy : "ct uon est trans- 
gress us" \ and the "Texas Missionary" 
may safely stop worrying about the 
salaries of our bishops and their hugi- 
incomes — if at least the past can he 
any guarantee of the future. 

But what good, what edification can 
come from an article such as the one 
here incriminated? Is it not breathing 
s<-.mcthing of that dangerous spirit (jf 
our time which would fain convert into 
"Soviets" all civil and ecclesiastical 
authority? X. N. 

— Mr. T. A. Daly has puhlislied another 
volume, "MacAroni I'allads ami Dtlicr 
Verses." It contains Italian aiul Irisli dialect 
prjcms. as well as others clothefl in ICn^lish 
undefilcH, anri we must say wc like tlie last 
nientioncfl l>cst. "Tom" Daly is a true poet. 
and we arc Klad to learn that his l)()r)ks ar<- 
to be issued in a uniform edition by tlic- new 
f»rm of Harcourt, Brace & Howe, of New 
York, who also publish the present vohiinc 
<$i.So net). 



How German "Atrocities" Were 
Manufactured 

The following excerpt from a letter 
written by an American soldier named 
Julian C. Dorr, and published in the 
Xew York Times, throws some light on 
I he horrible atrocities alleged to have 
been committed by the Germans during 
the recent war. This soldier refers to 
the "horrors'' related by jNIargaret 
Deland in her book "Small Things." 
lie writes : 

She came to P'rance all primed to feel sorry 
for those "poor heroes," and sympathise she 
did. As a result the word was quickly passed 
around that here was "game." — I know, for 
1 helped pass it. Mrs. Deland wanted all the 
Iiorrors of war, and she got them. She got 
more second-liand shudders during that week 
tlian the army got at first-hand during the 
whole war. Slie was systemat-ically and sed- 
ulously "stufTed" with wild talcs and bogus 
thrills by every soldier she could capture or 
corner. 

I make no excuse for our conduct: it was 
bad manners and ill-breeding, but at best 
a soldier's sense of humor is crude. If Mrs. 
J)eland iiad come to us and simply asked for 
information we would have given her the 
truth ; but she came with a preconceived idea, 
and we simply told her what she expected to 
liear. To tell the truth, I don't see how any- 
one could believe the "rot" that she accepted 
without question. 

Time is a great corrective — if one 
is open to correction. 



Militarism 
.Are ihert- any signs that "Prus- 
sian" militarism has received its qui- 
etus? Just listen to this: "I do not 
believe in the League of Nations. / 
believe in 7car. (Cheers). Never has 
the army been in stich a state^as at the 
present time. Never have we been so 
short of men. The great thing is 
patriotism. P>y reducing the army in 
the way we are doing we are dejiriv- 
ing many men of a perfectly just pro- 
fession." — ^ilso s/u-aeli Major-General 
.Sir Cieoffrey h\"il(ling, at the annual 
dinner of the Licensed Victuallers' 
.\ssociation. presided over by the 
Prince of Wales (see London Daily 
Herald, Dec. 12, 1919). As long as 
ICnglishmen cheer this sort of thing, is 
i; reasonable to expect a miracle in 
iiiid-lun'ope? 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



29 



NOTES AND GLEANINGS 

— "America does not seem to be sett- 
ing our German pupils a very promis- 
ing example," remarks the London 
Daily Herald. "Internal atrocities in 
the U. S. Army are being brought to 
light by 'anti-patriots,' and a captain 
and two sergeants have been arrested 
on the charge of torturing, beating, and 
threatening to shoot soldiers who 're- 
fused to confess' to their officers. One 
charming little device was to make 
'Sammies' swallow lighted cigarettes. 
What a pity German officers never 
thought of this." 

— We are requested to inform our 
readers that the Benedictine nuns 
(recent converts to the Church), of 
St. Bride's Abbey, Milford Haven, 
South W'ales, are publishing beautiful- 
ly artistic religious pictures at very 
moderate prices. They will send on 
approval a goodly sample for four 
shillings. The proceeds are to be used 
for building a new monastery. The 
pictures, we are told, are genuinely 
Catholic, really artistic, and distinctly 
British, and will serve as a splendid 
antidote to the ugly and inartistic pic- 
tures so often found on the walls of 
Catholic homes. 

—Dr. E. J. Dillon, in his book, "The 
Peace Conference," tells how the deci- 
sion relating to the trial of the Kaiser 
was arrived at : "A few days before the 
treaty was signed there was a pause in 
the proceedings of the Supreme Council, 
during which the secretary was search- 
ing for a mislaid document. Mr. George, 
looking up casually and without ad- 
dressing anyone in particular, remarked : 
'1 suppose none of you has any objec- 
tion to the Kaiser being tried in Lon- 
don?' M. Clemenceau shrugged his 
shoulders. Air. \\^ilson raised his hand, 
and the matter was assumed to -be set- 
tled. Nothing more was said or written 
on the subject." 

— We see from the London Universe 
(No. 3074) that the Dominican Fathers 
are giving theological lectures for the 
benefit of the laity at Caxton Hall. 
These lectures are delivered on 
Wednesdavs and are free to all. Thev 



are devoted to an explanation of the 
"Summa Theologica"' of St. Thomas 
Aquinas. This season they deal with 
(iuestions of a social and political na- 
ture. The object is to give Catholic 
men and women, especially the young, 
an opportunity of learning more about 
their religion and render them better 
able to battle against the non-Catholic 
influences which surround them and to 
answer the questions that are continu- 
ally being asked concerning their faith. 

— It is unfortunately but too true, 
V, hat a recent writer says, that "in the 
majority of our churches real art is 
conspicuous by its absence." And there 
will be no change for the better until 
clergy and people awaken to the fact 
that the majority of ecclesiastical 
architects and furnishing firms are, 
however speciously worded their ad- 
vertisements may be, simply "out for 
business," which, in most cases, means 
working off stock pattern designs on 
their all too confiding clients without 
any, or but the slightest, reference to 
the surroundings in which those pat- 
terns are to be placed. The result is 
all the more deplorable for the reason 
that, with the same expenditure of 
money, the services of competent ex- 
perts could have been secured and a 
result obtained which would have made 
for dignity and beauty. 

— The Josephiiiuju IVeekly (Dec. 13) 
justly protests against the announce- 
ment, in the catalogue of the Catholic 
Extension Society, of a number of war 
books containing lies about and slurs 
against the "Huns" and "Boches," — a 
nation, says our contemporary, whose 
blood flows in the veins of hundreds of 
thousands of our soldiers." The inser- 
tion of this advertisement is doubly 
regrettable, as the catalogue containing 
it appears at a time when the Holy Fa- 
ther is trying to rally all the forces of 
charity to assist in alleviating the misery 
of diseased, starving, and freezing 
"Hun" children in Austria and Ger- 
many. We fear, from a number of let- 
ters we have received on the subject, 
that this mistake will prove costly to 
the cause of Extension and the mis- 
sions. It is too bad. 



30 



THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



Literarv Briefs 



— It is not likely that the sort of parents 
lor whom Fr. Joseph P. Conroy, S.J., seems 
to have written his "Talks to Parents," will 
read any book intended for their instruction; 
for Mien and women who neglect their most 
elcmentar>- duties as parents are not likely 
to turn to Catholic books of instruction, even 
though they are written in the most "up-to- 
date" style with a lot oi wit and slang inter- 
spersevl between solid blocks of advice. We 
therefore fail to see the raisoti rfV/n- for 
such lK»ks as this. (Benziger Bros., $1.^5 
nit>. 

— The Rev. Edward F. Garesciie, S.J., ha.s 
added another to his little books of "spiritual 
thoughts for everj-day reading." It is en 
titled. "The Things Immortal," and, like its 
predecess«^>rs, is clothed in colloquial language 
antl intended, not so much to preach and 
e.xhort. as to "encourage and stimulate those 
who are good to become still better, and per- 
haps to induce others, poor sinners, who have 
ordinarily no taste for spiritual writings, to 
get into the way of reading a bit now ancl 
then as an antidote against the prevalent 
worldliness and a gateway to better things." 
If the author would polish his essays with 
greater care, and avoid mixing metaphors, 
his books would be even more readable than 
they are. ( Benzigor Bros." $1.10 postpaid) 

— Father P. Trudel. S.S., oflFers a welcome 
help to those who wish to inform themselve- 
on the essentials of Canon Law, as laid down 
by the New Code. His "Dictionary of Canon 
I^w." just published by the B. Herder Book 
Co.. under 606 hea<is, arranged in alphabet- 
ical order, gives a brief digest of the Code. 
with references to canons, paragraphs and 
numl>ers. Those who have not tlie time, or 
wh«» do not care to study an extensive com- 
menlar)'. such as Father .Augustine's, pub- 
li.shed by the same firm, will find this Dic- 
tirnary a useful vade-mecum, as it contains, 
in the compiler's own words, "all that the 
a\tTage priest should know, more than our 
<isterhof»ds need to know, and much tliat will 
interest the laity on the laws of the Church." 
($i.?o net). 

— "The N'ew Method of Religious Instruc- 
tion." by the Rev. Joseph F. Jacobs, Pli.l)., 
01 RIasdell, \. Y., is a .sort of catechism 
(l( signed for ";uch persons, young and r>\<\. 
a^ find difficulty in undcrstan<ling English. 
The author aims at "reducing cvcrytliing t" 
it-, lowest terms, and to subordinate precise 
ncs* to clearness." He has eliminated many 
o? the f|ue"*tions that make a catechism a)) 
war bulky, and endeavors to concentrate the 
learner's attention entirely upon the essen 
lials. In a brief foreword Dr. Jacobs invites 
frilicism and suggestions. No doubt he will 
receive plenty of l)Oth. One objection to bis 
mcthrx! is the substitution of a running ex 
planation for the lime-honored question and 
,-«r.«.wrr methwi. The author asks no ques- 



tions; he simply instructs, and he does it by 
means of very short sentences, couched m 
the simplest terms. The "New ]\Iethod'' de- 
serves the attention of pastors, teachers, and 
parents. (Buffalo, N. Y. : Catholic Union 
Store. 10 cts. per copy; to the clergy and 
religious, $8 per 100. Wrapper). 

— "Armchair Philosophy," by Daniel A. 
Lord, S.J. (,Tiie America Press). Mr. Lord, 
in eighteen articles, sets forth the principal 
negations of the day and opposes to them the 
aflirmations of tiie sound thinker. The aim 
seems to be to bring the discussion into the 
plane of every-day life, and, by applying the 
principles of pliilosophy to common experi- 
ence, in language devoid of all technical 
flavor, to inspire in the average mind an 
interest in fundamental questions and to fur- 
nish the answers. The style is familiar, rapid, 
and easily grasped. No doubt many will find 
the little book pleasant reading. Neverthe- 
less, the conviction remains that, if we are 
to philosophize at all, we would better drink 
as deep as we may, and at the source. 
Philosophy must remain in the keeping of 
philosophers, and we must join their guild 
in order to learn their craft. Although the- 
ory cannot be separated, it is to be distin- 
guished, from practice. Most of us will con- 
tinue to live according to the laws of our 
nature without seeking to formulate them. 
When we want to philosophize, we had best 
look the fornuilae in the face and go to 
Stonyhurst and then St. Thomas.— S. T. O. 

— We have been favored by Fr. Thomas 
Plassmann, O.F.M., with a copy, in pamphlet 
form, of an article lately contributed by him 
to the Arclih'um Pranciscanum Ilistoricum 
on "Bartholomaeus Anglicus," who has the 
honor of being the author of a monumental 
work, "De Proprietatibus Rerum," which is 
in a certain sense "the earliest encyclopedia." 
The article comprises forty-four octavo 
pages and clears up the obscurity that has 
>o long existed concerning Bartholomew. 
The author shows that Bartholomaeus Ang- 
licus was identical with Bartholomaeus de 
Glanvilla, tliat lie lived in the twelfth and 
not, as has been thought, in the thirteenth 
century, studied at Oxford under Robert 
Grosseteste, taught for a while at Paris, 
entered tlie Franciscan Order al)OUt 1224, 
was summoned to Magdeburg in 1230, where 
lie compiled liis work "De Proprietatibus 
Keruni," which may be described as "The 
Preacher's Philosophic Repertory for the 
Interpretation of S. Scripture." It was 
aupoiig the first bf)oks printed, was trans- 
lated into French. Flemish, Spanish, English, 
;ind the language of Provence, is the fore- 
runner of ftur modern encyclopedias, and af- 
fords an insight into the thought, temper, 
and educatif)nal movements of the four 
centuries following its publication. Fr. Plass- 
niann's study is a model of critical research 
anrl highly credital)le to the younger school 
of Franciscan scholars now in the ascendant 
in this country. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



31 



— Mr. Francis X. Doyle, SJ., has published 
a volume of "Poems," most of which origin- 
ally appeared in the Catholic World and 
other magazines. We do not fancy his war 
verses, but some of the shorter lyrics are 
graceful. We quote : 

Pain 
A star that peereth througli the night 

Serene and steadfastly, 
Illumining witli silver light 
The dark, wherein I see 
Tlie groping hand of One divine 
That warmly closeth over mine. 

Then 
Oh. Lord, I love Thee most. 

Not when with glee life flows 
To joy's glad crown ; 
But when in grief I'm lost 
And weary weights of woes 
Have crushed me down. 
"Poems" is published by Peter Reilly, Phila- 
delphia. Price, $1. 

— An error of the types made us refer in 
No. I of the current volume to Father Robi- 
son's latest book as "The Underlying Tragedy 
of the World." The title should have read, 
"The Undying Tragedy of the World." The 
little review of Fr. Wynne's "Requiem Mass 
and Burial Service from the Missal and 
Ritual" was disfigured in two places by the 
substitution of the word "prayer" for 
"proper." The author of that notice writes 
to us : "I am so glad you did not affix my 
name or initials to the notice of Fr. Wynne's 
booklet. To undertake to endorse an effort 
at spreading a knowledge of the liturgy, and 
in the same breath to talk about 'the prayer 
of the day of decease or burial' and 'the 
prayer of the common Mass for the dead,' 
is an absurdity which would stamp the perpe- 
trator as a hopeless incompetent. Proper was 
the word in both cases. There are, as you 
know-, four propers for the dead, and each 
one has its oratio, secreta. and postcomniunio, 
i. e., three 'prayers.' Besides this there are 
four or five sets of 'prayers' to be used, at 
need, with these propers, which contain, of 
course, the epistle and gospel suitable, as 
well as the prayers. If editors suffer as 
much from the lack of consideration on the 
part of their public as contributors do from 
compositors who are stupid and editors who 
know better what a writer wants to say than 
he does himself, then editorship must be more 
of a martyrdom than you would have us 
believe. I forgive you once more, but only 
because you left off the signature. If Fr. 
Wynne happens to read the notice, he will 
credit the amateur lingo to an unknown 
scribe." Father Wynne, we may remark, has 
had sufficient editorial experience to know 
that the ignorance of compositors and the 
carelessness of proof-readers often does 
make editorship seem little less than a 
martyrdom, — though not, of course, in the 
theological sense of tlie term ! 



Books Received 

IVIwm the I. Old Lovi'th. Consoling Thoughts for 
Kvery Day in the Year. Compiled by Ilenriette 
Eugenie Delamare. 120 i)p. 16mo. P. J. Kenedy 
& Sons. $1.10, postpaid. 

Exposition of Christian Doctrine. By a Seminary 
Professor. Intermediate Course. Part 11 — Moral. 
Authorized English Version Revised according to 
the Code of 1918. Sixth Edition, xv & 638 pp. 
8vo. Philadelphia: John Joseph McVey. $2.75 net. 

Bartholomaeiis Anglicus. liy P. Thomas Plassmann, 
O.l'.M. (Reprint from the Archiium Francis- 
canum ritstoricum, Vol. XII, An. 1919, Fasc. 
I— II)- ■♦-• i'P- 8vo. Quaracchi, Italy: Co'llegium 
S. lionaventurae. 

The Passion and Glory of Christ. \ Commentary 
on the Events from the Last Supper to the .Ascen- 
sion. I!y Msgr. F. X. Poelzl, D.D., Professor of 
Theology at the University of Vienna. Translated 
from the C.erman by M. A. Uuchanan. Revise<l 
and edited by Rev. C. C. Martindale, S.J. viii & 
371 pp. 8vo. New York: Joseph F. Wagner, Inc. 
$2.75 net. 

Ta.ioHsac and its Indian Chabel, 1617-1920. By Dean 
Harris. 66 pp., illustrated. (No publisher, place 
or date). 

A Handbook of Moral Theology. By the Rev. An- 
tony Koch, D.D., Professor of Theology. Adapted 
and Edited by Arthur Preuss. Volume III: Man's 
Duties to Himself, iv & 183 pp. 12mo. B. Herder 
Book Co. $1.50 net. 

Epitome Theologiae Moralis Universae per Dcfini- 
tioncs, Divisioncs et Summaria Pnncipia pro 
RecoUectione Doctrinae AI oralis ct ad Imnicdiatuni 
Usum Confcssarii et Parochi Exccrpta e Suinnia 
Thcol. Mor. R. P. Hicr. Noldin. S.J.. a Carolo 
Telch, S.T.D. Ed. 4ta. xlii & 602 pp. narrow 
16mo. Fr. Pustet & Co. $1.50 net. 

Snmma Theologiae Moralis iii.vta Codiccin luris 
Canonici. Scholarum Usui accommodavit H. Nol- 
din, S. J. Vol. Ill: De Sacramentis. Ed. 12a. 
820 pp. 12mo. Innsbruck: Fel. Ranch. American 
agents: Fr. Pustet & Co., Inc., New York and 
Cincinnati. $4 net. 

The .4cts of the .4postlcs. With a Practical Critical 
Commentary for Priests and Students. By the 
Rev. Charles J. Callan. O.P. xvi & 205 pp. large 
8vo. New York: Joseph F. Wagner, Inc. $2 net. 

Conferences for Married Women. By Rev. Reynold 
Kuehnel. iv & 217 pp. 8vo. Joseph F. Wagner, Inc. 
$2 net. 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Eigbtli Street 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 

has produced repeat orders for printing in the 
SIOUX INDIAN, LATIN, ITALIAN, FRENCH, 
HUNGARIAN, SPANISH, GERMAN languages 

Its facilities for quick delivery of printed 
books, booklets, pamphlets, folders, etc., 
in any language are not excelled. 
Prices very reasonable. 



FOREIGN MISSIONS 

The Missionary Sisters, Servants of the Holy 
Ghost are a Congregation working primarily in 
the foreign missions. The Mother House is the 
Holy Ghost Institute at Techny, III. Here the 
postulants and novices receive their training 
for their future work. Ask for our "Vocation 
Leaflets and Booklets" representing scenes from 
the life of a Mission Sister. Any number will 
be sent upon request, free of charge. Address 
Mother Provincial, Holy Ghost Institute, 
Techny, 111. 



32 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



a 



Turning to HIM 



M 



Is CiviUzatioti Cttritui /»;' The Entire lloJ'W Is An Inferno of Bohhcvism — of 

Murder, Stealing, Hi/pocrisy, Ltist, Faviine, Sickness, Pei^iilence, Death. 

Is an ignored Go'l scourgivg the human race to remind all tliat He 

reigns supreme! Is lieligion a hopeless failure f h Christ 

again '^"asleep i)i the vessel of the Church'' f 

"We await the day of revenge." "I would sacrifice ten millions of lives.'' "Peace is 
Hell." Quoted from sermons by prominent clergymen in New York. But contrast all 
such tongue-souled utterances with the following from THE HELIOTROPIUM : 

"Let the Universe be disturbed by tempests from every quarter, let armed battalions 
close in deadly fray, let fleets be crippled and destroyed by fleets, let the law courts ring 
with endless litigation, and still this is my chief busines in life, to conform myself entirely 
to the one and and only Will of God." 

For many years in Groat Britain, the Continent and America educated Protes- 
tants, Catholics and men and women of no creed at all have turned to The 
Heliotropium. It has comforted thousands, so too will it solace and strengthen 
you and yours — especially in sickness, affliction and bereavement. As a tonic 
for Ti-ill and thoui^ht even the mercenary pagan will find it worth a baker's 
dozen of the books that aim no higher than the fattening of a liank account. 

The Heliotropium 

•Turning to Him" By JEREMIAS DREXELIUS, S. J. 

7 he only >\ork in the history ol civilization that deals solely and successfully 
with the DIVINE WILL and your will — that links the two. Your Wtll — God's Will. 
Itae God ol old. ol the Old Testament and the Newr, the God that men. women and 
pulpiteer politicians have tossed aside — forgotten — the God that fictionrtheologians 
fcave destroyed, selling you in His place their own carefully copyrighted God — 
■II "finite." but as palpable, powrerful and responsive to the human misery of the 
day as a deified London fog. 

"Creedy?" No! "Controversial?" No! —Just God and You 



THE HKLIOTROPIUM is one of my Favor- 
ite book.s and one which I have often recom- 
mcn'led to others. It i?ets down to the very 
root of spirituality — absolute submission to the 
Will of Gwl. 

In a r|uaint. attractive way, the author treats 
I'll* mfwit essential and imfiortant point from 
every tK>ssilile angle, and one who reads it 
cartfuify cannot fail to have his or her spir- 
itual life deei>enrd and purified. 

RKV. J. KM.IOT ROSS, CS.P., Ph.D. 

A laintly Jesuit of Sixteenth Street said: "A 
coprof TIIK HELIOTROPIUM was given to 
me by a very young w'>man. I liked the work 
%o much that I read it through— and use it for 
my me<litation«. I urge my pentitcnts an<l 
other* to read THE IIEI.IOTROPIUM. for it 
is a boolc that makes s.iinls." 



My dear : 

I have gone nearly through THE HELIO- 
TROPIUM and find it a most extraordinary 
hook, one to thank God for. I do not know 
any book on the si)iritiial life more valuable. 
The one truth in it is, of course, a central fact 
in life, and the old bavarian hammers at it, 
hammers at it after the skilled manner of the 
classic r!'etorician, with an amplification worthy 
of Cicero, imtil he gels it into one's soul. The 
English, too, is worthy of the original text. 

Read tin- book yourself slowly two or three 
times and it will correct your liver. It is worth 
any fifteen books of the so-called classics. 
Yours sincerely, 
AUSTIN O'MALLKV, M.I)., I'b.D., LL.D. 



]U'\}v<-it'(] to ;miv :(<i<lrf'ss in tlic woild, *'2 



THE DEVIN-ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 



425 Flltb Avenue 



New York, V. S. A. 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOIv. XXVII, NO. 3 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



l^'ebruan- 1, 1920 



Educational Movements 

N. E. A. stands now for National 
Educat/'o» Association. Notice the 
change of name since 1906; up to that 
year it was called the National Edu- 
axtioual Association — a very significant 
change, though overlooked by some of 
our first-class Catholic publications 
which even quite recently spoke invari- 
ably of the National Educational Asso- 
ciation. 

The N. E. A. is not well spoken of in 
educational circles. The September is- 
sue of the School Rcviciv (Chicago) 
reported a sparsely attended meeting in 
Milwaukee, where the present political 
management of the organization was 
confirmed in its power. The Associa- 
tion is threatened with dissolution. The 
Department of Superintendents is in- 
fi.nitely more influential. It is to be 
hoped that this Department will throw 
oft its inhibiting affiliation with the 
moribund Association. 

The American Schoolmaster (No- 
vember, 1919, Lansing, Mich.) speaks 
in the same strain, adding: "It is evi- 
dent that unless a change takes place 
soon the summer meeting will be scarce- 
ly worth perpetuating." 

The same American Schoolmaster, in 
its November number, severely criti- 
cizes the leading article in the N. E. A. 
Bulletin for November, written by 
Superintendent F. E. Spaulding of 
Cleveland, Ohio, and largely devoted 
to the advocacy of universal com- 
pulsory civic and military training for 
niales. The Schoolmaster goes on to 
say : "To think that we should so soon 
be greeted with serious proposals for an 
alliance of the newly created [to be 
created!] Department of Education 
with the War Department ! And that 
N. E. A. officialdom should so far coun- 
tenance the proposal as to give it space 
in its meaere two-dollar Bulletin." 



It is well known that the unwise and 
undemocratic Smith-Towner bill has 
been drafted and advocated by the N. 
E. A. and that Mr. Hugh S. Magill, 
field secretary of the Association, is at 
present touring the country to enlist the 
interest of the people in this un-Ameri- 
can Federal centralization of schools. 
All objections to this bill, which "will 
not need to be reintroduced, but will 
hold its present number," (so says the 
January Bulletin of the N. E. A., p. 5) 
are ignored with supreme contempt by 
the N. E. A. and the Bureau of Edu- 
cation. (See America, Nov. 29, 1919, 
page 117). 

The Catholic Educational Reviezv 
justly and severely objected some 
months ago to the Smith-Towner bill in 
an article written by Dr. Shields. Thus 
it is a veritable puzzle how this same 
Reviezv (Dec. 1919) devotes without a 
word of comment or criticism five full 
pages to a reprint of a statement of 
policies by the "Commission on the 
Emergency in Education" of the Na- 
tional Education Association, "A Na- 
tional Programme for Education." It is 
in the main a flamboyant promise of the 
N. E. A. — ■ moribund association — 
not only to nationalize (rather monopol- 
ize through the Federal government) 
education in America, but to form an 
International Education Association, 
as it has even urged the creation of an 
international bureau of education in 
the League of Nations — which is not 
moribund but died abornin'. It is 
further stated that the Teachers' Fed- 
eration of France have requested that 
the N. E. A. of the U. S. take the in- 
itiative in calling this international con- 
ference. This conference will be held 
in Cleveland, Ohio, February 24-30th 
inclusive, imder the auspices of the 
N. E. A. of the U. S. H. 



84 



THE FORTNIGHTI.V REVIEW 



Kelmiarv 1 



Bleeding Heart 
By EvGENE M. Beck, S.J.. St. Louis University 

Brave as a conquered sorrow. 

It lifts its dewy head. 
Where hermit swallows burrow 

Hard by the river bed. 

Its chalice green and roseal 

Breathes love and stalwart hope; 

With heraldings ambrosial 
It cheers the barren slope. 

Brave as a conquered sorrow 

(Step softly, wanderer!) 
Still glad to smile to-morrow 

(Ne'er was such sufferer.') 

But as a child his plaything, 

I spurned its humble store, 
.\nd from their earthly swathing 

The weeping fibres tore. 

The broken heart lay bleeding 

Bcne.ith the turquoise sky: 
I'nheedful of its pleading 

I watched it slowly die. 

An ancient grief unspoken 
Its i)ain to heaven cried — 

.\ heart by sorrow broken 
Poured out its crimson tide. 
.-.^$>*-. 

Some Light on the Mystery of Evil 
\ { Co>u'liision ) 
March 2, iqo^ 

"For myself I continue to have con- 
stant experiences I still hear a 

great deal more from the Unseen than 
I hear from the people of this world. 
I have kept careful watch over these 
manifestations and have considered 
whatever I heard as tending to explain 
the nature or purpose of the phenom- 
ena." 

* * * ♦ 

"Vou .say the manifestations of 
which we read in the early Christian 
times were six^ntaneous, unsought- for, 
while modern manifestations require 
'conditions,' etc. Well, my cxi)erienccs 
arc entirely six)ntaneous, imsought-for 
— no 'condition,' no desire, no scekinij 
whatever comes in. 

"I know that this is a hold tiling t<; 
say liccausc of the possible infcrenci-; 
hut it is the truth. 

"I have hcarfl si)irits say Twith ref- 
erence to f)eople hcing fooled hy these 
means), that if such people are willing 
to Ik* deceived or to lend themselves to 
such foolery, they allow this \() he and 
they let them stumble." 



■'But just fancy — to be continually 
hearing these voices except when 
asleep. Is it not dreadful to think of? 
Yet 1 do not sutler any apparent break- 
ing up, nor any very great trouble, so 
long as 1 mind my business. It is all 
very wonderful. But surely my expe- 
riences do not seem to have the char- 
acter of Modern Spiritism of the 
clairvoyant business. The only element 
which i tind inconvenient is the hear- 
ing of the voices. And the circum- 
stance that they speak to me of things 
which I have never known is surely 
proof — if I needed such — that they are 
objective in character and origin." 

March 7, /poj 

"Yes ! the phenomena continue and 
in various ways. The more I experi- 
ence the more the mystery deepens. 
But I see the explanation of all, in an 
inexpressible sense, in the Crucifixion 
of our Lord, when I look upon that 
mystery of God's revelation of Him- 
self. I feel as if I understood it as far 
as ever man can come to the certainty 
of knowledge. I know that the expla- 
nation of all is there ; that the remedy 
for all is there ; that the salvation of 
all is there." 

March 12, 1^0^ 

"May God lead mankind to see the 
fallacy of trusting in other ways and 
in other gods or saviors!" 

March 26, iqo^ 

"You remark that there is something 
very singular ruid unicpie about my ex- 
])eriences, and you add that my descrip- 
tion is imlike any of those you are 
receiving day by day. I feel this too. 
And I feel, too, that only a very excep- 
tional person could have cotue to detail 
such experiences. But I have stood the 
trial, having Ijccome 'seasoned,' so to 
speak. In most cases rea.son surely 
mu.st have resigned at the outset ; any 
account, therefore, of such experiences 
woidd have been lost. I could not by 
any words of mine convey to you an 
idea oi the dreadful strain on my 
nerves, and of the drain on my vital 
powers which all this involved — espe- 
cially during the first years of perpetual 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



35 



approach. I think you had from me an 
account, in brief at least, of those ear- 

Her experiences I received im- 

l)ressions which could not be communi- 
cated by human language, so over- 
powering were they and so different 
from the ideas held by the generality 
of mankind." 

+ * * * 

"On one occasion, when I had retired 
for the night, a being appeared who 
addressed me, using the most vile lan- 
guage and rehearsing for me, in a ter- 
rible manner, many incidents in my past 

life I jumped up and ran at it, 

making a large Cross in the air, when 
the figure melted away like smoke, leav- 
ing a smell as if a gun had been dis- 
charged When it reappeared, I 

began to recite sentences of the exor- 
cism, and it seemed to me that when I 
came to the more forcible portions of 
it, the voice grew less distinct. As I 
proceeded, and also made use of hoi}! 
water, the voice died away in a sort 
of moan." 

^ ^ '^ ^ 

"The voice claimed to be that of 
Lucifer. It declared that it could 
answer my questions by reading my 
thoughts — without my articulating 
them. /\nd this it proceeded to do. 
.... I got over it all ; but I fainted 
away when I got out of the room. The 
voices then ceased. When I was con- 
valescent, it all began again, giving me 
a most dreadful teasing and afflicting 
many parts of my body. This went on 
for about nine months, and by this time 
T could hear the voices when in church, 
too. It was awful. But I endured it 
all in a spirit of penance and mortifica- 
tion Temptations came to me 

directly and with terrible force." 

"Thus night and day for long months 
they tormented me and seemed to 
'pound' me all over. Deceased persons 
were continually personated and holy 
souls and angels and even our Lord. I 
was surrounded by the perils of Hell 
and, I may say, passed through the 
valley of death. I was ordered to 
renounce Jesus Christ, to take an altar 
bread from my box and consecrate it 
and offer it to Lucifer; else, they de- 



clared, 'we will kill you before you can 
see a priest.' On my resisting, they 
seemed to choke me and to seize my 
very heart, the attack only ceasing when 
I believed myself to be at the very 

point of death This they repeated 

over and over again, and I endured 
more than mortal man can imagine. 
That is saying much ; but I say it. That 
is three years ago, and I stood it all 
without getting insane. They got so 
terrible that I had the Blessed Sacra- 
ment placed over my head, when they 
withdrew." 

* * * * 

"In answer to your question : No ! 
I am not interfered with in church 
during Mass or services, in such a 
degree as would put me out or upset 
me or make me less able to do my work. 
On the contrary, I am like one receiv- 
ing light, and sometimes the very words 
of the fathers are impressed upon me 
as though I were reading them care- 
fully. I have to proceed cautiously in 
preaching; but I can tell and feel if 
any sentence I utter is contrary to the 
Catholic Faith. And I am often cor- 
rected and shown how to look for and 
see some hidden meaning." 

* * * * 

"I may mention that during those 
many months of my sufferings when 
they were 'pounding' me (I cannot find 
a better word to describe the process), 
they also had a mock-crucifixion of me. 
I felt as if it were really being done, 
and I even tried to wipe the big beads 
of blood from my forehead. Of course, 
I knew that it was not real, but my 
sensations and sufferings were real 
enough, for this performance had to be 

endured night after night." 

* * * * 

"They said such astounding things to 
me that I cannot imagine any mortal 
mind conceiving the ideas involved. 

"As I have often said (although un- 
able to explain how) I have over and 
over again passed through the dark 
valley of death without being permitted 
to die ! That I stood the Joss of sleep 
is to me a miracle of mercy and divine 
help. I really bore all in most abject 
humility, without any questioning of 



36 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



God's ways, and without distrust of 
Him and will of my own. Through the 
Blessed Sacrament I did get relief at 
last ; still 1 continue to sutfer more or 
less. 

"My physical powers have now he- 
come greatly diminished. 1 am a man 
of large huild and seemingly of splen- 
did constitution (not much left of it 
now), and 1 have great power of endur- 
ance so far as my priestly work is con- 
cerned I am in my forty-tirst year 

and have been a total abstainer for 

years You will not be surprised 

to hear tiiat during the more terrible 
months of trial I had offers of gold and 
influence in high quarters from 'Lu- 
cifer' (if he was Lucifer)." 

"You ask : Are the intelligences with 
which you are brought in contact ordi- 
nary human beings minus the physical 
body, or are they to be regarded as 
beings of a dilTerent character? They 
say that they are not of a different 
character — simply separated from the 
body. But they will say nothing as to 
their object or destiny. They declare 
that they will not make their purposes 
known to us any more than men make 
theirs known to one another. Of their 
destiny, they say, they cannot speak 
until it is fixed. They assert that their 
modes of thinking are very different 
from what they were while on earth — 
that a gulf separates them from us, 
which cannot be passed but by death. 
.... They say that they fool fools — 
that most people desire to hear folly — 
not truth. They assert that something 
is to come before long which will 
occupy the attention of people on this 
earth more than any tribulation that 
has ever been known." 

♦ * ♦ * 

"In answer to your question: Have 
I received any communication from any 
person I have known in this life? No! 
Not so far as I am aware. 

"Are the spirits who have communi- 
cated more recently of a better and 
more benevolent order? 

"They say themselves that they have 
changed their mode of action in some 
respects, but not their nature. And I, 
on the other hand, am no longer so 



easily upset. They say, too, that the 
earth is a far stranger place than peo- 
ple imagine and that there is much 
under the sun that they never dream 
of. *As though the earth were not full 
of most contradictory and extraordi- 
nary manifestations !' " 

* * * * 

"1 am quite certain that the spirits 
give me information respecting matters 
which are unknown to me, and which 
I could only find out by laborious re- 
search." 

June j?o, ipofi 

"I have nothing further to communi- 
cate just now except deductions. I 
think that people generally are being 
influenced — to an alarming extent in 
recent years — in such a way as to 
render them unfit for any useful work. 
I am speaking of the great bulk of 
mankind who never hear and see any- 
thing to suggest spirits. Their minds 
are influenced. And that influence tends 
to upset the existing modes of thought. 

"As for Christianity, my own opinion 
is that it has to a great extent become 
lost. The essentials seem to be forgot- 
ten or disregarded. Faith is being put 
in certain forms and practices that do 
not really constitute the stay or ground- 
work of Christianity. True Christianity, 
such as we see in Christ (and I may 
also say in the present Pope), has 
nothing to fear from this invasion of 
spirits. The Spirit of God is doing 
whatever good is being done on earth, 
and men arc made use of as God wills. 
They will not be made use of as they 
will or in the way they will." 

October, IQO/. 

"The phenomena arc nnich what they 
were when I last reported to you, ex- 
cept that I have got more used to these 
things, and am therefore less incon- 
venienced by them. 

"Have I modified my views in any 
way respecting them? Well, it is very 
difficult to form any safe and settled 
view in these matters. T have at one 
time believed these beings to be evil 
spirits ; at another T have believed them 
to be the souls of the dead — in some 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



a? 



state or other — as the explanation was 
suggested to me by their manner and 
conduct. It seems to me, however, that 
one point must be urged against the 
idea that they are the souls of the dead. 
The identity of any of them appears 
to be in no wav whatever made mani- 
fest." 

5t- 5f: 5|€ ^ 

". . . . I regard the circumstance that 
they are only heard by some as inci- 
dental to some peculiar condition of 
ilie mind. 

"I knew nothing of these things until 
I heard them and saw them, too. I had 
never looked for such manifestations 
or heard of Spiritism in any shape or 
form " 

"But I am now certain beyond a 
shadow of doubt that these beings are 
around us — floating in the air, as it 
were — and influencing us in a myste- 
rious manner. How far this influence 
goes, has yet to be seen. 

"As I have said before, however, I 
have not identiiied any person of them 
as the soul of a person I have known 
on this earth. All I can say in this 
respect is, that a voice thus heard has 
sometimes sounded familiar to me — 
like a voice I had heard before in this 
world ; but I cannot imagine whose 
voice it was.'' 

T. Godfrey Raupert 



The Just Selling Price 

To THE Editor: — 

In the January 1st number of the 
Review you report the address of Col. 
P. H. Callahan on the subject of profit- 
sharing. This means of placing the 
laborer on a fair footing in relation to 
the industrial concern with which he is 
connected has been and is being con- 
stantly discussed in the press, periodic 
and daily. I have read many, many of 
these articles, and read correspondence 
in which the plan is dilated upon. I 
have waited and waited for one single 
case in which a prime party to the com- 
bination should be mentioned — even 
mentioned. So far I wait in vain. Have 
you among your acquaintance an econ- 



omist or a social scientist who will con- 
sider this forgotten element which 
nevertheless is essential to the formula. 
I refer to the customer, the consumer, 
the general public. For years, one might 
safely say a hundred, the process in 
industrial business has been roughly 
this : the owner invests his money, hires 
his labor at the lowest price possible, 
expects a salary for his exertions and 
the net profits for the use of his capital. 
This is tantamount to saying that any 
possible profit is legitimate interest, and 
that a laborer must take what he can 
get. Now the laborer after some fifty 
years of ferment, has about convinced 
the owner that he can and will make 
his own price, and he is claiming that 
he is at least one element in the pro- 
duction of profit, and therefore must 
have a share of it and some control of 
the "business." He points to the enor- 
mous difference between the reward of 
his efforts and of those of his employer. 
So the employers (we do not consider 
their motives) are beginning to adopt 
this profit-sharing plan. Take the one 
explained by Col. Callahan. Capital 
gets the legal rate, and then it and labor 
divide the surplus. Now just as there 
is a just wage and a just rate of inter- 
est, there is a just selling price. Neither 
capital nor labor has a nght to an in- 
definitely swelled profit. The consumer 
^should not be forced to pay too high a 
price any more than the laborer should 
be forced to accept an inadequate wage. 
For example. Mr. Ford pays his labor- 
ers luxurious wages, admits them to a 
share in the profits, still has millions 
to re-invest, so many millions that he 
is put to it to set them breeding. Why? 
Because he is charging too much for 
his products. Both he and his laborers 
are battening on the public. Why not 
face the w4iole situation? Are not we 
all "the public"? Or must we as mem- 
bers of the "public" be non compotes 
mentis and as employers and laborers 
a&tute business men? Father Husslein 
touched on the point when he showed 
that in the Middle Ages, the common 
good was the first aim of the laborer 
and employer. The solution is always 
a moral one. S. T. O. 



38 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Februaiy 1 



Jackman's "History of the American 
Nation" 

'"A History of the American Nation," 
by William J. Jackman. issued by the 
\\ estern Press Association and copy- 
righted by the Whitman Publishing Co., 
1916, was sold to me under false pre- 
tences by a clever book agent not long 
ago. The preface begins as follows : 

"In the preparation of this work it 
has been the aim of the author to pre- 
sent the various facts and incidents 
marking the history of the United 
States in an impartial, unbiased man- 
ner." 

From a Protestant standpoint the 
author may be unbiased : at least, he 
may try to judge matters relating to the 
dilTerent sects with ^ess bias than his 
very pronounced Puritanism might im- 
pel him to do. Catholics, however, and 
things Catholic receive scant justice at 
hib hands. 

His work is prefaced by "A Sketch 
of the History. Greatness and Dangers 
of America," by John J.ord, LL.D. 
This sketch furnishes the key to the 
whole work. It shows the writer's 
ignorance of the great role which the 
Catholic Church has played in the civi- 
lization of mankind. "Catholicism has 
a mission to fulfill among people still 
enslaved by the dogma? and supersti- 
tions of the Middle Ages" (p. XLIV). 
Mr. Lord is a fervent believer in free' 
schools, not. however, as the Puritans 
understood the term, but in the present 
system of godless education. 

Mr. Jackman advances as a historical 
f?ict that "the Huguenot from France 
and the Puritan from Fngland .... 
brought with them to our shores the 
spirit of the Reformation, the recogni- 
tion of civil rights and religious liberty." 
Just the contrary is true, for religious 
liberty was granted only in the colony 
of Maryland, which, as every historian 
should know, was fouiuled by the Cath- 
filic I-ord Calvert, whf) made his colony 
the refuge of any and all Christians that 
\v<re y)ersecuted for their religious be- 
lief. .Xlr^ady in 1649 a law was enacted 
granting perfect toleration to all Chris- 
tians. 

.Again, how does this sound in Cath- 



olic ears: "The simple truth of the 
Gospel had been obscured by the teach- 
ings of men. The decrees of the church 
had drawn a veil between the throne of 
God and the human soul. The priest- 
hood had denied to the people the right 
of studving for themselves the word of 
God." 

In Vol. II, ch. XIX, the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries in Canada are praised for 
their noble work. The real motive of 
their zeal and heroic labors, however, 
is beyond the grasp of the writer. In 
the next chapter his inborn Puritan 
prejudice, paired with a credulity in- 
credible in a supposedly learned man, 
shows forth in all the dark splendor of 
Protestant gullibility. He makes the 
Jesuit missionaries responsible for the 
wars waged between England and 
France. "Among the early Jesuit mis- 
sionaries," he writes (p. 254 sq.), "who 
taught the Indians of New France, 
there were undoubtedly many good 
men. The priests of that generation had 
passed away, and others had taken their 
places; flicsc incited the recently con- 
verted savage, not to practice Christian 
charity and love, hut to pillage and 
murder the heretical English colonist." 
(Italics ours). 

Where did Mr. Jackman find warranty 
for such an assertion. Such statements 
might be expected in the vile sheets 
published by a certain un-American and 
un-patriotic coterie of bigots, but they 
are out of place in a history of the 
American nation whose author claims 
to write in "an impartial and unbiased 
manner." A cursory glance at the 
"Jesuit Relations," which are accessible 
ti> any historian, would have enlight- 
ened him as to the true causes of those 
murderous wars. 

It would be a waste of valuable spaci- 
to give further citations. The whole 
work is Protestant throughout. Mr. 
Jackman lays great stress on the edu- 
cational development of our colonies 
anrl Slates. Never a word, however, 
could he find for Catholic institutions 
of learning. Neither Georgetown, nor 
the Ursulines of New Orleans, nor the 
founding f)f our Catholic University at 
Washington, nor anv of llic nmnerous 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



39 



Catholic colleges and universities with- 
in the present confines of the United 
States, are even as much as mentioned 
by name. When speaking of our elTorts 
in the Philippines on educational lines, 
he even ignores the great University at 
Manila, whose foundation antedates the 
arrival of his beloved "Mayflower" by 
more than thirty years. 

Mr. Jackman is liberal in his praise 
of Protestant theologians and revival- 
ists, but absolutely ignores the leaders 
in the Catholic Church, such as Arch- 
bishops Carroll and Hughes and Bishop 
Spalding, to mention but a few. He is 
silent on the question of the Know- 
nothings. Our sisterhoods are ignored 
when he speaks of the devoted women 
who served their country during the 
Civil War. The history of this War is 
written from the standpoint of the New 
England Puritan. No real Southerner 
will agree with Mr. Jackman's treat- 
ment of the "voting negro" or of the 
"freedman" of that period. One of our 
leading lawyers, himself a non-Catholic, 
characterizes Jackman's History as "a 
story book catering to a public abso- 
lutely ignorant of history, but always 
willing to part with their shekels when 
purchasing a 'history' of which the 
author generally ignores the first two 
letters." 

Jackman's "History of the American 
Nation" was never intended for Catho- 
lics. Mr. Jackman nun' have been ani- 
mated by a desire to be impartial, but 
hf lacks the essentials of a real histo- 
rian. Catholics who wish to become 
acquainted with the history of our 
country will have to look for another 
book. Jackman's is unfit to adorn the 
sh.elves of a Catholic library. 

(Rev.) F. ].. Gassler 
A'ezi' Orleans, La. 



— The Missionary says that accord- 
ing to the statistics in the Official Cath- 
olic Directory for 1919, 23,625 non- 
( atholics were received into the Church 
during the preceding year. How many 
Carbolics fells away from the faith in 
tliat period God alone knows. 



Official Hysteria 

Nothing, apparently, is lacking to 
complete the hysteria of Federal and 
State officials. The hopeful thing is thai 
newspapers like the New York Evening 
Post, the Globe, the World, and other 
influential daily papers in other cities 
are beginning to utter warning notes of 
protest, as well they may. The Nation 
(No. 2845) ventures the prediction that 
raids of this sort will make ten oppo- 
nents of the government for every 
agitator arrested. "Unless the govern- 
ment has clear proof that violence is 
being actually planned," says our con- 
temporary, "the whole thing is in reality 
an official attack upon a state of mind 
and upon personal opinion ; and for 
that, in the long run, Americans will 
never stand. However mistaken the 
Communists are in their plans for re- 
organizing society, advocacy of Com- 
munism is not a crime unless accom- 
panied by a deliberate attempt to over- 
throw the government by force." 
-.^>^-.^ 

State Certificates for Catholic Teachers 

The Rev. Ralph L. Hayes, D.D., 
.superintendent of schools for the Dio- 
cese of Pittsburgh, is quoted in the N. Y. 
Evening Sun as warning the Catholic 
teachers of Pennsylvania that they must 
face the demand that all teachers meet 
the requirements of State certificates. 
He urged that a start be made by re- 
quiring that every Sister who begins 
teaching hereafter be trained to meet 
the demands for a provisional State 
certificate. 

The establishment of a Catholic 
teacher certification system in anticipa- 
tion of State action is a wise move, 
which should be made in every diocese 
of the country, for it is clearly but a 
matter of a short time when no one will 
be allowed to teach in any American 
school unless he has a State certificate. 

How this demand can be most effect- 
ively met is a matter that has already, 
we believe, been discussed at several 
meetings of the Catholic Educational 
Association, but it can hardly be 
determined uniformly for all dioceses, 
as conditions are different in different 
parts of the country. 



40 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February I 



The Magnetic Crescograph, a Marvel- 
ous Testing Instrument 

The Manchester Guardian (weekly 
ed.. I. 25^ g^ives an account of a mar- 
velous instrument recently invented by 
Sir J. C. Bose. of the Bose Research 
Institute in Calcutta, India. It is called 
magnetic crescograph and was invented 
for the purpose of magnifying the high- 
est powers of the microscope so as to 
enable man to observe the growth of 
l>lants. 

L'nder this instrument, the move- 
ments of a snail appear so rapid that 
the animal seems to move twentv-four 
times faster than the shell of a 15 inch 
caiuion flying at a velocity of eight and 
one-half million feet per hour. With 
the help of this device the life activity 
of a plant can be rendered subservient 
to the will of the experimenter. A 
depressing chemical agent is applied 
till life is brought to a state of arrest. 
A timely application of a suitable stim- 
ulant revives the dying plant and exalts 
the growth-activity to many times the 
nttrmal rate. 

The possibility of our modifying the 
rate of growth, said Sir J. C. Bose in a 
lecture lately delivered in Manchester, 
was a matter of great practical import- 
ance. The world's supply of food de- 
pended on the growth of plants, and it 
was only by the discovery of laws of 
growth that any great advance in scien- 
tific agriculture was jjossible. The rule 
of thumb method hitherto employed in 
the application of a few chemical stinui- 
lants and of electricity had not been 
found uniformly successful. We had 
been using only a few stimulating 
agents, whereas there were thousands 
of whose action we had no conception. 
We blindly applied these chemical 
.stinuilants, and we forgot that an im- 
|K^>rtant factor was the dose of the aj)- 
plication. I-'or every substance there 
was a critical point which must never Ix 
exceeded. .Any excess brought about 
a result rliametrically opposite to the 
one exjK-cted. Thus he found that while 
a particular intensity of electrical cur- 
rent accelerated growth, an excess of 
rtirrent retarded it. The same was true 
alK>ut chemical stimulants. In fad, in- 



stead of stimulating, the agents could 
be made to produce contraction. 

A striking practical result of this was 
obtained with poisons used in India for 
killing weeds. Normal doses killed the 
jilant, but up to a certain point the poi- 
son acted as a stimulant. This practical 
application of the investigation of plant 
life, the lecturer thought, was compara- 
tively unimportant. Of infinitely great- 
er importance was the solution of the 
problem whether plant life was the 
same as animal life. Were these two 
streams, which flowed side by side, 
fundamentally one or were they radi- 
cally difl^erent? He had been able to 
establish the fundamental unity of life- 
reactions between plants and animals. 
Plants were supposed to be devoid of 
anything which corresponded with the 
nervous system of animals. After fif- 
teen years of investigation he had come 
to the conclusion that there was nothing 
in the highest animals which had not 
been forestalled in the plant. The plant 
had a far wider range of sensibility. 
\\'hen a tree was struck one did not 
see it move. It was thought to be in- 
sensitive. But if a recording instrument 
were attached to the tip it would be 
found that each time it was struck it 
shuddered like an animal. When a 
healthy plant was placed in a bath of 
water and the temperature was raised 
to 60 degrees Centigrade — the critical 
])oint — it struggled and died, and the 
death s])asm was exactly the same as 
the death spasm of an animal. 



-^*^» • 



— In "I'^instein -c'crsus Newton" (The 
Month. No. 666) blather C. W. O'Hara 
.S.j.. throws some light on the Principle 
of Relativity. He sets himself to an- 
swer two questions : W'hat is this prin- 
ciple advocated by Einstein? and how 
far does it actually aflfect the funda- 
mental concepts of science? In answer- 
ing the latter (juestion, Father O'Hara 
contends that I^instein's views by no 
means involve the comj)lete rejection of 
previous work, "but attention has been 
called to a neglected source of error in 
scientific measurement, and means have 
been ])rf)vided io remedy that defect." 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



41 



Two Educational Reports 

The Annual Report of the Superin- 
tendent of Parish Schools of the Dio- 
cese of Newark has been a welcome 
visitor for the last six or seven years. 
Dr. Dillon has a wide outlook upon 
educational methods and tendencies, 
and generally embodies in his annual 
reports some very practical suggestions 
for our teachers. In his "Ninth Report 
(1918-1919)" there are paragraphs on 
matters of interest to all educators. 
Some are : Music and Sight-Singing, 
Catholic High Schools, Textbooks of 
History, Overcrowding, Tendencies, 
and Americanization. In the section on 
Tendencies Dr. Dillon refers to the ex- 
cellent training which our Catholic 
teachers get by virtue of their making 
teaching a life-work, or, better, a high 
and holy apostolate. The average period 
of service of public-school teachers (ac- 
cording to the statistics of the United 
States Commissioner of Education) is 
"less than five years." Dr. Dillon com- 
ments upon this fact as follows : "These 
statements are not quoted for the pur- 
pose of comparison, but, while realizing 
our weakness and limitations, we hold, 
it as evident that a teacher who makes 
teaching her life work, who is not dis- 
tracted by the cares of home and world- 
ly pleasures, who is not solicitous for 
other avocations with the lure of higher 
salary, acquires an experience which 
goes far towards making a thoroughly 
professional teacher." Yet they should 
give our teachers the hope that by vir- 
tue of this "consecration" to the cause 
of Catholic education, they may become 
the equals of the best teachers in other 
schools. 

^ H^ 5jc >}c 

The Catholic Educational Association 
met this year at St. Louis, from June 
23 to June 26. The Report, just pub- 
lished, contains as usual the proceed- 
ings and the papers read at the various 
sectional meetings. The "General Reso- 
lutions" embody the spirit of the meet- 
ings and indicate the policies favored 
and advocated by the leaders of the 
Association. The great educational 
question which has been the subject of 
so much discussion during the year is 



that of "Federal Control." A ringing 
resolution opposing such "control" was 
introduced, but for some reason "action 
on this resolution was not taken." An 
after-clause, however, states that "It is 
the opinion of the Executive Board that 
the Smith-Towner Educational Bill now 
in Congress should be defeated." 

But this leads to the question : would 
it not have been more conducive to the 
welfare of Catholic education, if a rep- 
resentative committee had been instruct- 
ed to present a memorial on the Bill 
to those who have legislative power? 
Such a memorial should have discussed 
the whole question from the legal and 
constitutional point of view, showing 
precisely what rights are violated by 
the Smith-Towner Bill, and why we 

nuist oppose it. A. M. 

»-»<^-» -• 

A Threat Against Democracy 

There can be but one opinion con- 
cerning the action of the New York 
Assembly in suspending its H\^e Social- 
ist members. The Evening Post, which 
cannot be suspected of sympathy for 
the unpractical ideals of Socialism, 
declares that the Assembly's action is a 
sinister threat against the fundamentals 
of democracy and representative gov- 
ernment. 

Unlike Victor Berger, who was ex- 
pelled from Congress on his individual 
record, the Socialist Assemblymen were 
not barred as individuals but as adher- 
ents of a definite political party and 
creed. This party at one time polled 
nearly a million votes for its presiden- 
tial candidate. It polled 145,()00 votes 
for its mayoraltv candidate in New 
York in 1917, 'and nearly 130,000 
votes for its candidate for president of 
the Board of Aldermen last November. 
In outlawing a political "platform" the 
Assembly has done two things. It has 
arrogated the right to interpret a state- 
ment of principles into an attack 
against the public welfare, and it has 
made all subscribers to these principles 
i(>so facto violators of the law. If this 
stands, no minority is secure in the fu- 
ture against exconununication on the 
ground that it is "inimical" to the public 
interests. 



4S 



THE I-ORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



I'cbruaiv 1 



A Great Catholic Architect 

In I wo liandsonie volumes, cniitled, 
"Westminster Cathedral and its Archi- 
tect" (London: Hutchinson & Co.), 
Mrs. W. de L'Hopital gives an account 
of the work of her father, the late John 
Francis Bentley. architect of the W est- 
minster Cathedral, which is considered 
by many to be "the one great ecclesi- 
astical building of the last century." 

The first volume is devoted to a his- 
tory of the conception and growth of 
W estminster Cathedral, and the second 
to Bentieys other work. JJoth are well 
illustrated with photographs of his 
buildings and designs for furniture and 
metal-work, and both give a very inter- 
esting account of the architect and his 
methods. 

The first, which deals exclusively 
with the great basilica at \\ estminster, 
will be eagerly read by all architects 
into whose hands it falls. The thou- 
sands, too. who have felt the impres- 
siveness of that noble interior will wel- 
come some account of its origin and 
the difficulties its creator had to over- 
come. Here was an architect bred in 
the strictest traditions of the English. 
Gothic Revival, who, having been 
chosen to build the chief temple of his 
religion in England, was sent at the age 
of fifty-five to travel through Italy and 
the near East to study another and a 
very difi'erent style, and who, on his 
return after six months' wanderings. 
begins at once to erect a vast and com- 
plicated structure for the expression of 
which he had had to ac(|uirc a new 
language. 

I'ortunately Bentley was a genius. 
The alien style, new to him and new to 
the mass of his contem])oraries, be- 
comes absorbed into his personalilx. so 
that it is born again and issues forth a 
new and living thing, logically serving 
in his cathedral the purpo'^c for which 
he uses it. TIi'^ interior of his building 
may be Byzantine in form and detail. 
but it rises beyond all archaeological 
exercises apd origins and e.xisls to-dav 
as the most dignified and sf»lemn ex- 
pression of the religious spirit which 
has Ijeen produced for the last live 
rrnturie*; it; England. l*'v»i\oiic iCcls 



the exterior is not so satisfactory, but 
it was beyond the power of any one 
man to resolve the mass of detail 
required and to transform it into a con- 
sistent and logical whole. Such things 
require generations of architects and 
worshippers, and the gradual accunni- 
huion of tradition, for suitable expres- 
sion to ])e obtained. One has only to 
think of the ordinary exhibition build- 
ing or any other sudden importation of 
an, alien style to see how well Jknitley 
has succeeded in an impossible task. 
Perhaps his exterior would have gained 
ill breadth and dignity if Bentley's 
journeyings had been extended to Con- 
stantinople, lie would then have .seen 
in Santa .Sophia how an interior as fine 
as his own could be blended with a 
massive ;uid simple exterior. But he 
was fifty-five when he started on his 
great adventure, and though Michel 
Angelo was seventy- four when he was 
called in to remodel and finish St. 
Peter's, even Michel Angelo was not 
asked to .seek inspiration and execute 
his work in an im familiar manner. That 
particular sort of miracle was not ex- 
pected from artists in his day. 



Old Sorrows 

A group of three poems published in 
Colli riitporary Poetry by Karle Wilson 
iiaker is characteristic of her work, 
which has a sturdy loveliness, a kind of 
brave fragility. Listen to this, entitled : 
"1 Love the b\'ices of Old Sorrows": 

I \i>w tlir t'riL-nilly facis <il' old Sorrows; 
1 l)avc no .^fCTit tlial tlicy <lo not know, 
'llicy arc so old I tliink tluy haw forgotten 
What hitter words were spoken, lon^ ago. 

I hale tlir cold, stern faces of new v^orrows 
Who stand and watch, and catcli inc all alom. 
I shonhl he hravcr. if I could renieinhcr 
I low dirfereiil the older ones \):\\r t;rown. 



— Any reader who has a copy of 
No. 1 of the current volume of the /•". N. 
to s])are will confer a favor on the edi- 
tor by mailing it to this office, as in con- 
secpience of an exceptionally heavy 
demand that cditi.-ni is com])letely e.K- 
h;itistcd. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEw 



43 



NOTES AND GLEANINGS 

— The Editor of the I'. R. is on ;i 
vjication in the South, from which he 
expects to return late in February or 
early in March. Ordinary letters re- 
([uiring his attention will therefore have 
lo lay over for two or three weeks. 
Important communications will he for- 
warded to him hy the office. 

— The reaction from the present 
state of panic is certain to leave the 
American people sick of all anti-"red" 
crusades; in which mood the really 
dangerous seditionist will thid his op- 
portunity. 

— -Apropos of the note on "The Sal- 
ary of the Clergy, in No. 1 of the F. R., 
the Rev. Raymond Vernimont writes to 
us : "Those who complain least are the 
heroic missionaries who live from hand 
to mouth. .Still why should some have 
to suffer? Not all the ablest and most 
learned priests are in the cities. We are 
oitc Church ; why should not the strong 
help the weak? Why let missionaries 
starve in China whilst some have lux.- 
in-ies ?" 

— We have received several connnu- 
nications from Catholic organists and 
^hoir directors apropos of Dr. Kelly's 
jjlea for a naiional School of .Sacred 
-Music if. R., XXVI. 21 and 22) and 
the comments made thereon by M. F. S. 
in No. 24; The writers all agree with 
M. V. S. They emphasize the fact that 
the average Catholic organist and choir 
director is underpaid and that the posi- 
tion he occupies in the community is 
discouraging. There is considerabU' 
complaint of lack of co-operation on 
liie part of the pastors. Evidently there 
is preliminary work to be done before 
Dr. Kelly's plan can he made the suc- 
cess it deserve.^; to be. 

— The January number of the Indian 
Sentinel, an excellent magazine pub- 
lished (juarterly by the Bureau of Cath- 
olic Indian ^Missions. Washington. D.C., 
is devoted largely to the life and mis- 
sionarv labors of our late lamented 
friend and subscriber. Bishop Martin 
Afartv, O..S.B. The leading article is 
ftom the pen of Fr. Ignatius Forster. 
O.S.P>.. who has been for several vears 



engaged in the preparation of a full- 
length biography of the saintly "Apostle 
of the Sioux," — a book to which we 
l(jok forward with jjleasure. Meanwhile 
we have read with interest the many 
data gathered together in this issue of 
ihe Indian Sentinel. 

—The Missionary (Vol. XXXI 11. 
No. 1), commenting on the fact that in 
manv cases Protestant missionaries are 
entering into the fields from which 
Catholic missionaries have been exclud- 
L'd because of their German nationality, 
says : "The bugaboo of pro-Germanism 
has nearly exhausted itself. . . . Hyp- 
ocrisy has, in this war, had its days of 
triumph. It has achieved its purpo.ses 
hv distorting every holiest appeal and 
bv abusing every trustful impulse of its 
\ictims. It is high time for a return to 
reason and truthful speech. If we do 
not demand facts soon. Catholic inter- 
ests in manv lands may sufTer irretriev- 
ably." 

— We suppose most of our readers, 
like ourselves, were ignorant of the ex- 
istence of "Archbishop de Rache, head 
of the Old Roman Catholic Church in 
the U. S. and Canada," until that 
|)seudo-prelate recently made his sub- 
mission to Rome. Yet we are told by 
the Missionary (XXXIII, 1) that this 
sect is organized under two bishops 
(besides de Rache) and has some fifty 
priests and parishes, numbering 120.000 
adherents. De Rache was originallv an 
.\nglican clergyman, who drifted into 
the^"01d Catholic Church" of Utrecht, 
lie IS forty-six years old and unmar- 
ried, and declares he has never frater- 
nized with "Archbishop" Vilatte or 
"Bishop" Hodur, of Scranton, Pa. 

— The Franciscan Herald has entered 
upon its eighth year in a handsome new 
dress. It is one of the few "pietistic" 
magazines (to use a term sometime.s 
emploved by the late Father D. S. 
Phelan. of the Western Watchman) 
which really serves a good purpose and 
which even the cultured Catholic can 
read with genuine pleasure and real 
lirofit. intellectual as well as spiritual. 
We have enjoyed especially Fr. Zephy- 
rin Engelhardt's "Franciscans in New 
Mexico." which is a valuable contribu- 



44 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



lion of which any magazine might be 
proud. Such articles as Catliarine 
McParthn's "St. Francis and EngHsh 
Poetry" must appeal to every reader. 
The I'ranciscaii Herald is published 
monthly at Teutopolis. HI. Its subscrip- 
tion price is two dollars per annum. 
We hope this worthy publication will 
gain many new subscribers in 1920. 

— According to the Builder, a Ma- 
sonic journal ( \"ol. \'I. No. 1). Major- 
General Leonard \\ ood, who is a candi- 
date for the presidential nomination, is 
a man of many and diverse Masonic 
aftiliations. He was raised to the Sub- 
lime Degree of a Master Mason in 
Anglo-Saxon Lodge No. 137, F. & A. 
^L. Brooklyn, N. Y., and is still a mem- 
l)er of that lodge : exalted to the Royal 
Arch Degree in Normal Park Chapter 
No. 210. K. A. M., July 26, 1919; elect- 
ed to receive the Council degrees in Im- 
perial Council No. 85, R. & S. M., of 
Chicago ; knighted in Englewood Com- 
mandery. No. 50. K. T., Chicago. Aug. 
23rd. 1919: received the Scottish Rite 
degrees. 4th to 32nd inclusive, in Anglo- 
Saxon Consistory and coordinate bod- 
ies, of Brooklyn. N. Y., and was cre- 
ated a Noble of the Mystic Shrine in 
Medina Temple, Chicago. 

— The Chinese Mission Society, of 
Omaha. Neb., has been entrusted by the 
Holy See with a large mission in the 
province of Hupeh, central China, with 
the city of Hanyang as headcjuartcrs. 
This city, with its sister cities, Hankow 
and W'u-Chang. forms the commercial 
capita] of the country. The field as- 
.signcd to the Chinese Mission Society 
extends over .several thousand .square 
miles of central Hupeh, and its totaj 
prj)ulation is estimated at nearly four 
million. The Protestants alrcpdy have 
some 300 missionaries there and con- 
duct a well-equij)ped university and a 
numl>cr of high schools. The Chinese 
Mission .Society hope to have between 
thirty and forty missionaries, from Ire- 
land and the U. .S., working in their 
newly apfKiinted district before the end 
of the present year. 

— It is to be hoped that Congress will 
investigate the case of the N. \. Call, 



which was arbitrarily deprived of its 
mailing privileges by the Postmaster 
General. The conduct of Mr. Burleson 
in this matter has been roundly con- 
demned by the N. Y. Evening Post, the 
World, the Globe, the Revieiv, the Na- 
tion, the New Republie, and other fair- 
minded journals. That the Call happens 
to be a Socialist publication and pur- 
sued a policy during the war that many 
think to be mistaken, does not affect the 
situation. A precedent which allows the 
reactionary Mr. Burleson to harass a 
Socialist paper, may permit some fu- 
ture radical administration to harass a 
conservative paper, or an anti-Catholic 
administration to harass a Catholic pa- 
per whose policy it does not like. As 
the Ne7v Repnblie rightly says, if this 
arbitrary exercise of power is permit- 
ted to continue, there is hardly a publi- 
cation in the country which is safe. 

— The July-October number, 1919, of 
the St. Louis Catholic Historical Re- 
z-ieic appeared several months late, but 
it is a double number and makes up for 
the delay by the variety and interest of 
its contents. Fr. G. J. Garraghan, S.J., 
writes on "Bishop Brute and the Mis- 
sion of Chicago" ; Dr. C. L. Souvay, 
C.]\I.. the editor-in-chief, on an "Epis- 
copal Visitation of the Diocese of New 
Orleans, 1827-1828"; Mr. Edw. Brown 
gives a biographical sketch of "Alexan- 
der McNair, h'irst Governor of Mis- 
souri," and Fr. F. G. Holweck writes of 
"The Arkansas Mission under Rosati." 
These articles are followed by the usual 
"Notes" and a bibliographical index to 
articles and items of historical interest 
in the current magazines and new.spa- 
pers. in which, wc are pleased to notice, 
the /'". R. occupies a prominent place. 
A selection of "Documents from Our 
.\rchives" concludes the number. The 
St. Louis Catholic Historical Review is 
a most creditable publication and de- 
serves the support of every Catholic of 
the archdiocese, nay of the whole eccle- 
siastical i)rovince. (The Catholic His- 
torical Society of St. Louis, 209 Walnut 
.Str. ; subscrii)tion, $2 per annum ; single 
copies, 50 cts.) 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



45 



Literary Briefs 

— Dr. ^ C. Telch's "Epitome Theologiae 
Mcralis," based on Noldin's "Summa," has 
appeared in a new (the fourtli) edition, re- 
vised in conformity with the Code of Canon 
Law. We recommended this useful booklet 
heartily to students and priests upon its first 
appearance, and hereby renew our recom- 
mendation. (Fr. Pustet & Co., Inc., $1.50). 

— "The Priest's Canonical Prayer," trans- 
lated from the French by the Rev. F. Gir- 
ardey, C.SS.R., is a useful little book of facts 
and reflections on the Divine Office. It should 
find a wide circulation, as its careful perusal 
is sure to lead to a renewal of earnestness 
and devotion in the recital of this most 
beautiful and important prayer. (B. Herder 
Book Co.; 50 cts.) 

— The Rev. Julius E. De Vos, of Chicago, 
has reprinted from his "Fifteen Hundred 
Years of Europe" the data pertaining to 
"The Belgian Nation" and re-published them 
with a separate index. The whole forms a 
pamphlet of less than one hundred pages, 
hut gives a complete prospectus of the his- 
tory of the Belgians, ingeniously arranged 
by means of episodes, chronicles, and statis- 

t'CS. 

— "Credo," by Bishop A. Le Roy, General 
of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, is 
a handbook of apologetics, and of dogmatic 
and moral theology, on less than 300 pages. 
The book needs no praise, as its author is 
one of the most learned theologians and 
scientists now living. The translation, by E. 
Leahy, is worthy of the original. There is a 
foreword by the Rev. Geo. O'Neill, S.J., who 
has also edited the manuscript. (Fr. Pustet 
& Co., Inc.; $1.50). 

— The Old English "Elene," "Phoenix," 
and "Physiologus," usually called the "Bes- 
tiary," have been re-edited by Prof. Albert 
S. Cook of Yale (Yale LTniversity Press). 
There is a scholarly introduction, in which 
twenty-nine authorities are quoted, of whom 
no less than twenty-one are Germans. All 
tliree works are assigned, with mild reserva- 
tions, to Cynewulf. The legend of "Elene," 
apparently of Syriac origin, made its way 
into Ireland in Greek and was there trans- 
lated into Latin. The story revolves about 
•lie Holy Cross. The "Phoenix" is Egyptian 
and signifies the union of day and night, or 
life and eath. The "Physiologus" is a book 
fit popular theology illustrating some of the 
chief doctrines of the Christian religion by 
means of real or supposed characteristics of 
actual or fabulous animals. It has been said 
that, with the exception of the Bible, there 
is perhaps no book in all literature which has 
been more widely current in every cultivated 
tongue and among every class of people than 
the "Physiologus." Prof. Cook points out 
that our current notions of the pelican, the 
phoenix, the unicorn, and the salamander 
are derived from this once popular book. 



— We were delighted to receive Vol. Ill 
of Fr. Noldin's "Summa Theologiae Moralis," 
I2tli edition, revised in accordance with the 
new Code of Canon Law. Noldin's "Summa" 
is the best of the shorter Latin manuals, and 
in its revised form will serve its double pur- 
pose of instruction and reference more ef- 
fectively than ever. Considering present con- 
ditions in the book trade, the price ($4) is 
reasonaI)le. Volume I is to appear in spring 
and volume II next autumn. The American 
agents of the publisher are the Fr. Pustet 
Co., Inc., of New York and Cincinnati. 

—"Democratic Industry," by the Rev. J. 
Husslein, S.J., is a series of loosely con- 
nected chapters in which the author tries to 
show that industrial democracy was realized 
in the Middle Ages as the economic fruit of 
the Catholic ideals then cherished by the peo- 
ple, but in consequence of the upheaval 
brought about by the Protestant Reformat 
tion, was displaced by the capitalistic autoc- 
racy under which we are now living. The 
author sees our only salvation in a return to 
Catholic principles and to the guild system. 
His "new Catholic guild system" is a rather 
vague and hazy notion, and the historic argu- 
ment does not fully convince the thoughtful 
reader. Yet the book may do good by draw- 
ing attention to certain facts and principles 
which even our Catholic people do not yet 
seem to understand fully. (P. J. Kenedy & 
Sons; $1.50 net). 



"My Political Trial and 
Experiences" 

By Jeremiah A. O'Leary 

Just Off the Press 

A sensational stoiy of the Political Experien- 
ces of a man of Irish blood who was singled out 
for destruction by the powerful influences of the 
British propaganda. 

How the Biitish propaganda was foiled. 

"Q. Well now. then, you have committed per- 
jury, you know that, don't you? A. Yes, sir. 

... .Q. You know you were testifying falsely? 
A. Yes, I did...." 

(From the testimony of Madame Gonzales 
under cross-examination. Quoted out of the 
mouth of a main witness for the government]. 
Page 290 of the Book. 



The book contains .s6o pages, a l)iograi)hical 
sketch of Mr. OXeary by Major Michael A.Kelly 
of the Old Sixty-ninth, a peisonal diary of the 
author kept during his impi isonment, and the 
true story of his trial; al.so 23 illustrations. 

Price $3.00 Post Paid 



Order now through the 

Jefferson Publishing Co. 

21 Park Row New York City 

Deliveries prompt Order Now 



46 



Till-: i-ortxic;ht[.v revikw 



February 1 



^— ■■'» ii Mediaeval Library." by Genriule 
Robinson, is "a stiuiy in pro-Retonnation 
literature." written tor the purpose of iiitro- 
ilucing the modern reader to tiie ricii and 
varied devotional literature which was pro- 
duced in England in tlie century and a halt 
preceding the schism. Part II of the book- 
consists wholly of excerpts from some of 
the mystic writers who were most popular 
at that time. The "prayers of our fathers" 
are for the most part so much better ihan 
those concocted by present-day writers tliat 
one caimot but wonder how tiiey came to 
tail into oblivion. W'e hail their resuscita- 
tion with delight. (Sands & Co. and P.. Her- 
der lUx>k Co.: $1.50 net). 

-The new (fourth) edition of ".\ Mamial 
r.i Moral Theology for English-.Speaking 
C'.untries." by tlie Rev. Thomas Slater. S.J.. 
la* lH?en revised according to the Code of 
Canon Law and emlwdies (Vol. II. pp. 511- 
561) the author's "Short History of .Moral 
Theology." The work has not been reset, l)ut 
changes of importance made by tlie new 
Code are pointed cnit in foot-notes. The new 
penalties which appear in the Code are not 
all mentioned, because, as Father Slater 
rightly remarks, they "belong rather to the 
• ■epartment of Canon Law." The necessary 
reparation of Moral Theology from Canon 
LaW. we may be pernntted to observe, is 
being carried out still more radically in the 
Koch-Preuss "Handbook of Moral Theology" 
(Herder), now in course of publication. Fr. 
Slater's Manual is published by Messrs. P>en- 
z.ger Brothers in two substantial volumes 
;.nil sells for $7 net. 

—Our venerable friend "Dean" Harris is 
surprisingly active, despite his seventy odd 
years and the physical handcap whicli' com- 
pels him to write with a .soft pencil. We 
lately reviewed two new books of his. .\ow 
there lies before us a third. "Tadousac and 
its Indian Chapel, 1617-1920." It gives an 
account of the ancient and picturesque village 
at the jiuiction of the Saguenay and St. Law- 
rence rivers. Tadousac was discovered by 
Cartier and explored by Champlain. It was 
the oldest trading post in Canada and its 
name was known in Kurope before Quebec 
wai founded. The author gives a brief ac- 
count of the history of the place, based on 
the Jesuit Relations and other sources, and 
pays particular attention to the ancient Indian 
chapel, which is "the oldest house of wor- 
ship, framed in woful, in the Dominion of 
Canada, and prol)ably on tlie continent of 
North .America." It is 17.3 years old anri its 
ftcll has l>ccn in service for nearly 300 years. 
The pamphlet is handsfiinely printed (though 
not without ty{K»graphicaI errors) anrl ilhi- 
>trated with a dozen views of Tadous.K and 
its surroundings, the parish church and the 
Indian rhapel. .Ai no publisher is giv<n on 
the title page, we must refer intending pur 
chasers to the author, the V. Rev. W. R. 
ffarri.s. D.D.. LL.D . East Toronto, Canada. 



— "The Passion and Glory of Christ'' is 
the title of the Huglisli translation of Msgr. 
F. X. Polzl's famous commentary on the 
events from the last Supper to the Ascen- 
sion. It is a scholarly work, excellently 
atiapted by Miss .\. :M. Buchanan, A. M. 
Father C. C. Martindale. S.J., has edited the 
manuscript and contributes a preface, in 
which he describes and eulogizes the work 
and adds a few titles of English and French 
books for the benefit of those who have not 
access t<» the learned Ciennan volumes quoted 
by the autlior. One cannot read far into this 
line work without agreeing with Fr. Martin- 
dale that it is perhaps the most masterly 
■"totalization" of the material extant, char- 
acterized not only by profound erudition 
and solid orthodoxy, but likewise by true 
Catholic piety. \\'e hope this excellent book 
will I'liid many purchasers. ( New York : 
Joseph !•". \\'a,s;ner. Inc.; ^J.J^ net). 



Books Received 

.\/v Political I'yial a>id I'.xfciicnccs. By Jeremiah 
\. O'Leary. Iiicluiling a JJiographical Sketch of 
the Author \>y Major Michael A. Kelly. With 
Preface by Joseph W. (lavan. -\v & 546 pp. Svo. 
New Vork: Jefferson Publishing Co. 1919. 

77pf Bch/ian Xalioii. Historical Episodes by Julius 
Iv. De \'os. Second Edition. Revised and Indexed, 
iv \- "6 pp. Svo. Chicago, 111.: The Cuneo-IIenne- 
berry Co. 1919. (Wrapper). 

Ctctio: A Sliorl H.xt<ositio)i of Catholic Belief. Erom 
the French of Kt. Kev. A. Le Koy, Bishop of 
.\linda, (ieneral of the ("ongregation of the Holy 
(".host. Translated by E. Leahy. Edited by Rev. 
(;eo. O'Neill, S.J. viii & 2^6 ]<p. 12nio. $1.50. 

BishoC McQiiaid of Kochestcr. 186S-1909. By Fred. 
J. Zwierlein. Reprint from the Dublin Review. 
With a picture of Msgr. McOuaid. 23 pp. Svo. 
( Wrapper). 

Mystics .-III. By Enid M. Dinnis. 227 pp. 12mo. 
Eon<loii and Eilinburg: Sands K: Co.; St. Louis, 
Mo.: B. Herder Book Co. .?. a. ?1.60 net. 



r^l FRC^YMFN "''" ''^sirc to have manu. 
scripts printed at reason- 
able cost, can save worry by correspondinjf with tlie 
old reliable printing house 

The Jos. Berning 
Printing Company 

Kstablished 1853 

212-214 East EiKhtli Street 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
Catr/ul Altettlion to Foreign Language IVork 

FOREIGN MISSIONS 

The Missionary Sisters, Serv.ints of the Holy 
(;ho8t are a Congreg.ilion working orimarily in 
the foreign missions. The Mother House is the 
Holy Chost Institute at Techny, HI. Here the 
postulants and novices receive their training 
for their ftiluvo work. Ask for our "Vocation 
Leaflets and Booklets" representing scenes from 
the life of a Mission Sister. Any luiniber will 
l)e sent upon request, free of charge. Address 
Mother Provincial, Holy Ghost Institute, 
Techny, 111. 



I'^iO 



THE I'ORTNIGHTLY REVIHW 



47 



LENTEN SERMONS 



TIIK LAST TFilNGS. Six LentLii Ser- 
nidiis, l)y the Rev. LL G. Hughes. Paper 
cover, net, 6(K'. 

I- ROM TilE CENACLE TO THE 
TOAUi. .\ Cdurse of six Lenten Ser- 
mons, hy the Rev. M. S. Smith. Paper 
cover, net, 6oc. 

THE OUR EATHER. A course of Lent- 
en Sermons, by the Rev. L. Ruland. 
1). D. Paper cover, net, 6oc. 

THE CHIEF EVILS OF THE TIMES. 
A courst; of Lenten Sermons, by the 
Rev. H. Xagelsclimitt. Paper cover, 
net, 6oc. 

THE SIGNS OF THE TIMES. A 
course of Lenten Sermons, by the Rev. 
II. Xagelsclimitt. Paper cover, net, 6oc. 

RELIGIOUS INDIFFERENCE. A 
course of Lenten Sermons, by the Rev. 
.Vndrew Hamerle. C. SS. R. Paper 
cover, net, 6oc. 

THE SEVEN LAST WORDS FROM 
THE CROSS. A course of seven 
Lenten .Sermons, by the Rev. H. G. 
Huglies. Paper cover, net, 6oc. 

ETERNITY. .\ course of seven Lenten 
Sermons, by Rev. Celestine, O. M. 
Cap. Paper cover, net, 6oc. 

THE HOLY SACRIFICE OF THE 
M.\SS. A course of seven Lenten Ser- 
mons, and eleven Sermons on the 
Sacred Heart, by the Rev. J. Fuhlrott. 
Cloth, net, Qoc. 

NON SERVLAM. A Lenten course of 
sesen Sermons on the Subject of Mor- 
tal Sin, by the Rev. W. Graham. Paper 
cover, net, 6oc. 

THE WORSHIP OF GOD. A course of 
seven Lenten Sermons, bv the Very 
Rev. John R. Teefy, C.S.B. Paper 
cover, net. 6oc. 



FREQUENT COMMUNION. Six Ser- 
mons by the Rev. .A .Chvvala, O. M. I. 
Paper cover, net, 6oc. 

GOD'S DEALINGS VS. OUR SOCIAL 
CONDITIONS. .\ course of seven 
Conferences, by the Right Rev. James 
IJellord, D.I). Paper cover, net, 6oc. 

WHY THE CATHOLIC RELIGION 
IS RIGHT. .A course of Lenten Ser- 
mons by the Rev. H. G. Hughes. Paper 
cover, net. 6oc. 

CHRIST AND HUMAN LIFE. A 
course of six Lenten Sermons, by the 
Rev. H. G. Hughes. Paper cover, net, 
6oc. 

PHASES OF THE SACRED PAS- 
SION. A course of six Lenten Ser- 
mons, by the Rev William Graham. 
Paper cover, net, 6oc. 

THE NECESSITY OF RELIGION. 
Six Lenten Sermons, by the Rt. Rev. 
Mgr. P. Stiegele. Paper cover, net, 6oc. 

THE SACRAMENTS. Seven Lenten 
Sermons, by the Right Rev. A. Mac- 
Donald, D. D. Cloth, net, 90c. 

MAN AND HIS IMMORTAL SOUL. 
Seven Lenten Sermons, by a Priest of 
the Diocese of Nottingham. Paper 
cover, net, 6oc. 

THE CHRISTIAN FAMILY. Seven 
conferences adapted from the original 
of Monsignor D'Hulst, by the Rev. 
Bertrand L. Conway, C.S.P. Cloth, net 
$1.00. 



THE CEREMONIES OF HOLY 
WEEK IN CHURCHES WITH 
ONLY ONE PRIEST. By Rev. 
L. J. Riidish, O.P. Cloth, net, 75c. 



Joseph F. Wagner (inc.) 



23 Barclay Street 



Publishers 



NEW YORK 



St. Louis : B. Herder Book Co. 



48 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



Clean literature and clean womanhood are the Keystones of Civilization: 
— this apboristicslly defines the ideals of the Devin-Adair imprint. 



The Census Bureau published fitjnres that prove that ^^every xinth marriage the 
country orrr terminates in dirorce — that divorce is i)icreasi)ig nearly twice 
as fast as marriage.''' If you re married or if you're about to be mar- 
ried any Aitnalist, Actuary — or shrewd ''sporl'^ will lay you from 
eight to ten to one that YOUR marriage ivill be a failure — 
that YOU will wiiid up in the Divorce Court. 

The Devil's way is the tlivorce way; the ratio in the larger cities is one in seven to one in three — 
had enough, truly; but just as surely as '"you cannot be a little bit married — or a little bit dead," the 
thousands of thoughtless, hasty and fly-by-night war tnarriages will send the average of domestic up- 
heavals to panic tigures. Read GRK.AT WIVES AND MOTHERS, lend it to others— to your mis- 
mated friends and neighbors — jbove all stMul it to the youth of both sexes, graduates and undergradu- 
ates of fashionable colleges who (.at the most fateful of periods — the adolescent) are being rounded 
into atlult life on the works of male and female wantons — men and women who if alive would not 
be allowcti within smelling distance of a cotter's cottage. The subtle hypocrisy of such impelling 
exemplars makes for cimiulative far reaching harm — harm that fairly snuggles into church. State and 
society — that inspires and supports the lust-lucred leading theatres with their bedroom art — their 
publicity Kirkers, flaunting "girl from a convent" for the gaze and thoughts of the tiied shekel 
getter. GREAT WR'ES AND MOTHERS will help to turn houses into homes— will assuredly lead 
to marriage and happiness of the kind that's worth a picayune — the kind that lasts. 

Xo good Jf'oiiion c'i\?r married a man except for love — for life 
Xo real Man ever married a woman except for love — for life 

With this book the comrade of all men and women a Bachelor in time will be an 

ignored novelty — and as for Spinsters there will be few if any in the 

world old enough to shy at a mirror. 

Great Wives and Mothers 

By HUGH FRANCIS BLUNT 

(The Boston Editor, Writer and Poeti 

rtil* Is the age ol War — and Woman. In the War history repeated Mrlth horror- 
laden emphanis. In Woman's dominattng activities are ««e to have a rebirth of the 
Eleventh Century 7 There is no middle course lor Woman; her influence Is infinite 
and eternal In results, for she leads to Heaven or lures to Hell. 



"One after another the great wives and 
mothers pass over the pages, a noble procession 
that thrills the reader and makes him proud of 
his Catholic ancestry. From land to land, from 
age to age, they have han<led down the torch 
of faith and piety, a:id the sweet odor of their 
Koly lives purifies the atmosphere of any home 
uhich is privileged to make their acquaintance. 
The book is intended principally by its aulh<ir 
to lighten the labors of priests who arc direct- 
ing sodalities, but it has a place in every ('ath- 
olic family. Convent-schools also would be 
wiftc to fdace it on their shelves. It will be an 
inspiration to their pupils and a stimulus to 
make their lives sublime. 

The style is sim|/le, careful and entertaining. 
The lK<ok deserve* a warm welcome." 

KKV. J. 1I.\RDING FISHER, S.J. 



"Possessed of genuine interest for readers of 
cither sex and all ages. The work is especially 
timely at present, when, as the author remarks 
in his preface, 'the world in many different ways 
is seeking to turn our women from the pursuit 
of the Christian ideal in wifehood and mother- 
hood.' The appetizing contents of the book may 
be judged by these selections from the chapter 
headings; Margaret Roper, Elizabeth Seton, 
.lerusha Uarber, Mary O'Connell, Margaret 
Haughery, Lady Gcorgiana Fullerton, Pauline 
Oaven, and 'Some Literary Wives and Moth- 
ers." " — THE AVE MARIA. 



L:irj,'«' Crown Octavo — I'oslpjiid $2.50 at Bookstores or 



THE DEVIN ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 



425 Fifth Avenue 



Neiv York 




ip 



The Fortnightly RevTew 



VOL. XXVII, NO. 4 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



February 15. 1920 



Latin Students' Songs 

Aroused by the words, "Oh, it makes 
no difference ; it's Latin ; nobody cares 
what they're singing," Prof. Charles B. 
Randolph of Clark College some time 
ago wrote an article for the Classical 
Journal on "Three Latin Students' 
Songs,'' meaning the "Gaudeamus igi- 
tur," the "Lauriger Horatius," and the 
"Integer vitae." The article has now 
been reprinted in separate form. 

Prof. Randolph finds no evidence 
that the "Integer vitae" was ever em- 
ployed as a students' song until about 
the beginning of the nineteenth century. 
It does not seem to have enjoyed espe- 
cial popularity during the IMiddle Ages. 
There is evidence that some of the odes 
of Horace were sung by the monks to 
h\mn tunes — how this knowledge 
would have entertained the poet ! — 
and in more than one manuscript the 
music is added, but "Integer vitae" is 
not among these. The ode came into 
prominence as a song about 1811, when 
Dr. Friedrich Ferdinand Flemming, a 
Berlin oculist of note, wrote the air 
which we now sing. 

Some time before 1858 it found its 
way to this country, for in that year it 
appeared in "Songs of Yale." In the 
"first published collection of Harvard 
songs," the "College Song Book." 1860, 
both "Gaudeamus igitur" and "Lauri- 
ger Horatius" are among the "Songs of 
Yale," and "Integer vitae" is among the 
"Songs of Harvard." In later books it 
continues to pass as a Harvard song, 
which might indicate that it was intro- 
duced to this country at Harvard. In 
his Preface. Mr. C. W. Stevens, editor 
of the "College Song Book" just refer- 
red to, said that he had been informed 
by the oldest graduates of the Univer- 
sity that thirty years before, that is, 
around 1830, musical societies existed 
at Harvard, and that the students sang 



with great gusto the popular airs of the 
day, as well as selections from the Ger- 
man masters. 

Yale, on the other hand, apparently 
deserves the credit for the introduction 
of "Lauriger Horatius," which appears 
for the first time in this country in 
"Songs of Yale," 1858, under the head- 
ing, "Introduced by the class of '56." 
The air to which it is ordinarily sung, 
remarks Professor Randolph, besides 
fvnnishing us the music for "Maryland, 
INly Maryland," has been a favorite 
one in American colleges for songs with 
English words. It seems probable, too, 
that it was Yale that "discovered" the 
"Gaudeamus igitur," since it was pub- 
lished a number of times as a Yale 
song, without protest from other col- 
leges. Yale students evidently were 
fond of it. 

That it was an especial favorite 
among Yale songs is manifest not 
alone from the prominence it receives 
in Yale song books, but also from 
manv testimonials scattered through 
early numbers of the Yale Literary 
Magazine. Thus in the account of Pres- 
entation Day, 1849, in the June number 
of that year, we read: "While the 
musicians were performing the Ode : 

Gaudeamus igitur 

Juvenes duin sumus, 
we really felt like rejoicing. There is 
something so beautiful in that old song, 
so melodious, so touching, that it is 
adapted to any occasion." 



— To forbear censuring an evil is to en- 
courage it. Silence can be criminal as well 
as golden. 

— How about that new subscriber you 
promised to send us last year? It is still 
time to keep your promise. 

—You are interested in the advertisements 
of others that appear in the Review. Don't 
you tliink others would be interested in 
vcurs? 



1119 



so 



THE FORTNIOHTI.V REVIEW 



February 15 



Of You 

Tliere is within my Iieart 
A little corner set apart 
W'iicre only tluniglits of you may dwell. 
And all the long day through. 
As I am swept about 
By throngs that crowil the street, 
A little thought slips in and out. 
A^ little, tender thought, loo sweet 
For this poor spoocli to tell. 
Of that safe corner set ai)art 
W'ilhin the fastness of my heart 
Where I may think of you. 



Lincoln's Schooling and Pioneer 
Schools 

The statement that Abraham Liiicohi 
hail hardly any schooling, and only of 
the rudest sort, and that he made well- 
nigh superhuman efforts to reach the 
nearest school, is hction. No doubt his 
mother Nancy 'Hanks) gave him his 
first lessons. She was above the aver- 
age in education for that day, and had 
taught privately before her marriage. 

Abe's first school teacher was Zach- 
ary Riney, near New Hope in La Rue 
County. Ky. The boy's age at the time 
was about seven. 

.\ round July or August. 1817, in 
Abe'.s^ eighth year, the Lincoln family 
left Kentucky for, what is now Lincoln 
City. Spencer County. Indiana, where 
they bought land on October 15 follow- 
ing. 

A year later. October 5. 1818. the 
mother died. 

Here in Indiana, from 1817 to the 
close of 1819. no school was available 
for young .Abe. the nearest one being at 
Troy, thirteen miles distant. However, 
a large .settlement was made in the vi- 
cinity about 1820. and soon there were 
nine schools within a radius of from 
one to four miles from the Lincoln 
home. 

Early in 1820. a school was opened in 
the Baptist church one mile south of 
Lincoln City. James Bryant taught 
there several terms. .\be was his pupil. 
.\l)Out 1822, .\be attended the school oi 
Josiah Crawford, two and one-half 
miles southeast, near BufTalo. .\ school 
two miles north of the Lincoln hoim- 
was also attended by Abe for one or 
more terms. 



Another early school stood near the 
Lincoln hotne. on the same tract of 
land, where probably Abe was a pupil 
for a number of terms. Azel W. Dorsey 
was one of his leachei-s. 

It is not known whether Abe was a 
pupil in the live other early schools at 
Dale, below Gentryville, Santa Fe. 
Cientryville. and south of the afore- 
mentioned I'aptist church. 

About 1828. when nineteen vears old, 
Abe operated a ferry on Anderson 
creek, at Troy, where he attended the 
school of .\dam Shoemaker. 

Thus Abraham had gone to one 
school in Kentucky and to five in In- 
diana. The names of five of his teach- 
ers are given above. They were edu- 
cated men and capable teachers for 
those days. 

Abe's father. Thomas, was an honest, 
industrious carpenter and farmer, and 
although j)oor and illiterate, wanted his 
son to get all the education possible ; 
and Abe's mother and stepmother, each 
in her time, encoitraged him in his 
studies. 

The pioneer schools were supported 
by subscriptions, usually of from one to 
two dollars per (juarter ; a term general- 
ly Jasted three months, though at times 
longer. The teaching in these "Read- 
ir.g. Writing and Arithmetic Schools" 
was then called "teaching the rudiments 
of an English education." One peculiar 
method of instruction used by the old- 
time teachers was that each pupil was 
taken as a class by himself and recita- 
tion and instruction was individual. 
Thereby more thorough and additional 
instruction could be given in accordance 
with each scholar's advancement. It 
was hard on the teacher, but then no 
scholar was hami)ered by others drag- 
ging the class-work. 

These schools taught more than is 
generally supposed. The thorough and 
persistent drilling in the fundamentals, 
reading, writing, and arithmetic, and 
the progressive application of same, 
with bearings on the actual concerns of 
life gave the pupil facility and ])leasure 
for tnore advanced studies. By degrees 
simple grammar and rhetoric were im- 
prirled. though without text-books, in 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



61 



the class of reading and composition. 
Geography and other branches were 
likewise introduced when suggested by 
the lessons. 

Lincoln always preferred study to 
farm work, was a great reader, ever .n 
search of useful information, and hav- 
ing a good memory and a practical turn 
of mind, became a man of unusual at- 
tainments. He loved debates, and when 
only twenty was known as a backwoods 
orator, fond of arguing on slavery and 
political subjects. 

Biographers exaggerate when they 
say that Lincoln borrowed books within 
fifty miles of his home. His friends and 
companions never knew of his doing so. 
Goodspeed's History of Spencer Co. (p. 
237) states: He enjoyed books of all 
kinds, especially biography, and is 
known to have borrowed much of the 
little reading matter in the neighbor- 
hood. After 1820, Spencer Co. had a 
public library at Rockport, of several 
hundred volumes of the standard works 
of the day. The name Lincoln does not 
once appear on the record as borrower. 
Rockport was the county seat, only six- 
teen miles distant, where the Lincolns 
went several times a year to pay tax 
and for other purposes and could easily 
have obtained books had they so de- 
sired. 

Adam Shoemaker, the teacher, was 
also visiting minister of the Pigeon 
Baptist Church, and from him, it is said, 
Abe received his first ideas of emanci- 
pation. Goodspeed's History (p. 426) 
mentions that ''Among the earliest mem- 
bers of that [Baptist Church] organiza- 
tion were Wm. Stark, Thomas Lincoln. 
Rev. Briscoe, and their wives and 
others." From this we see that Mrs. 
Sarah (Johnson) Lincoln. Abe's step- 
mother, also was a member of said 
church. She came into the Lincoln 
family in 1819, the year the church was 
huilt. Abraham worshipped there from 
boyhood to manhood, and the school 
held in it was the first school he attend- 
ed in Indiana. 

(Rev.) C. J. ScHWARZ 

St. Croix, hid. 



-•-♦<^^-*-.- 



— No one has a right to afflict otiiers with 
his burdens. Bear your own cross. 



Errors in the American Standard 
Version of the Bible 

Although the American Standard 
Version of the Bible may be of help to 
the judicious student, it is not a trans- 
lation on which the reader may implic- 
itly rely for a faithful rendering of the 
original. Perhaps it will not be deemed 
out of place to call the attention of the 
readers of the J'. R. to a few instances 
of mistranslation. 

The ^American .Standard Version 
( which, excepting some imimportant 
changes, is merely the American edition 
of the British revision of the King 
James version) has often been said to 
be the best, the most authoritative, and 
the most reliable translation of the 
Bible extant in any language. To de- 
serve this praise it should have been 
kept free from such Protestant bias as 
is noticeable in the following passages: 

1 

Li Matt. XIX, Christ teaches the in- 
dissolubility of matrimony and pro- 
r.ounces re-marriage of divorced per- 
sons to be adultery. His disciples say : 
"If the case of a man with his wife be 
so, it is not expedient to marry." The 
Lord answers : "All men take not this 
word, but they to whom it is given," 
and goes on to recommend celibacy for 
the kingdom of heaven. 

The Greek original reads, verse 1 1 : 
"Oit f'antcs chorousin to logon foitton," 
which the Douay version, following the 
Latin Vulgate, faithfully renders : "All 
men take not this word." The Ameri- 
can Standard Version, however, ren- 
ders : "Not all men can receive this say- 
ing." Here the translators have changed 
the do not of the original into cannot, 
probably to excuse the first Reformers 
and others for the breach of their vow 
of celibacy. 

Other specimens of mistranslation 
will be pointed out in subsequent arti- 
cles. (Rev.) Joseph Molitor, D.D. 



—We arc always ready to furnisli siicli 
1 ack numbers of tlie F. R. as we have in 
slock. 

—Poison ivy is effectually counteracted by 
the green leaves of connnon catnip rubbed on 
tlie affected parts until the juice runs. 



52 



THE FORTXTGHTLY REVIEW 



Februarj' 15 



The Lost Atlantis 

In the Thirtieth Annual Archaeolog- 
ical Report (^1918) printed by order 
of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, 
Canada, the \'ery Rev. W. R. ("Dean") 
Harris writes interestingly of '"The 
Mystery of a Land that Disappeared." 
He gives a brief review of pre-Colum- 
bian culture in America and tells of the 
high stage of civilization reached by the 
people of ancient Mexico. Many of the 
data are quite new even to those who 
have been interested in the study of the 
aboriginal culture of the American con- 
tinent. 

The Yale Peruvian expedition, under 
the direction of Prof. Hiram Bingham, 
in 1915 visited the ruins of an ancient 
city 2000 feet above the Urabamba 
River. Professor Bingham says : "The 
Peruvian pottery of those ancient peo- 
ple bears a striking resemblance to that 

of ancient Greece They reached a 

high degree of skill in the manufacture 
of textiles, and, from the wool of the 
domesticated alpaca, wove excellent 
cloth. We found surgical tools and in- 
struments for trepanning made of obsi- 
dian. They tamed the llamas and 
alpacas, by the aid of which they trans- 
ported for hundreds of miles stones 
weighing fifteen tons. In architecture, 
engineering, pottery and textiles, they 
equalled the ancient Babylonians." 

These people advanced very far in the 
scientific knowledge of irrigation and 
agriculture. Basing his conclusion on 
the refx)rts of reputable travelers, Dean 
Harris says : "Of the advanced material 
civilization of Central America, Peru, 
Colombia and neighboring lands, tb.ere 
cannot now be two (Opinions. People 
Nsho could handle large blocks of stone, 
determine the i>recession of the e(iui- 
noxes, calculate tlie periods of the moon 
and stars, build great pyramids and suIj- 
stantial houses in stone, invent a hiero- 
graphic and an ideographic writing, 
reach a high level in ceramic, nutal- 
lurgic, and lajndary arts, dig great irri- 
gation canals, construct mcttaled high- 
ways and excel in agriculture, were, for 
their time, beyond contradiction, a high 
barbaric, if not a civilized race." 

Any one who has visited any of r)ur 
large museums, as for instance, the 



Smithsonian at Washington, or the 
Field Columbian at Chicago, must have 
noticed the numerous specimens (either 
original or reproduced) of Mexican 
and Central American stone art. That 
these innnense carved images bespeak 
a high degree of culture is evident. 
Many authorities, like Kingsborough, 
Bandelier, and Lummis, agree that at 
the time of the coming of the Spaniards 
this civilization was on the decline and 
rapidly "reaching the bed-rock of sav- 
agery." 

But as the pre-Columbian culture in 
some parts of America was of a very 
high type, the question arises : How 
long before Columbus had the country 
been inhabited? In other words. What 
is the age of man in America? In previ- 
ous numbers of. the Fortnightly Re- 
view we have adduced the opinion of 
Dr. Hrdlicka, of Washington, D. C, 
who does not consider the "proofs for 
the antiquity of man" (in South Amer- 
ica, at least,) as satisfactory. But what 
about the age of man farther North, in 
Central America and Mexico? Several 
scientific authorities lean to the theory 
of an extremely remote antiquity of 
man in these regions. 

Thus, "early in 1916, Mr. S. S. Mor- 
ley left the U. S. with a party organized 
for archaeological exploration in Yuca- 
tan. At Tuluum, on the east coast of 
Yucatan, he photographed and took 
measurements of a hieroglyphic monu- 
ment carrying a Maya date correspond- 
ing to our year 290 A. D. At Uzxactum 
the party found the remains of a large 
city and a monument belonging to Cycle 
8 of Maya chronology, bringing the 
time back to 50 A. D." 

P)Ut admitting that there was in 
.America "at least 2000 years ago a 
civilization not inferior to that of an- 
cient As.syria and Egypt," the important 
question arises: From what land did 
these ancient people come? 

Dean Harris devotes the second part 
of his paper to an examination of this 
problem. He quotes evidence pointing 
to the existence of a former vast island 
in the Atlantic Ocean, northwest of 
Africa, referred to by Plato, and .said 
by ancient writers to have been sunk 
beneath the ocean by an earthquake. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



63 



This is, of course, the famous "mythical 
Atlantis,"' which the ancient writers 
mention. A map accompanying Dean 
Harris' paper marks the position of "the 
land that disappeared." 

That the tradition of the ancients is 
not without foundation is evident from 
the testimony adduced in the article. 
Moreover, "to-day nearly every zoolo- 
gist of repute admits that it is impossi- 
ble to explain the existence of identical 
species of fauna in Europe and Amer- 
ica, without admitting the existence in 
early times of land in the Atlantic con- 
necting the two continents. So that now 
we are driven to acknowledge that the 
myths and traditions of the Carthage- 
nians, Egyptians, and the Athenians, of 
a submerged continent were founded on 
a reality." Again, "now that the subject 
has been investigated with the thorough- 
ness of European scholarship, Atlantis 
is no longer a romance embellishing the 
tales of visionaries or imposing by its 
vastness and fascination on the good 
nature of credulity." 

Dean Harris thinks that the question 
of the "origin of the American Indian" 
— one of the most baffling problems of 
American ethnology — is brought nearer 
solution by accepting the proof that 
Atlantis, "this great and wide causeway 
between Europe, Africa, and America, 
was inhabited by members of the human 
race." 

It will be interesting to hear the opin- 
ion of scientists like Fr. Morice, who 
holds that America was peopled from 
Asia via Behring Strait, and of Prof. 
Hrdlicka, who regards the problem as 
"insoluble." 

[Dean Harris's essay. "The jNIystery of a 
Land that Disappeared," is reprinted in his 
book, "Prehistoric Man in America," Toronto 

1919, pp. 96 sqq.] 

,^^-».^ 

The War and the English Language 

The first English dictionary to ap- 
pear since the war, Cassell's. edited by 
Ernest A. Baker, contains an appendix 
or supplement of words brought into 
use since 1914. The war has enriched 
the English language with a wealth of 
expressive, if. not always beautiful 
words and phrases, most of which will 
no doubt find their way gradually into 
standard literature. 



On the first page there are the com- 
pounds with "air," "air-base," "air- 
mechanic," and so forth. Thence, pass- 
ing the expression "old bean," we come 
to "Bertha," "Black Maria," "Blighty," 
and "blimp," though we are disappoint- 
ed to read that the etymology of the 
last word is doubtful. "Bolshevist" and 
"Boche" are not far ofl:", whence "brass 
hat" leads us to "Buckshee" and "bun- 
dook." The letter C after a scientific 
beginning goes on to "coalbox" and 
"cold feet," thence to "Conchy," "Con- 
temptible," and "coupon," both the po- 
litical and the food variety. So on to D 
for "dazzle," "debus," "defeatist," 
"Derby man," "dixie" — surely not new 
—"Dora," "Doughboy," "dug-out," and, 
most modern of all, "dyarchy." The 
verb to "gas" is new ; "Gotha" and 
"Hun" receive new applications, and 
"hush-boat" will be as worthy of ex- 
planation to posterity as "Jack John- 
son." Passing over "joy-ride," we come 
to "Lewis gun," "Mills-bomb," "mine- 
crater," and "Minenwerfer," the last 
for some unknown reason spelled "Min- 
nenwerfer." The letter M also produces 
the "movies," a typical Americanism. 
"Parados," "paravane," and "Pelman- 
ism" stand under the letter P, which 
also includes a new use of an old word 
which, in these rapidly moving days has 
already become an anachronism — name- 
ly, "penguin" — "a member of the Wo- 
men's Royal Air Force." "Pill-box" 
and "pigsqueak" (surely not new?) lead 
on to a phrase which we devoutly hope 
will disappear ; "post-war" is a hybrid 
which should never have seen the light. 
Why not "after-war" which is only one 
letter longer? The letter S is almost 
an epitome of the war, for it includes 
not only "Sam Browne." "sausage- 
balloon" and "scrounge," but also "self- 
determination," "shop-steward," "Sinn 
Fein," "Soviet," "Spartacist," "Stokes 
mortar," "strafe." and "supertax." 
"\\^aac," "wangle," "war-bond," and 
"whizz-bang," bring us near the end, 
which approjiriately is the word to 
"zoom," on which we "turn upwards at 
a very sharp angle" towards a happier 
future when only words of peace and 
progress, we trust, will grow into the 
language for a long time to come. 



54 



THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 15 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By ihe Rev. Joh.v Ei-okne Weibei.. V.F., 

Chaplain of St. Joseph's Inhrniary. 

Hot Springs, Arkansas 

IntriHiuction 
litre is to the Slate of womlrous glory, 
So Itailly maligned in song and story — 
l?ut the things that were and the things that arc 
.\re bigger and better than those who'd mar 
The State's fair name by making a show 
Oi "The -Vrkansas Traveler" or a train that was 
slow. 

The roofless house is a thing of the past. 
And the slow train of old is now going fast, 
.\nd "The Arkansas Traveler" is sliding along. 
But he's a ditlcrem traveler with a different song. 

Now the wrongs of old are all made right, 
.\nd the State is seen in a different light. 
Now, no one finds a single flaw 
\\'ilh the |>eerless State of -Vrkansas. 

So here's to the State that could not be downed, 
Though others scoffed and smiled and frowned. 
And here's to the Knights and Ladies fair, 
The truest and best to be found anywhere. 

— V. L. Sp.m-ding 

At the funeral of the Very Rev. \'icar- 
General Brady, of St. Louis, tlio Most Rev. 
.\rchbishop Ryan, ti£ Philadelphia, preaclied 
the sermon. In it he mentioned, as a proof 
of the heroic spirit of his departed friend, 
the fact that Eatlicr Brady liad reniaincd for 
several years in a poor mission, near Arkan- 
sas, called the "Purgatory of the missions of 
the .\rchdioccse," where before him liardly 
any priest had l)ecn able to stand it longer 
than a year. Afterwards, my faithful friend, 
the Rev. James Furlong, hecatue pastor of 
that place and remained there many more 
years than Fr. Brady. After Fr. Furlong 
had been promoted to tlie pastorship of a 
St. Louis parish, he often spoke witli regret 
of that mission in the country and let it l)e 
ki>own that he had been far Iiappier in the 
"|iurgatory" of tlie diocese than in tlie great 
metropolis. 

The State of .\rkan.sas and its inissimis, 
too. once bore a hard name throughout the 
land. Over thirty years ago, in a dispute 
carried on by correspondence, a brother of 
mine wrote me from Europe, saying that 1 
ought to know my judgment was (letkieiil, 
else I would never have chosen for my activ- 
ity such a sickly, swampy, and backwanl 
country as .\rkansas. The late Bisliop I-'itz 
;<erald, fii Little Rock, harl ;i great apprecia- 
tion of the sacrifices, hardships and trials of 
his priests, and used to say that a ])riest wlu) 
worked in .Arkansas for four years witlioul, 
having to l»c suspended would surely be can- 
rjnized. I have been over ffjrty years in 
.Arkansas, and never regretted having clioseii 
this field of activity. It is true, that at the 
present time, with railroads and autoinol)iles, 
people can hardly understand how we used 
to jfct along when we were but a few pricsis 
and had to visit far rlistant missions, mostly 
on horseback. Many friends, priests and lay- 



men, have asked me during the past few 
years to write my reminiscences, and the 
Editor of the Fortnighti.v Rk\ie\v lias kind- 
ly offered to print them in liis valuable maga- 
zine. Although tliere is nothing particularly 
wcndcrful about those forty years in Arkan- 
sas, I linally concluded to yield to their 
wishes, because it may lielp to preserve some 
liistorical knowledge of tlic beginnings of a 
number of missions. I intend to divide these 
memoirs into three parts: I. iNIy Life in Eu- 
rope; II. My Activity in the Country Mis- 
sions of Arakansas; HI. My Work in Hot 
Springs. Wlien I Iiave to mention some of 
the hardships I experienced in Arkansas, I 
do not wish to malign our great State. I am 
sure that in other states, as Indiana, Ohio, 
etc., the early missionaries met the same 
difticulties. Our State has made wonderful 
progress, and the lands in North-eastern 
.Arkansas, once so sickly and malarial, have 
been drained to a great extent, and thou- 
sands of acres that could be bought for five 
dollars an acre twenty-five years ago, are 
now valued at a hundred dollars or more. 

PART I 

CHAPTER 1 

CHILDHOOD AND SCHOOL DAYS 

I was born on the 27th day of May, 1853, 
in Eschenbach, about si.x miles from the 
city of Lucerne, Switzerland. The place is 
I)eauti fully situated lietween tlie two famous 
mountains, Pilatus and Rigi. There is an 
ancient Abbey of Cistercian nuns in the 
town, founded by the nobles of Eschenbach, 
in 1285, and destroyed in 1308, on account 
of the pretended participation of Walter of 
Eschenbach in the murder of Emperor Al- 
biecht. Later it was rebuilt at its present 
site, Obereschenbach, three miles away. I 
was l)aptized in the parisli church, May 28th. 
My mother died four weeks after my birtli, 
only thirty-three years old. A baby girl, 
hjuma Heim, was baptized at the same time. 
Tlie unfortunate girl, wliom I hardly knew 
liy sight, soon became a kleptomaniac. As a 
little boy. whenever I did anything wrong, 
an older sister of mine would cliide me, say- 
ing: "The one who was baptized with you 
turned out a thief, and God knows how you 
will turn out." I could not see what that girl 
bad to do with my fate. 

My youth was a very hai)i)y one, although 
I was rather sickly up to my seventh year. 
1 could talk long before I could walk, and 
I remember a woman passing me, as I was 
wheeled through the streets, and remarking 
to my nurse, "Isn't it a pity the poor child is 
so helpless and can't talk." 1 retorted from 
my wagonette, "Miss, I can talk as well as 
you can." 

T was operated upon for an ulcer when I 
was about two years old. I still rememl)er all 
the circumstances. I could describe the room, 
th'j people who helped me, and Ik)W the Iilood 
spurted when tiic ulcer was lanced. iCven my 
own brothers would not Ix lievc tliat I coubl 



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55 



n'nicml)er tlie incident, but it is just as fresli 
ill my memory as it ever was. 

I remember also my vaccination about tlie 
same time at the school house, and how the 
many children taken there cried as if they 
were to be killed. 

t also iiave before my eyes the clothes I 
wore, especially the last ones, which were 
red. and pleased me very much on account of 
tlier ,^a}' color. But the joy of the hrst 
pants ! I never felt prouder than on the day 
1 wore them. 

My father married again when I was aboui 
three years old. Until that time I had a 
nurse, who was very good to me. Afterwards 
she lived about three miles from town. When 
quite a boy, I caused some trouble in our 
ncigliborhood by visiting her without permis- 
sion. A chum of mine, Robert Ineichen, the 
son of a neighbor. Dr. Anthony Ineichen, was 
to l)ring some medicine to a family about 
two miles off. He asked me to go along witli 
him. I was willing to go, but unliappily we 
did not go alone, but took a lot of children 
along, — for in his family there were fourteen, 
in ours eleven, and another neighbor had al- 
most twice as many. I do not remember how 
many children went along, partly walking, 
I)artly in children's carriages, but I know we 
were a big caravan. Arriving at the place 
where tlie medicine was to be delivered, I 
tliought we were so near to my kind nurse 
that we ought not to miss the opportunity 
of paying her a visit. It was already getting 
dark when we reached her house, and not- 
withstanding her joy at seeing me, she was 
evidently perplexed about our situation. In 
a hurry she had us partake of her hospitality, 
and we were served with milk, nuts, and 
fruit of all kinds, and felt liappy. But she 
went l)ack with us and naturally, in spite of 
all lier efforts, it was slow traveling with so 
many children. It was midnight when \ye 
reached home. We began to realize our sit- 
uation when we heard calling and whistling 
for us from many wandows. We certainly 
were glad to have the kind nurse with us to 
act as our advocate and protector, but it was 
of little avail. The two malefactors. Rol)ert 
and T. received due punishment. 

The same Robert Ineichen and another 
boy, the sexton's son, were my special friends 
from childhood, and remained so all through 
our college days and later. 

My scliool years, with plenty of play and 
out-door exercise, with little care and mucli 
amusement, were full of joy. The notebook 
lirouglit from school every Saturday, and 
The kindly smiles of my stern father, looking 
mer it and signing it; the joy of a good 
examination in the presence of my parent.s. 
and the evidence of their being pleased, 
caused me great pleasure. Indeed, what are 
all the enjoyments of life when compared 
to tliat little world of sympathetic love in the 
early liome. the kind approval of parents and 
'lie >ympatiietic joy and pride of the family 
in their brother's success. 

I liked .all mv teachers. Thev were kind 



but understood how to maintain their au- 
thority. They were mostly married men. I 
never had a woman teacher. Jn the first year 
they taught us the prayers and chief truths 
of our religion. The following years, Cate- 
chism and Bible History were taught alter- 
nately every day at the beginning of the 
school. The teachers accompanied us daily 
to and from the parochial Mass. When I 
first went to school I had an idea that 
nobody knew as much as my teacher and 
as the priest often visited the school, I re- 
garded this almost as an intrusion, because 
I had no idea that the priest knew as much 
as the teacher. I think all children feel that 
way as long as they have a good teacher 
and are taught at home to show him due 
respect and obedience. And it is certainly to 
the interest of the child that the teacher 
should enjoy the utmost authority. 

My stepmother took just as much loving 
interest in me as if she had been my own 
mother. 

My constant companion in those early days 
was the above-mentioned Robert Ineichen. 
We used to read w-ith great pleasure the lives 
of the saints, and nothing had such attraction 
for us as the livfes of the anchorites and the 
Fathers of the Desert. When hardly seven 
years old, we fixed up for ourselves habits, 
such as we imagined those hermits wore, and 
we actually went into a forest to live there 
as anchorites, but we soon returned to our 
homes. Around the house we built chapels, 
— getting the material wherever and however 
we could, — and held services in them after 
getting a crowd of children together, preach- 
ing, singing, etc. 

We also got into trouble through our 
curiosity and "wanderlust." I do not remem- 
ber ever having been punished except for 
leaving home to roam about. 

Once Robert and I heard of a church fair 
in a neighboring town, and as we had some 
pocket money, we resolved to go there. Ar- 
riving at the first stand, we pointed out all 
the good things we desired. We could hardly 
look over the table, for wc were quite small. 
Finally the man at the stand asked: "Well, 



ciiildren, have you any money?' 



"Oh, 



yes," we said and showed our coppers. The 
people about the stand were so amused at this 
that they paid for all the things we got, and, 
heavily laden and happy, we returned home. 
Our families were verj^ anxious about us. 
Robert's mother told my stepmother that if 
it were not for me, her boy would not stray 
away. My mother contended it was just the 
reverse. But Robert himself declared lie 
was the cause, and I was innocent, whilst / 
thought I had made Robert come with me, 
,;nd he should not be punished. Another 
time Robert and I tried to see who of us 
could j.ump oftenest across an open well with- 
ciut falling in. After we had jumped a while, 
Robert gave me a sudden, unexpected push, 
and I fell in. The well was very deep and 
filled almost to the top with water. Of course, 
T went down, but when I came up, Robert. 



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February 15 



caught me by the hair, and succeeded in pull- 
ing me out. His mother asked him, liow lie 
dared to do such a thing: but lie ;issured Iier 
lie would not let me ilrown. and tliat he liad 
caused my trouble. Naturally 1 always felt 
for that boy the most tender love. 

When I began my Latin studies, in the 
Benedictine .Abbey of Einsiedeln, Roliert 
asked his father to let him go along witli me. 
but his father would not allow him to be 
educated by the monks, and sent him to a 
Latin school taught by secular priests, at 
^Ii^nste^. Canton Lucerne. He continued his 
higher studies in Lucerne, but there got into 
dangerous company. Ho later studied medi- 
cine. For a time he taught school. Notwith- 
standing our different vocations, wo corre- 
sponded up to that time. He was hardly 
thirty years old when he became insane and 
has been in an asylum ever since. Several 
years ago I went there expressly to see him. 
The superintendent of the institution had 
also been a classmate of his. Poor Robert 
did not know me and didn't speak a word. 
In all my life no visit was over so painful 
.ind sad to me. 

Having assisted at a number of marionette 
plays, we fixed up a theatre for ourselves, 
Robert and I acting as managers. There was 
an old lady, very tall, living all alone in the 
next house to ours. She had been housekeeper 
in Hohenrain to one of the last Knights of 
St. John, whose convent was suppressed at 
the beginning of the nineteenth century. This 
lady was quite an artist. I was permitted to 
enter her house at any time. She made the 
figures for our shows. Thus we gave "Ste. 
Genevieve." "Mardocai and Esther," and 
other plays. But the sliows brought too 
many people into our attic, and so we liad 
to stop performing. 

My primary .schooling being finished, I was 
sent to the "Bezirksschule" (corresponding 
to our high school) at Rothcnburg. about 
four miles from home. We were, for the 
winter season, about a <lozcn boys from my 
home town attending that school In order 
to get there in time for Mass, we had to 
leave in the dark, about six o'clock A. M.. 
and, when the weather was bad, or the snow 
was deep, it was quite a walk. However, it 
was healthful exercise, anrl I do not tliink 
that anything ehe ontributcd so mucli to 
my l)odily <levelopmcnt. Three of my broth- 
ers before me had attended that school under 
the same teachers. As my brf)thcrs had al- 
ways been the leading scholars, the main 
professor, Mr. fircter. never negbctefl an 
occasion to bring that fact before my eyes, 
"rubbing it in" to my discomfort. WIrmh ver 
I had not prepared my lessons, he would re- 
mark, "Vour brothers were so different; they 
always came to school well preparerl." If I 
made any serious mistakes, especially in 
arithmetic, I would hear the same song: 
"Vour brothers would never have missed 
such a question. " Thus I often felt that after 
all it was not all pleasure to have older 
brothers. This feeling was intensified by 



those brothers themselves, who never tired 
of correcting me. On one occasion I thought- 
lessly knocked all the bird-seed flowers in 
my teacher's garden oflf their stems. Two of 
my older brothers saw it and forthwith took 
me by force into tlie presence of the teacher. 
It is superfluous to add that they almost had 
to carry me. The teacher inquired what was 
the matter? ]\Iy brothers replied I was the 
culjirit and that I had to say myself what I 
had done. Thus I was forced to tell on my- 
self, whereupon the teacher simply remarked 
that I should me more thoughtful in future. 
On another occasion, during catechism hour, 
the priest spoke about stealing, and how ter- 
rible a thing it was to be a tliief. 1 felt in- 
nocent ami listened with tiie greatest atten- 
tion, when he suddenly turned towards me, 
and full of indignation, said: "You need not 
look so innocent, you are the thief; you stole 
some grapes in your neighbor's yard. A 
brother of yours told me about it, and you 
.should thank God for having such a good 
brother." I never had realized before that 
taking some grapes or fruit was a theft, and 
although I then began to understand it, I 
nevertheless felt far from being tliankful 
to my brotlier for reporting nie. On another 
occasion tlie same brother got me into some 
trouble when I imagined he was keeping me 
out of it. 

(7"() be conliinicd) 



.♦^-.-.- 



The Franciscans in the U. S. 

According to St. Antony's Almanac 
for 1920 the follo\vii\^ provinces or 
qnasi-i)rovincc.s of the Franciscan Or- 
der now exi.'^t in the U. S. : 

Province of St. John the Baptist ; 
head(inarters. 1615 Vine Str., Cincin- 
nati, O. 

I'rovince of the Sacred Heart of 
Je.sns; head([uartcrs, 3140 Meraniec 
Str., St. Louis, Mo. 

Province of Santa Barbara ; head- 
(|uarters, 133 (lolden Gate Ave., San 
I'rancisco, Cal. 

I'rovincc of the Most Holy Name; 
heacUiuarters, 135 W. 31st Str., New 
^'ork City. 

Province of the Immaculate Con- 
ception (Italian) ; headcjuarters, 151 
Thompson .Str., New York City. 

Commissariat of the Assumi)tion of 
the l'>l. Virjfin (Polish); head(juarters, 
Pulaski, Wis. 

Commissariat of the Holy Cross 
(Slovenian and Croatian); headquar- 
ters. 62 St. Mark's Place, New York 
Citv. 



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Notes on Secret Societies 

White Rats of America 

A national organization of vaudeville 
actors and actresses, established in New 
York, 1900. Information wanted. 

N. Y. Sun, Aug. 1, 1915. 

Grand Nest of the Blue Goose 

An international organization of in- 
surance men, founded in 1906. Its 
branches are called "ponds." Its chief 
officer goes by the name of "Most Loyal 
Grand Gander.'' Others enjoy such 
titles as : "Grand Custodian of Gos- 
lings," "Grand Guardian of the Nest," 
"Grand Keeper of the Golden Goose 
Egg," etc. Information wanted. 

Chicago Herald, Oct. 6, 1915. 

Modern Brotherhood of America 

The JModern Brotherhood of Amer- 
ica, whose headquarters are at Mason 
City, la., was organized as a fraternal 
beneficiary society, /\pril 5, 1897. It 
claimed over 170,000 members in 1913. 
Its propaganda literature says nothing 
about secret or ritual features. Infor- 
mation wanted. This order is not iden- 
tical with the 

Brotherhood of the Union, 
organized in 1850 as a "patriotic native 
American secret society" of the stamp 
of the United American Mechanics and 
the Patriotic Order of United Sons of 
America (Cycl. Frat., p. 300). Import- 
ant planks in its platform are : antagon- 
ism to union of Church and State. 
maintenance of the public school sys- 
tem, "America for Americans," and 
the restriction of immigration. Its chief 
officers are called, respectively, "Su- 
preme \\'ashington," "Supreme Jeft'er- 
son," "Supreme Franklin." There is an 
auxiliary or branch society known as 
the Home Communion, to which mem- 
bers of the Brotherhood and their 
women relatives are eligible. The 
j^.rotherhood flourishes principally in 
Pennsylvania. Its membership is given 
as about 25.000 bv the Cvcl. Frat.. p. 
300. 

Cycl. of Frat., 2nd ed., pp. 300 sq. 

The Order of Pink Goats 

A new lodge under the above name 
was recently organized in an Eastern 
city, according to the Christian Cyno- 
sure. Its members appear in public in 



pink pajamas and gowns, carrying goats 
of all kinds and descriptions. A Chicago 
man was elected as leader and is known 
as "He Goat." The following are some 
of the titles of the other officers: Little 
White Goat, Chief Bleater Goat, Chief 
Billy Goat, Chief Wise Goat, Goat Get- 
ters, Inner Angora Goats, Bell Goats, 
and Musical Goats. 

Christian Cynosure, Chicago, \'oI. LII, No. 7, 
Nov. 1919. 

Exalted Society of Order Hounds 

"I will go forth into the human wil- 
derness in search of game and diligently 
pursue the paths that lead to prospects, 
taking up every scent that flows on the 
breeze of business and follow each 
hunch to its lair in spite of windfalls 
and weather." 

The foregoing, according to the Chi- 
cago Daily Nezcs of Dec. 29, 1919, is a 
part of the oath of the Exalted Society 
of Order Hounds. The "Home kennel" 
is in Chicago. Twenty-three other cities 
have "kennels" for the "hounds." 

R. G. Stevens, 10031 Long wood 
drive, is the senior watch dog of the 
Chicago kennel. The society also has 
a junior watch dog and an official 
growler. 

The purpose of this society is "to 
promote loyalty and higher ethics in the 
art of salesmanship." 

— George W. Perkins, President of 
the Cigar Makers' International Union, 
writes in the official journal of that 
organization that many of our big busi- 
ness interests, "the cheap-John manu- 
facturers" who are now crying "Amer- 
icanism," did not hesitate a few years 
ago to scour the four corners of the 
earth for cheap labor. Their patriotism 
is. therefore, rightly under suspicion 
when, "with an American flag in one 
hand and their bankroll in the other," 
they agitate for the deportation of the 
very immigrants whom they were so 
eager to secure, without regard to the 
vvclfare of American labor and of 
American institutions. "It is not suffi- 
cient to seek to rid the country of 
anarchism," comments America (No. 
537) ; "we must also exorcise the evil 
spirit of commercialism that begot it " 



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The Preservation of Health 

Brevet Lieut. -Col. F. F. :\IacCabe, 
^J.D., in a volume titled "Human Life 
and How It ^Liv be Prolonged to 120 
Years" (London: Grant Richards), 
sums up his experiences and teachings 
on the subject of longevity in the single 
sentence: "What you like is good for 
you if you take it in moderation." The 
author, however, goes farther than most 
writers by adding that if what is served 
is not reall\- desired it should be re- 
fused. In other words, eating, from 
force of habit, food which is neither 
distasteful nor yet particularly appetiz- 
ing is a mistake. The trouble expended 
is not "worth while." 

It does not. however, follow that a 
man likes everything that is good for 
Inni. Colonel MacCabe quotes the well- 
known dislike of the consumptive for 
fat. and urges that this should be over- 
come. It will pass ofT if efforts to that 
end are made and persisted in. 

The arguments for and against a 
vegetarian diet are dismissed in a few 
lines. Some peculiarly constituted peo- 
ple, it is stated, appear to do well on 
this kind of food, but in general the 
system is not a good one. Vegetarians 
are notoriously short-lived, and suc- 
cumb very quickly to sickness. 

Exjually temperate is the advice given 
in respect to the use and abuse of alco- 
hol. The writer is convinced that wines 
and spirits have their place in a gener- 
ous diet, though he enters a i)lea for 
"little and good" as the manner of us- 
mg them. 

Not less reasonable is the advice ten- 
tiered cfuicerning exercise. There exists 
at present an inclination to overdo this 
as|)ect of health-culture. I>ecause in 
certain in>lances exercise has achieved 
gixxl results it has been advocated as a 
systematized thcrai)eutic measure in 
every kind of disability. Wearisome 
courses of <lrill have been imposed and 
sick njen put {d great ]>hysical and 
mental strain with, in some cases, very 
rletrimenial efT<-cts. Colonel .MacCabe 
tjrclares : 

"These exercises, by their utter mon- 
c>loiiy. iK'canie the most hated i)art of 
tl-f soldier's daily life, and to the mcd 
iral nfficvr who was keen on helj)iiig to 



get his men lit they became the greatest 
danger he had to contend with. The 
weaklings and those who had gone 
through some illness, especially the 
genuine trench fever, no sooner were 
put on physical training than they de- 
veloped disordered action of the heart 
or quick heart in a form which was 
exceedingly difficult to cure." 

Great stress is laid upon the fact that 
while most animals live normally live 
times longer than the period devoted to 
their growth, man as a rule only lives 
three times longer — taking twenty-five 
years as the period of his growth. It 
is contended that intoxication from the 
large intestine is the cause of this fail- 
ure to enjoy prolonged life — a view al- 
ready expounded by Sir Arbuthnot 
Lane. Col. AlacCabe accepts Lane's 
idea of auto-intoxication and urges the 
necessity of preventing this disaster by 
regulated habits and snital)le diet and 
exercise. 



Getting Rid of the "War Mind'' 

The N. Y. Evcuinij Post thinks it 
will be a long and arduous task to get 
rid of the war mind. No doubt about 
that! The grosser manifestations of 
the "war mind" we may soon be able 
to put behind our backs. Our soldiers 
came home sick of fighting. They want 
no more of it. Nothing but dire neces- 
sity would drive them again into the 
foul shambles which modern warfare 
has made out of the old pomp and cir- 
cum.stance. For a generation, at least, 
there will be no lusting for more war. 

But the subtler things will be more 
difficult to clear out of our minds. The 
belief in force as the one sure ])olitical 
and social solvent ; the holding light of 
the rights of the individual ; the com- 
fortable view that ".superior orders" 
will suffice for every crisis ; the blind 
acceptance of government action as 
wise and efficient ; the ])rogressive har- 
dening of our sympathies, grown cal- 
lous in a kind oi self-protection against 
the heaped-up miseries and the un])un- 
ished crimes that we have had to wit- 
ness — here are ])ieces of mental fur- 
niture left on our hands by the war 
which it will take a vigorous house- 
cleaning to get rid of. 



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A Little More Piety 

In matters pertaining to their religion 
many Catholics are satisfied with the 
minimum. When they are present at 
mass on Sundays, receive the sacra- 
ments three or four times a year, 
abstain from meat on Fridays, and ob- 
serve the commands of the Church in 
a general way, they feel that no reason- 
able man could expect more of them. 
Such Catholics frequently hear pastors 
urge them to greater ettorts. They are 
asked to come to mass on week days ; 
tliey are told to attend special services 
on Sunday afternoons or on some even- 
ing of the week; the fruitful devotion 
of the rosary is explained, and the c[ues- 
tion put to them, why not make it a 
daily family prayer, or why not say it 
privately at least several times each 
week ? The suggestion is made that they 
receive holy communion daily, or at 
least every Sunday ; forceful sermons 
are preached on the lonely "Prisoner 
of love" in our churches, and on the 
immense prolits to be gained by mak- 
ing daily visits to the Blessed Sacra- 
ment. These, as well as other exercises 
of piety, are placed before the faithful 
in season and out of season, but the 
res]^onse is not as cordial as the sug- 
gestions merit. 

Every man whose faith is not dead, 
n^.ust see the soundness of the authority 
on which these good works rest, and 
that those who practice them derive un- 
told benefit. Why, then, do so many turn 
a deaf ear to the exhortations? Ls it 
because they can overthrow the argu- 
ments in favor of these good works? 
Or is it because they cannot see the 
good eflfects produced in those who 
practice them? No, not that. They 
dismiss the whole subject with the 
hackneyed claptrap : 'Those things are 
good, but I have no time." 

One eflfective way to disillusion sucli 
people, is to put the question of time 
before them in this concrete way. Al- 
niightv God gives to every man twenty- 
f(nn- hours every day. Wealth or pov- 
erty, genius or stupidity, strength or 
weakness, ability or incompetence, suc- 
cess or failure, these things do not 
change om- daily supply of time. We 



can waste hours of our time to-day, and 
lo ! when we wake up tomorrow, once 
more twenty-four golden hours are be- 
fore us. if we were asked what we do 
with all these hours every day, if we 
were compelled every month to render 
an account of our stewardship of the 
hours ( iod gives us, what would be our 
record? Unfortunately we keep no such 
records, and as a result we know noth- 
ing of the minutes and the hours we 
fritter away, and thus miss opportuni- 
ties to do the things we intend to do. 
"when we get a little more time." 

What do we do with this wealth of 
time? in the following schedule the 
average man will find liis answer, and 
the average woman too. Work, 10 hours 
a day ; sleep, 8 hours ; eating, 1 hour ; 
reading daily papers, 1 hour; washing, 
shaving, and dressing, 1 hour ; gossip- 
ing, 1 hour. Thus we account for 
twenty-two hours of our day; there are 
still two hours left, — what do we do 
with those two hours? Add to this 
about fifteen hours of luxurious ease on 
-Sundays and holidays, and then, with 
these inexorable facts before us, do we 
still persist in using the brainless argu- 
ment. "I have no time for works of 
piety." 

Countless thousands are employing 
their spare time in improving them- 
selves. They devote their evenings to 
a correspondence course, they attend 
night schools, or they take up a line of 
work apart from their daily toil, and 
I)-.- employing their time well, advance 
their temporal interests. If men and 
women make such sacrifices for the 
fleeting things of this world, should not 
the Christian put forth greater efforts 
to employ his time for the things that 
are eternal ? 

There is another advantage in regard 
to time thus spent that must not be 
overlooked. If we are generous to God 
with our time in this world, we need 
r.ot wait for our reward until we enter 
life everlasting. Ask the man who does 
more for his" soul than the law requires: 
ask him who hears mass and receives 
holy communion every day ; ask him 
who makes daily visits to the Rlesse(i 
Sacrament or savs the rosary every day ; 



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THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 15 



ask him who spends one of his twenty- 
four hours reading a good religious or 
thought-provoking book — ask these men 
if their works of piety cause them in 
any way to neglect their other duties. 
The busiest men in the world are gen- 
erous towards God with their time and 
God's blessing is with them. His reward 
to them begins even in this life. Make 
a test case yourself, give these good 
works a fair trial and await the results. 
(Rev.) X. J. Lextz 



The Divine Right of Kings a Protes- 
tant Doctrine 

"The Political Works of James I" 
are being edited by Mr. C. H. Mcllwain 
(Harvard University Press). In dis- 
cussing the first volume the London 
Times savs in its Literarv Supplement 
( Xo. 918) : 

"The disruption of [the Holy Roman] 
Empire and papacy paved the way for 
the irresponsible national king. The 
League of Xations is correcting, if not 
undoing, to-day the ultra-patriotic work 
of the sixteenth century ; and an inge- 
nious paradox might be framed out of a 
comparison between the pre-eminence 
of President \\'ilson and the primacy of 
a medieval Pope." 

The divine right of kings was indeed 
a Protestant doctrine ; and "only the 
temporary advantage of accidental cir- 
cumstance led Catholics to toy with the 
idea in Mary Stuart's time. For it de- 
prived the papacy of a large sphere of 
its jurisdiction : and if it made the King 
irresponsible to his peoj)le, it also made 
him irresponsible to the Pope. Xot only 
was James Ps theory not accepted by 
the Roman Catholic Church, but the 
doctrine of divine ordination was sub- 
jected to revision in a popular direction ; 
and Cardinal P.ellarmine exjilained that 
the sanction did not jjroceed directly 
from f jod. but f»nly through the mefliufn 
of the people's choice and consent. This 
wa.s the view of the Catholic League in 
Paris, which in its rcsistcncc to Henry 
IV, in 1590. anticipated many of the 
features of the French Revolution of 
1789; and the common opposition of 
l»oiK's and peojjles to royal autocracy 
fjavcd the way in time for Roman C alh- 
olic democracv." 



A New Translation of Virgil 

Two of the latest volumes of the 
Loeb Classical Library furnish the text, 
with a new translation, of Virgil's 
Eclogues and Georgics, and the Aeneid. 
The translation is by Professor Fair- 
clough. The Professor has a knack of 
using fine words, but he lacks the sense 
of rhytni, and his version is unequal. 
He might have learnt something from 
his predecessors. Dr. Mackail, for in- 
stance, and Conington, whose little 
known prose version is distinguished 
for its good sense and knowedge of 
English as well as classical scholarship. 

There are passages where it is well 
not to embroider, difficult as it may 
seem to render a sublime vagueness. 
Take the famous "Sunt lacrymae rerum 
ei mentem mortalia tangunt." We agree 
with the Professor that the first half 
of the line means, "There are tears for 
misfortunes," — "rerum" being an echo 
of "adflictis rebus" a few lines back; 
but for the rest of it he translates : 
"And mortal sorrows touch the heart," 
which is overdoing "mortalia." Why 
not render, "and hearts that are touched 
bv mortality." This is a case in which 
English can preserve the vagueness of 
the original, for "mortality" is en- 
slirined in English poetry. 

Just before this famous passage Virgil 
uses "laus" in the sense of a deed that 
wins honor. Dr. Fairclough renders it 
"virtue," a word which now-a-days 
smacks of Mrs. Grundy. We should 
prefer "worth" or "honor." There are 
some successful attempts to reproduce 
alliteratifMi, as in "ferreus ingruit im- 
ber," rendered, "the iron rain falls 
fast." 

How far Prof. F""airclough has used 
previous versions we do not know ; a 
clear statement on the point would have 
been advisable. We notice some echoes, 
but these may be fortuitous. There is 
a subtle sort of conciseness in Virgil 
which is difficult for the unfortunate 
translator. Virgil says that Rhipeus 
fell, the justest of the Trojans and the 
most righteous, adding the comment, 
"Dis aliter visum." Is "Heaven's will 
was otherwise." an intelligible version 
of this phrase? It suggests that Heaven 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



61 



did not intend him to fall. What Virgil 
means is, one would think, that his piety 
would have saved such a man, but 
Heaven willed otherwise. Something 
like "Heaven's ways are not as ours," 
seems necessary to convey this. 

We note with pleasure that the Vir- 
gilian Appendix of poems has been in- 
cluded, which many scholars treat with 
the ruthlessness of the fashionable sur- 
geon. The little biography will show 
the scholar where to go for views — 
largely conjectures — concerning the 
authorship of these poems. They show 
pedantry, immaturity, or clumsiness, 
and at best a charm worthy of Virgil. 

Generally Prof. Fairclough gives a 
gviide to the best comments on Virgil, 
including some choice essays, but he has 
missed Skutsch's work on Virgil's early 
years, which, though partly anticipated 
by English scholars, is fresh and vigor- 
ous. In matters of text, the Loeb vol- 
umes are excellent, giving the readings 
of the MSS. in a brief and easily intel- 
ligible form. They will revive, perhaps, 
a love of Virgil in some who have half 
forgotten their classics. 



NOTES AND GLEANINGS 

— The only real danger to American 
institutions, in the opinion of Mr. Edw. 
T. Devine, writing in the Survey (Vol. 
43, No. 9), lies in the policy of sup- 
pression and in the assumption that by 
preventing overt seditious acts we are 
removing or lessening the danger from 
seditious unrest. "Let truth and false- 
hood grapple," said Milton ; "who ever 
knew the truth put to the worse in a free 
and open encounter? Her confuting is 
the best and surest suppressing." 

— The Catholic Universitv BuUciin 
(Vol. XXV'. No. 9) calls attention to 
the fact that Father Delehaye and his 
heroic colaborers are about to resurrect 
the Analccta Bollandiana, which was 
forced to suspend publication in 1914. 
Ihe Carnegie Institution is interesting 
itself in the matter, and Bishop Shahan 
has written a letter to Dr. Jameson, of 
that Institution, in which he says that 
the Analccta "ought to be in the library 
of everv Catholic house of studies, 



seminary, or novitiate, and in the libra- 
ry of every student interested in the 
history of the good men and women 
who have for so many centuries tried 
to follow in the footsteps of the Divine 
Master." The Analccta is the workshop 
in which are prepared the materials for 
the Acta Sanctorum, that great opus in 
sixty odd folios, which was started 
three hundred years ago and is still un- 
finished. We hope the Bollandist re- 
view will secure a large number of sub- 
scriptions in this country. 



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surrounded by forest on all sides ; health- 
ful spring water. The place is a favorite 
excursion point for the people of Salz- 
burg. For sale cheap. Address : St. Peter, 
Salzburg Stadt, German Austria, Europe. 



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By Jeremiah A. O'Leary 

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A .sensational stoiy of the Political Experien- 
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for destruction by the powerful influences of the 
British propaganda. 

How the Biitish propaganda was foiled. 

"Q. Well now, then, you have committed per- 
jury, you know that, don't you? A. Yes, sir. 

Q. You know you were testifying falsely? 

A. Yes, I did. ..." 

(From the testimony of Madame Gonzales 
under cross-examination. Quoted oiit of the 
mouth of a main witness for the government 1. 
Page 290 of the Book. 



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«2 



THIi: FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 15 



_— '^"li^ Kiiglisli Catholic Times (Xo. 
2727). after explaining how Mr. Wil- 
son could have brought about a peace 
of international justice and good will, 
says that he unfortunately failed to be 
true to his own ideals. "He is now one 
of the 'might-have-beens.' The Four- 
teen Points, accepted as the basis of 
negotiation, became a 'scrap of paper.' 
'Ihe Treaty of Peace was drafted on 
the lines of hatred and revenge. The 
j)rinciple of nationalities was disregard- 
ed, and the new map of Europe was 
tlrawn — as it had been drawn at \'ienna 
a century ago — without regard to na- 
tional rights, and on the old principle 
of the balance of power, a balance so 
badly adjusted, too. that it threw all the 
efVective weight into the scales of the 
victors." It is encouraging to note that 
our English Catholic brethren see the 
truth and are not afraid to utter it. 
I'rder the leadership of Benedict X\' 
it will become a prime duty of the Cath- 
olics of the Allied nations to see to it 
that a just peace takes the place of the 
treaty of hate and revenge imposed at 
\'er.sailles. 

—The Missionary ( \'ol. XXXIII, 
Xo. 1 ). says that while pro-Germanism, 
in the sense of political allegiance to 
r.ermany. is incompatible with Ameri- 
canism. pro-Germanism in the sense of 
sympathy for (Jermans and Gcrmanv. 
in so far as they have been maligned or 
otherwise wronged, is "a laudable 
quality of honest and intelligent men' 
and *'no more reprehensible than svm- 
pathy for Englishmen and England or 
f'"r«iichmen and I'rancc in anv wrongs 
they may have sutTered. Every citizen 
has the right to his convictions on any 
matter that does not affect his allegiance 
tr» his own country. W'e should be 
a'«hamed of ourselves if we were not 
moved by the suflFerings of the poor in 
fiermany, as we are moved by the suf- 
ferings of the fatherless children of 
France. Catholic hearts are unwortbv 
ot their name if they circumscribe their 
sympathy by national ties." 

— To Americanize the foreigners is 
^''h^kI ; it may spare .\merica many un- 
pleasant exjieriences. liut who will 
h;»vc us from the menace f)f the Moloch 



of "birth-control"? "Who," in the 
words of the Catholic Transcnf>t 
(XXIII. 27), "will so far humanize 
the men and women of the period that 
they will refuse to smile as they behold 
their children quartered, not indeed by 
the dogs of war, but by the demon 
whost thirst for human blood called 
for the divine reprobation long before 
.\merica was discovered and before 
there was any thought of the ravages 
of Bolshevism? Let us not spend all 
our force in hghting the little demons, 
sutfering the great unchained dragon 
to move around at will." 

— The Builder, a monthly magazine 
published by the Masonic Research So- 
ciety at Anamosa. la., in its January 
number, prints an interesting paper on 
"Theodore Roosevelt, Master Mason." 
Roosevelt was initiated in Matinecock 
Lodge, No. 806, F. & A. M., at Oyster 
Bay, X\ Y.. Jan. 2, 1901, while governor 
of New York, and remained a Mason 
till death. He repeatedly declared that 
what had attracted him to Masonry 
was the fact that "Masonry affords an 
opportunity for men in all walks of life 
to meet on common ground." It is now 
officially certified that when, as Presi- 
dent of the U. S., Roosevelt was in- 
vested with the Masonic apron at 
W^ashington, in 1907, "a gust of wind 
lifted the presidential coat-tails, reveal- 
ing a healthy pistol on each hip." Did 
Roosevelt distrust his Masonic breth- 
ren? One thing is certain, it was not 
necessary for him to join the Freema- 
.sons in order to find an opportunity to 
meet men in all walks of life on com- 
mon ground. 

•-•-<•-•-• 

Litei'aiy Briofs 



- -The first volume of tlu' lale Harou Georg 
voii Mertlinn's "ICrinncruiiKfii aus nieinem 
Kcl)en" has appeared (Jf>s. I\(')sel, Kempten, 
I'avaria), and we see from the Litcrarischcr 
llaudwciscr (LV, lo) that it deals with 1 lert- 
iipi{'s youth and Iiis early years as prii'at- 
(iocrtit in I'lonn. y\s such he refused to sIrh 
llie famous letter of protest against tlie 
d( finitioM f)f the (lo)j;ma of papal infallihilily, 
for which couraj^eous art he was made to 
sr.ffer hy the F'rnssian Kovernment. Tliis I'lrst 
volume of the HcrtlinR memoirs carries liis 
life-story up to Ihe estahlishment of the 



1920 



TH1£ FORTNIGHTLV REv'lliW 



63 



faiDOiis Gofi-res Society and the author's 
election to the Reiclistag. Two more volumes 
;ire to follow. Meanwhile a son of the au- 
liior, Rittmeister Graf von Hertling, has 
published "I'-in Jahr in der Reichskanzlei : 
Krinnerungen an die Kanzlersrhaft meiiics 
Vaters" (Herder, Freiburg). 

— "Man's Greatest Concern : The Manage- 
ment of Life," by the Rev. Ernest R. Hull, 
S.J., is a catechism of natural ethics, reduced 
to its clearest and most concise terms. As 
such it will be an invaluable guide for all — 
teachers in particular — who have not liad the 
benefit of a formal course in this highly im- 
portant branch of philosophy. The booklet 
was gotten out by its scholarly author for 
use in the schools of India, where non-Cath- 
olic and even non-Christian pupils are fre- 
quently entrusted to Catholic teachers with 
ilie understanding that their religious beliefs 
are to be respected. It would be a blessing 
if our pui)lic-school teachers were permitted 
to impart its doctrine to their pupils who are 
so sadly wanting in solid moral teaching. 
Tlie little book is likewise well adapted to 
prepare the work of religious conversion in 
the hearts of well-meaning non-Catholics. 
( B. Herder Book Co.; 35 cts.) 

— The I.itcrarischcr Handivciser, Ger- 
many's Catliolic Book Notes, founded fifty- 
live years ago by Msgr. Franz Hiilskamp and 
Dr. Herman Rump, and edited first by the 
former and latterly by Edmund Niesert, de- 
ceased, has passed into the control of the 
Herdersche Verlagshandlung, of Freiburg, 
and experienced a revival under the able 
di'.ection of Professor Ernst M. Roloflf. We 
liave recently had an opportunity to peruse 
tlie eleven monthly issues from January to 
November, 1919, and were delighted not only 
by the ability with which the Handiveiscr is 
now conducted, but also by the richness of 
Catholic literary production in after-war 
Germany. Even in the present deplorable 
condition of that country the output of Cath- 
olic books of real worth is superior to that 
of Great Britain and. America combined. 
Xo doubt, as Germany recovers from the 
ravages of the war. Catholic literature there 
will enter upon a period of unparalleled de- 
velopment. Those who wish to follow this 
de\elopment can do nothing better than 
subscribe for the I.iterarischer Haiidzvciser 
through the B. Herder Book Co., of St. Louis. 
— To help towards a better understanding 
of the devotion to the Sacred Heart, few 
l)Ooks will be found more profitable than the 
account of its origin and early development 
in the life of Blessed Margaret Mary Ala- 
coque. Hence the new life of this servant 
of God, from the pen of Sister Mary Philip, 
of the Bar Convent. York, should be wel- 
comed by all who have the spread of the 
devotion at heart. ("Life of Bl. Margaret 
Mary Alacoque" ; B. Herder. $1.80 net). The 
tuial chapter of the book gives a brief ac- 
count of the rapidly spreading work of tlie 
so-called "Enthronement" of the Sacred 
TTeart in families and a noteworthy pro- 



nouncement on this special form oi the devo- 
tion from Cardinal Billot. 

— The Catholic Truth Society (London) 
has been keeping up, even during tiie strenu 
ous days of war, its good work of enlighten- 
ing those in darkness. Li fact, it has entered 
upon a new field of activity, for it has 
launched a series of stories of the conversion 
of Jews to the Catholic faith. Two numbers 
of this series — "The Conversion of Isidore 
Goschler" and "Tiie Conversion of Jules 
Lewel" — are now^ before us. They will make 
excellent reading for Jewisii friends who are 
interested in the claims of the Catholic 
Churcli. The Society also sends us two up- 
to-date pamphlets of its apologetic series — 
"Religion" by Rev. R. Traill, and "The Will 
t.) Believe" by B. Gavan Duffy, S.J. 



Books Received 

Phases of Irish History. By Eoin MacXeill, Profes- 
sor of .\ncieiit History in the National University 
of Ireland. 364 pp. 8vo. Dublin: M. H. Gill & 
Son, Ltd.; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder Book Co. 
1919. $4.50 net. 

Women of 'Ninctv-Eight. By Mrs. Thomas Concan- 
non, M. A. xvi & 326 pp. 12mo. Gill and B. 
Herder Book Co. 1919. $2.25 net. 

A Short History of Slavery in America. By Ben- 
jamin M. Read. Reprint from the Fortnightly 
Review. St. Louis, Mo. 7 pp. 8vo. Santa Fe, N. M.: 
P.enj. M. Read. (Wrapper). 

Souvenir of the Golden Jubilee of the Third Order 
of St. Francis, St. Francis of Assisi Church. 
Milwaukee, Wis., Dec. 28 and SQ, 1919. No pagina- 
tion. Illustrated. (Wrapper). 

The Journey Home. By the Rev. Raymond Law- 
rence. 107 pp. 16mo. The Ave Maria, Notre 
Dame, Ind. (Wrapper). 

Ill A Mediaeval Library. A Study in Pre-Reforma- 
tion Religious Literature. By Gertrude Robinson. 
X & 243 pp. 12mo. London and Edinburgh: Sands 
&• Co.; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder Book Co. 1919. 
$1.50 net. 



Enclose a Postage Stamp to 

Joseph Berning 

212-214 East 8th St. Cincinnati, Ohio 

For a list of Approved Plays 
for the Catholiq Stage 

These plays have been successfully iiroduced from 
coast to coast in Catholic schools, colleges and 
academies, and hive been strongly endorsed by clergy 
and eachers for their instructive value and entertain 
ing features. 



FOREIGN MISSIONS 

The Missionary Sisters, Servants of the Iloly 
Ghost are a Congregation working primarily in 
the foreign missions. The Mother House is the 
Holy Ghost Institute at Techny, 111. Here the 
jiostulants and novices receive their training 
for their future work. Ask for our "Vocation 
Leaflets and Booklets" representing scenes from 
the life of a Mission Sister. Any number will 
be sent upon request, free of charge. Address 
Mother Provincial, Holy Ghost Institute, 
Techny. 111. — 



64 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 

Can You Talk to the Dead? 



February 15 



"It uill be of the greatest value to Conjessors, Doctors, Lawtjers — 

and to all men and icomen tvlio prefer sanitif oj thought 

— a}ul action.'''' 

Spiritism and Religion 

Can You Talk to the Dead ? 

By Baron Johan Lil jencrants, A.M., S. T. D. 

With Foreword by Dr. Maurice Francis Egan 

and 

Foreword Appreciations by Cardinal Gibbons and John A. Ryan, D. D. 
the well-known Sociologist 



No matterwhat our religion, our uiinds 
have been confronted daily with the 
awful yet wonderful and thrilling pres- 
ence of the Hereafter. No one can es- 
cape the thought of it, the fact of it ; nor 
can any one escape the relentless ques- 
tioning that it forces upon every mind 
capable of even momentary thought. 

This book on Spiritism is scholarly; 
it is scientific; it is sound in its think- 
ing. I consider it a real advance in the 
literature of Spiritism 

J. C.\RD. Gibbons 



Spiritism and Religion is beyond 
doubt the best book on that subject in 
the Knglish language. In its clear and 
comprehensive account of the phenom- 
ena and practices of Spiritism, its con- 
cise presentation of the opinions of 
authorities in this field, and its keen 
analysis and criticism of both phenom- 
ena and authorities, it is easily without 
a rival. It is scientific without being 
dry, and its conclusions will not easily 
be overthrown. 

John A. Ryan, D.D., 

Professor of Sociology. 
Catholic Uiiiveisily of Atueiica, 
Washington, 1). C. 



Reallfi as interesting a.s a high-class novel, it should be used jor 
supplementary reading in all Academies and Colleges, Jor it is chiefly 
the educated classes who are now wasting time, mind, money and 
character, flocking to awl enriching mediums, not one oJ tvhom can 
possibly tell thctii or you half as much that is both satisfying and 
assuring as will be found in SPIRITISM AND RELIGION — 
CAN YOU TALK TO THE DEADf 

!*ii('<' jf:;.()() |K)stpai<l at Bookstores or 



THE DEVIN-ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 



425 Flitb Avenue 



New York, D. S. A. 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOIv. XXVII, NO. 5 



ST. IvOUIS, MISSOURI 



March 1, 1920 



British War Legends 

To the war legends recounted in M. 
Albert Dauzat's book, "Legendes, Pro- 
ph^ties et Superstitions de la Guerre," 
of which we gave a brief survey in our 
No. 22 (1919), a reviewer of Dauzat's 
book in the Literary Supplement of the 
London Times (No. 913) adds a num- 
ber of others which originated in the 
British army. 

In 1917, a sergeant-major gave a run- 
ner a note to take up to the front line, 
with the command to hurry, as the in- 
formation contained in the "chit" was 
that the Germans were sending over 
gas at midnight. The runner naturally 
told the news to every one he met, and 
when he arrived perspiring at his desti- 
nation was not a little crestfallen to find 
himself reprimanded for spreading a 
false alarm, as the gas was to be sent 
over by the British ! 

In December, 1916, a private in the 
Bed fords asserted with many solemn 
oaths that a Canadian told him that the 
Canadian Corps had taken Lens and 
10,000 prisoners. No such action had 
taken place, and unless the story was a 
perversion of a big raid, it must have 
been pure invention. 

But private soldiers were not the only 
sinners. Wild stories of huge victories 
in. the north were circulated among the 
retreating troops on the Somme in 
March, 1918, some on the authority of 
"Division." 

Less tragic than these is the rumor 
which was known as "the wind-up of 
the Boche batman." The story (offi- 
cially sent in typewritten sheets from 
"Brigade"), was that the batman of a 
German colonel had stated that a great 
attack had been discussed by several 
commanders while he was waiting at 
table. This attack was to come off on a 
certain date, at night, on a front 
stretching from Arras to Ypres, and was 
to be preceded by an artillery prepara- 
tion of terrific intensity. The joy of the 



frontline troops when they received this 
information with the intimation that the 
"higher command" thought it extremely 
likely that the information was correct 
and the order that positions were to be 
held "at all costs," can be imagined. 
But the attack did not take place until 
about three weeks later on the Chemin 
des Dames against the French. 

"The number of these legends was 
very large," concludes the Times re- 
viewer, "and their multiplicity of detail 
and longevity call forth the deepest ad- 
miration for the imagination of those 
who conceived them and those who em- 
bellished them." We should substitute 
another word for "admiration." 



Missouri's Literary Fame 

The Tzvilight Hour slangily informs 
its readers that a short time ago Mis- 
souri awoke to find itself at the literary 
pinnacle : 

"At that time the highest literary 
honors America can confer were held 
by Missourians. Winston Churchill was 
president of the Author's League of 
\merica, Augustus Thomas was presi- 
dent of the American Society of Dra- 
matists and also of the National Art 
Institute." Rupert Hughes was reputed 
to be more in demand with magazine 
editors — and therefore making more 
of the stuff' we all despise and fight for 
— than any other American writer. 
Fannie Hurst was producing stuff 
which not only captured the public but 
was hailed by the realists as marking 
a new era in American literature. And 
Sara Teasdale was knocking 'em cold 
in the poetry world every time she came 
to bat." 

This takes no account of past glories 
like Mark Twain and Eugene Field ; of 
tlie (happily) unique product, George 
Creel ; or of ]\Irs. Curran's ouija board 
that squeaks out millions of words a 
year. 



66 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



Anointed of God 

O-ines read on the occasion of a yonng 

priest's ordination) 

By Charles J. Quirk. SJ. 

St. Charles College, Grand Coteau, La. 

The gates of waiting stormed and overpast. 
Sin's dragons conquered that besieged the 

way. 
This golden Morn presages perfect day, 
Tliis climax of long years attained at last. 

I 
A living miracle art thou of God, 
Vcsteil with love and with love's hcauty 

shod : 
What godly power of awful sovereignty 
Is thine as priest to wiold immortally. 

II 

For at thy word tlic marvelous is done. 
More wonder ful.tlian hindering of tlie sun. 
Conquered and stayed, by Josue's prayer con 

troll'd. 
Adown its royal steps of beatened gold. 

IH 
Xot once, but daily at tliy call, thy nod. 
Shall wlieat and wine imprison Christ, thy 

God : 
His blinding splendor lurk amid the bread. 
Loving and meek, of all its terror shed. 

IV 
May in thy gaze we glimpse Christ's love 

divine. 
And on thy heart's Higli Altar ever shine 
To blaze in glory on thy priestly lips 
Wiien thou wouldst speak of God's Apoc- 
alypse. 

V 
Not only may thy hands impalace Christ. 
Who at thy bidding keeps His loving tryst, 
PiUt may they l)e forever swift to bless 
.\nd help Sin's weary outcasts in distress. 

VI 
Yea, all the world should know tliy life is 

one 
With Christ, a holocaust eacii day l)egun. 
So it may say: what wondrous lover tliis, 
Dying to self to win Love's perfect bliss. 

—- ^H-. 

Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 
By the Rev. Joh.v Ei;cknk Weibei., V.F. 

iSciOtid Iiisltilhiidil ) 
I was often forgetful and careless about 
my home tasks. Once, ow a Monday morn- 
ing, when we had. amon^ oilier lumic tasks, 
a composition t'^> bring to srluiol, 1 did not 
think of it until ready to start for scliool. 
Sitting down at the forn of the staircase, I 
quickly wrote something, Wlien I was about 
through, my brf>thcr told me that he had a 
me*saKc for my teacher, and. as I might for- 
get it, or not rcjKjrt it correctly, he tliou^lit 



ii best just to write it at the bottom of my 
composition. He wrote it with red ink, wliich 
did not please me. because, although I gen- 
erally wrote my compositions in a hurry, I 
nevertheless always tried to have the com- 
position look clean and tidy, and that red 
ink seemed to me to disturb the uniformity. 
However, knowing iiow negligently 1 had 
made my composition. I thought that the 
teacher woukl probably read more carefully 
those interesting remarks of my brother's, 
and theti ho might forget to examine my 
ci.mposition. Those remarks were written in 
French, and at that time I had had no in- 
struction in that language. How surprised 
was I when the teacher told me that I never 
had had a book in my hands all Sunday; that 
1 had written tiiat composition on my way 
gC'ing to school, sitting at the foot of the 
staircase, and that my good brother had in- 
formeil him about my carelessness in those 
notes. Naturally. I determined never more 
tJ allow any one to write anything in my 
composition book, especially in an unknown 
tongue. 

It may be that T iiad more liberty at lionie 
than my older brothers used to enjoy. How- 
ever, tiiey never forgot to remind me of it. 
I was accustomed to hear, "If we had done 
such and such a thing, we would certainly 
have been punished." At a safe distance, 1 
dared to answer, and would make remarks 
like this. "It is a wonder that you are not 
saints, having been raised so carefully." I 
used to imagine that they had had an easier 
time tlian I. because they had no older broth- 
ers to boss them. However, when I behaved 
well, they were very kind to me, and they 
certainly always meant for the best. 

As already mentioned, there is in my home 
town a Cistercian abljey of nuns, strictly 
cloistered. I had a very good soprano voice 
and had to sing in church. One of the nuns 
gave me vocal lessons and thus I became 
acquainted with a number of the religious. 
Although they had no schools, no academy, 
no institution of any kind, but were abso- 
lutely contemplative, those ladies were highly 
educated and had also a good knowledge of 
Latin. I owe tliem a debt of gratitude which 
I can never pay. One of them, a great artist, 
took special interest in my drawing. Even 
before going to school I could make the 
firawings for my brothers who were attend- 
ing school, and I dcliglited in making por- 
traits of people. They were not very artistic, 
but generally lifelike enough tiiat the per- 
.sons could be recf)gnized. Tiiat niin gave me 
instructions in drawing and painting. I was 
so fond of drawing that almost all my leisure 
time, wiien not at play, was spent in drawing 
antl painting, b'or sever.il years I intended 
t.) bccf)me an art'st ; even in later years, 
when I was a theologieal .student, I was .still 
drawing under the guidance of a famous 
painter. Rev. Rudolph lUattler. Later T made 
use of my art in tlie monastery, and also be- 
came professor of drawing. As a missionary 
tin- knowledge of drawing lielpcd me greatly 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIP:\V 



67 



in making designs and plans for churches 
and schools. 

My father had a blacksmith and wagon 
shop. The wagons had to be painted. When 
still a small boy, I liked to paint decorations 
on them, like flowers or small figures rep- 
resenting farmers. I could not understand 
why some farmers protested against those 
decorations while others were delighted with 
them. I also liked music, but never lost 
much time in practising. Although I was 
liked everywhere as a singer, I never took 
half as much interest in music as in drawing 
and painting. Nevertheless, I tried all kinds 
of instruments. I never bought an instru- 
mtnt. Our kind neighbors, who imagined I 
ought to become a great musician, provided 
me with them. One gave me a clarionet, an- 
other a flute, another an accordion. I do not 
remember who gave me a piano, but I do 
remember that when I got it, I practised a 
few days almost continually, so that my fa- 
ther thought it best to have the instrument 
removed to the attic, fiut playing all alone 
was not half as interesting as practising 
where one could annoy people. Therefore I 
did not practise much after that. I took 
violin lessons for some time from the famous 
parish priest, Xavier Hertzog, of Ballwil, a 
well-known author, whose works the Rev. 
Dr. Hansjakob compared to those of Alban 
Stolz. By the way, a new edition of this 
priest's works is being published in Switzer- 
land, in fifty volumes. 

If I did not make much progress in music 
under him. my visits to Ballwil were never- 
theless not only pleasant, but highly instruc- 
tive. The everlasting good humor of the 
wonderful old priest, reflected in his alma- 
nacs and his other numerous writings, would 
flash out in witty remarks at almost any 
niinute. He was as kind to a child, and 
asked questions and answered them, as if he 
were speaking to the most important person. 
A visit in his home was full of interest. 
Sitting or lying on a bench, he would write 
hi.s almanac or stories. At the same time 
lie would continue his conversation, and it 
often happened that the person talking to 
him would find himself interwoven in the 
story he was just then writing. I often ac- 
companied him on his promenades. Once, 
on our way to Eschenbach, we met a very 
old man, poorly clad. "Jacob," said Father 
Hertzog to him, "go to my house and tell 
my sister to give you a good lunch and 
a glass of wine. I am so glad to see 
you." As we went on, Father Hertzog said, 
"When I was a boy I admired this man, and 
thought him the smartest person in the 
whole world. 1 had more respect for him 
at that time than I have now for a bishop or 
an emperor. I then had pigeons and this 
man had pigeons too. He could make all 
the pigeons come to his stables, which I con- 
sidered the greatest accomplishment in the 
world." 

Naturally, as a boy. I also had rabbits, 
pigeons, and guinea pigs. I kept my hares 



and guinea pigs in small stables and took 
good care of them until I went to high 
school. Then I began to neglect them. My 
father, finding two rabliits dead, and think- 
ing they had died of starvation, gave all the 
other animals to a boy near by, and I re- 
ceived a severe scolding and was forbidden 
to have any more pets. That was a hard 
blow. I imagined I had to iiave rabbits, and 
if I couldn't have them in the stables, I 
would look for anotiier place where noljody 
would ever find it out. Our house had four 
stories, and above the fourth, under the 
steep roof in the garret, was a double room 
for linen and dried fruit. It was mice and 
rat proof, the floor being about two feet 
from the other floor, and the ceilings not 
reaching the roof, so that it was like a build- 
ing apart. Above this room was a great pile 
of discarded windows with small, round, 
leaded glass. By putting them up all around 
against the roof I succeeded in making a 
large loft aliout three feet high. This loft 
was accessible only by a long ladder along 
the chimney. There I put my rabbits, guinea 
pigs, and pigeons. I had to carry the food 
through the whole house up to the garret, 
and to be careful no one would see me, and 
then I had to climb up the ladder along the 
chimney. This had gone on for some time 
when it happened that my father had some 
business in the garret. On his way up the 
stairs two hares met him. He laughed and 
remarked that in future it would be useless 
to go hunting, as long as one could catch 
rabbits in the house. My oldest sister, seeing 
how astonished my father was. and wonder- 
ing how those rabbits came to be there, said, 
•'You had better call John. I noticed him 
for quite a while sneaking up to the garret, 
and it must be he who has those rabbits 
there." Being called, I told the whole story, 
and my father, enjoying the joke, said, 
"Well, if you like those animals so much, 
you may keep them again in the stables." 

My father was very stern, and though he 
v.^as extremely solicitous for every one in the 
household, so that a physician was called 
whenever any one was unwell, and although 
everything was provided for, in eating, 
drinking and clothing, and although he 
punished very rarely, nevertheless we all had 
the greatest respect for him. Even in later 
life we never dared to make free with 
liim. Thus, when I returned as a missionary 
from America, and had been given full lib- 
erty to take money or anything else I needed 
from his bureau. I would not have done it 
for any price. He felt this and complained 
t.T my youngest sister wiho kept house for 
him, that! seemed "so distant." However, 
I could not help it. My brothers felt the 
same way. Even Dr. J. L. Weibel. an older 
brother, who was in the National Council 
and known as a capable lawyer and fearless 
nolitician. felt the same respectful restraint 
in father's presence. As a rule father was 
rather taciturn and read a good deal when 
at home, but he could be very entertaining 



68 



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March 1 



and jolly at times. He was quite witty, and 
on certain occasions, as during the carnival, 
or on some festal celebration, he would 
procure more laugiiter and fun for us than 
we all combined. But he always avoidfd 
anything in the least indelicate or equivocal. 
In that line he knew no toleration, and the 
least infringement or transgression was 
severely censured. With all this he was very 
progressive, and any real improvement with- 
in his reach was welcome. I remember when 
we got the first coal-oil lamp ; it was hanging 
in the dining room and had a large silver 
shade over it. The children at school spoke 
a great deal about it, and said. '"Your father 
always brings in new-fangled things, and the 
whole town may some day be burned up on 
account of him. for these lamps cause ter- 
rible explosirj" But after a while otliers 
bought such li-mps, too. 

Our house being ne.\t to the school, and 
my father being a tall, strong blacksmith, 
whenever the school children became unruly, 
the teacher would say, "If you don't keep 
still I shall get Mr. Weibel ; he will make 
you behave." 

For two years I attended the higii school 
in Rothenburg. We had good and zealous 
teachers, but at that time too many branches 
were taught. I had an idea I knew every- 
thing when I finished school and received 
a fine diploma. In fact, most of the scholars 
seemed to have that same proud feeling, 
and felt that whatever they did not know, 
was hardly worth knowing. 

(To be continued) 
.-.^>*-. 

Catholicism and Rationalism 
Apropos of Sir George Greenwood's 
"Faith of an Agnostic," Father Sydney 
Smith in 7 lie Moutli (No. 666) gives 
us a spirited article on "Catholicism and 
Rationalism." In more than one quar- 
ter reviewers have made Sir George's 
book the occasion of innuendos against 
Catholicism, and one such reviewer ex- 
pressed his amazement that "men of 
far-reaching minds and real scientific 
attainments, as, for example, many 
members of the Society of Jesus," re- 
tain faith in "supernatural Christian- 
ity." 

Father Sydney Smith takes this re- 
viewer's remarks as his text, and gives 
some very cogent reasons why men of 
real scientific attainments prefer Cath- 
olicism to Rationalism. It has long been 
the cu.stom of militant Rationalism to 
invoke the cultured classes en masse as 
their abiding witnesses, dismissing con- 
tempttiously all who disagree with them 
as obscurantists. But the Rationalist 



has now made a discovery. The Jesuit 
"knows all that is to be known. He has 
his Bayle and Volney and Voltaire, his 
Hume and his Huxley at his fingers' - 
ends," and, mirabile dictu, he still be- I 
lieves in God and Christ ! There is 
something very naive about this aston- 
ishment when we reflect that, as Father 
Smith points out, "the course of ration- 
al investigation up to the present mo- 
ment is marked by a tendency to dis- 
credit the more fundamental objections 
which the Rationalism of half a cen- 
tury ago had advanced against this 
creed wnth such confidence, and to vin- 
dicate in the eyes of science the chief 
doctrines which had been so uncere- 
moniously set aside." 



To Revise the Federal Constitution 

At the recent meeting of the Political 
Science Association in Cleveland, Ohio, 
the president, Professor Henry Jones 
Ford, of Princeton, spoke on "Present 
Tendencies in American Politics." His 
address, we learn from the Nation (No. 
2847), was a searching discussion oi 
political changes and developments 
which have deprived American govern- 
ment of its representative character and 
have aggregated political power in the 
hands of officials and agencies which in 
practice are largely irresponsible. In 
Prof. Ford's opinion, the centralizing 
tendencies which have produced in this 
country a mixture of oligarchy and 
autocracy, instead of democracy, are 
not to be checked, least of all eradi- 
cated, either by amending the Constitu- 
tion or by improving Federal adminis- 
tration. It is the constitutional system, 
not merely its working under the condi- 
tions of party politics, that has proved 
defective ; and where the system is at 
fault the only remedy is a new scheme. 

We share our esteemed contempora- 
ry's hope that Professor Ford's able 
address will reach a wider public than 
the membership of the Association 
afTords. It will strengthen the demand 
for a Federal Constitutional conven- 
tion, which is more and more being 

heard. 

•-•-j>-»-» 

— If you do not bind your Review, hand 
the copies to others after you have read them. 



1920 



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69 



James Ford Rhodes and His History 

Dr. James Ford Rhodes has pub- 
Hshed the eighth vokime of his preten- 
tious "History of the United States." 
It covers the period from Hayes to 
McKinley and, like its predecessors, is 
a running poHtical narrative covering- 
presidential elections, high scandals 
(and some not so high), national polit- 
ical issues, civil service reform, tariff 
revision, bond sales, and the Venezue- 
lan controversy, liberally interspersed 
with disorders in the world of labor, 
organized and casual. The text is 
founded on memoirs, biographies, 
magazine files, newspaper clippings, 
and kindred materials. The distribution 
of emphasis is characterized by the 
stresses and strains approved by the 
American Historical Association, and 
the book may therefore be pronounced 
"canonical." Its tendency may be gath- 
ered from the following synopsis by 
Prof. Charles A. Beard in the Nne 
Republic (No. 263) : 

"More than one-fifth of the book is 
devoted to labor troubles giving one the 
impression that labor lives by disorder 
alone. Six pages are set apart for the 
assassination of Garfield and the trial 
of the assassin; three pages to the fail- 
ure of Grant and Ward ; three pages 
to the operation on President Cleve- 
land's throat, not omitting the detail 
that the hypodermic was administered 
at 2:25 P. M. and that a portion of the 
soft palate was removed. The Sherman 
anti-trust act is dismissed in a scant 
paragraph ; the. interstate commerce 
law receives three pages, the same 
number as General Grant's unfortunate 
business adventure ; the Knights of 
Labor are mentioned as trouble makers 
but their programme seems unworthy 
of notice. The growth of the Far West, 
the conquest of the great plains, the 
admission of a new state are passed 
over with a glance that is scarcely 
more than casual. The rise of the 
American Federation appears to have 
escaped the author's attention. Martin 
Irons is called a "vulgar labor agitator," 
evidently with much relish, but the law- 
less doings on the other side, portrayed 



in Lloyd's Wealth against Common- 
wealth are covered with the soft mantle 
of silence. The income tax decision of 
1895 appears to have no more historical 
importance than Benner's Prophecies. 
The growth of the judicial power under 
the Fourteenth Amendment, the most 
remarkable feature of American polit- 
ical evolution between 1876 and 1896, 
nowhere comes into the picture." 

Quite naturally. Prof. Beard is not 
at all satisfied with this superficial and 
tendentious way of writing history. 
"Mr. Rhodes," he says, "is widely cele- 
brated for research as well as for his 
serenity, his academic calm, his even- 
handed justice. Careful reading of every 
line of the 461 pages fails to reveal a 
single capital idea or fact that cannot 
be found in the books available in any 
Carnegie library of fair proportions. Is 
it possible that the last word has been 
said on the period which Henry Adams 
regarded as profoundly revolutionary?" 

Henry Adams, he recalls, while 
brooding without fear and in serene 
contempt for vulgar opinion upon the 
tossing tides of American affairs, came 
to the conclusion that the most signifi- 
cant thing in all the years that lay be- 
tween the Compromise of 1850 and the 
campaign of 1896 was the triumph of 
Capitalism over the "agrarians," led for 
a time by the planting aristocracy, and 
then by the Bryans zealously seeking to 
rally to them the mechanics and small 
folk of the cities. Mr. Rhodes sees in 
the same period a great military drama 
followed by the dullest play that could 
be imagined. He has written "a phan- 
tom history of twenty years in which 
wooden characters come upon the stage 
like marionettes, wave their arms, de- 
liver orations on the rectitude of their 
intentions, are challenged, and retire 
(usually) to oblivion." It has been 
said that Bodley's book on France is 
an account of that noble country seen 
through the windows of a semi- 
detached English villa. Mr. Beard 
thinks that Dr. Rhodes "has seen 
America a part of the time through the 
windows of a counting house and the 
remainder of the time through the 
windows of the Centennial Club." 



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Wilsonian Sincerity 
In ihe course of the famous confer- 
ence at the White House this colloquy 
occurred : 

Senator McCuiuber: ■'Would our moral 
conviction oi the unrigiueousness of the 
German war have brought us into this war 
it Germany had not committed any acts 
against us without the League of Nations, 
as \vc had no League of Nations at that 
time?" 

The President : "I hope it would eventu- 
ally. Senator, as things developed." 

Senator McCumber: "Do you think that 
if Germany had conunitted no act of war 
or no act of injustice against our citizens 
we would have gotten into this war?" 

The President: "I think so." 

Senator McCumber: ""You think we would 
have gotten in anyway?" 

The President: "I do." 

Now, it Mr. Wilson hoped and be- 
hoved that he could get the country in- 
volved in the European war. regardless 
of what Germany did or did not do to 
our citizens, then he must have had a 
conviction long prior to the event that 
we should join the Allies in war upon 
Germany. For surely Mr. Wilson could 
not have "hoped" that he could get the 
country involved in the war unless he 
had a reason for that hope, and that 
reason nnist have been based upon 
something else than (jermany's acts 
toward Americans, because Mr. \\ ilson 
expressly says that he desired war even 
if Germany had committed no act of 
war or no act of injustice against our 
citizens. 

Thus we have the real state of Mr. 
Wilson's mind, during the lime we were 
supposed to be neutral, ]>ictured by the 
only man who could possibly know 
what the real state of Mr. Wilson's 
iiiind was — by Mr. Wilson himself. 

It is interesting, and. we think, in- 
structive, to compare Mr. Wilson's 
fhoughts atid "hope" with Mr. Wilson's 
public utterances during that time. 

Three days after the sinking of the 
I.tisitania ^Ir. Wilson adflressed a 
gathering in Philadelphia, and said : 
"The example of .America nuist be the 
example of peace, not merely because 
it will not fight, but of peace because 
f)cace is the healing and the elevating 
influence of the world anfl strife- is not. 
There is such a thing as a man being 



too proud to light." 

In his annual message, December 7, 
1915, Mr. Wilson said to the Congress: 
"During these days of terrible war, it 
would seem that every man who was 
truly an American would instinctively 
make it his duty and his pride to keep 
the scales of judgment even and prove 
himself a partisan of no nation but his 
own. Btit there are some men among 
us, calling themselves Americans, who 
have so far forgotten themselves and 
their honor as citizens as to put their 
passionate sympathy with one or the 
other side in the great European con- 
tiict above their regard for the peace 
of the United States." 

On Janttary 31, 1916, Mr. Wilson, 
speaking in Milwaukee, said : "There is 
no precedent in American history for 
any action which might mean that 
America is seeking to connect herself 
with the controversies on the other side 
of the water. Men who seek to provoke 
such action have forgotten the tradi- 
tions of the United States, but it be- 
hooves those you have entrusted with 
office to remember the traditions of the 
United States." 

On February 1, 1916, speaking at 
Des IMoines, Iowa, Mr. Wilson said : 
"There are actually men in America who 
are preaching war, who are preaching 
the duty of the United States to do 
v.'liat it never would before — abandon 
its. habitual and traditional policy and 
deliberately engage in the conflict which 
is now engulfing the rest of the world. 
I do not know what the standards of 
citizenship of these gentleinen may be. 
I only know that I, for one, cannot sub- 
scribe to those standards." 

On .Septcml)er 2. 1916, in the speech 
accepting renomination. Mr. Wilson 
said: "We have been neutral, not only 
because it was the fixed and traditional 
l)olicv of the United States to stand 
aloof from the politics of Europe, . . . 
but because it was manifestly our duty 
to prevent, if it were ])ossil)le, the ex- 
tension of the fires of liate and desola- 
tion kindled by tliril terrible conflict." 

Mr. TTearst saicl in a signed editorial 
in the N. Y. American, on July 13th, 
1919: 



1920 



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71 



"The convention which renominated 
]\Ir. Wilson was controlled by direct 
wire from the White House, and the 
burden of all the nominating speeches 
and the tenor of all the proceedings of 
the convention were that Mr. Wilson 
had kept us out of war and that the 
only way for us to continvie to keep out 
of war was to re-elect Mr. Wilson. In 
a letter to Senator Stone, then chairman 
of the Senate Foreign Relations Com- 
niittee. February 24, 1916, Mr. Wilson 
said: 'Vou are right in assuming that 1 
shall do everything in my power to 
keep the United States out of war. . . . 
I do not doubt that I shall continue to 
succeed.' 

"Addressing a delegation of Scandi- 
navians who visited him in the White 
House on ]\Iarch 13, 1916, he said: 'I 
can assure you that nothing is nearer 
my heart than keeping this country out 
of war.' 

"And speaking at Shadow I awn, 
Sept. v^O. 1916, to twenty-five himdred 
young men from New York and New 
Jersey, Air. Wilson declared : 'The cer- 
tain prospect of the success of the 
Republican party is that we shall be 
drawn in one form or other into the 
embroilments of the European war.' " 

And so Mr. Wilson was re-elected 
because he "kept us out of war," with 
a definite pledge that he would also 
keep us out of the "embroilments" of 
European politics, jealousies and strife. 



The Threat of Militarism 

Senate Bill 2715 is known as the 
r>aker-General Stalf Bill because it was 
drawn by the General Staif and en- 
dorsed by Secretary Baker. It provides 
for a huge standing army of 576,000 
officers and men, headed by a caste of 
officers topped by six lieutenant gen- 
erals, 32 major generals and 88 briga- 
dier generals, all preaching "war" and 
"preparedness." The base of the struc- 
ture will be a "reserve" of 1.250,000 
conscrijJt boys in training. This is the 
bill which Secretary Baker calmly sug- 
gested would "take care of" all the offi- 
cers in the Regular Army establish- 
ment. It would indeed! with the help 



of the tax payers. General March, 
Chief of Staff, admitted that this sys- 
tem would cost $900,000,000 a year as 
over against our former expenditure of 
$240,000,000. The boys would be sub- 
jected — at first — to three months' train- 
ing, but the General Staff says frankly 
it will not be content imtil this is raised 
to one year. 

Senate Bill 2691, known as the Cham- 
berlain-Kahn bill, provides for six 
months compulsory training for every 
18-year old boy and three weeks train- 
ing every year thereafter for five years. 
The country is divided into "army 
areas" under a National ^Military Ad- 
ministrator who keeps track of the boys 
during the period they are subject to 
the service. In addition, section nine 
provides that whenever in time of 
peace, the Army, Navy or Marine 
Corps fall below their regular quota 
of volunteers, they are privileged to 
reach into the training camps and 
"select" — presumably by lottery — 
enough boys to bring their ranks up to 
the full. The boys thus "stuck" are 
obliged to serve one year in the Army, 
Navy or Marine Corps (in addition to 
their six months training) and ten 
years thereafter in the reserve. 

Both bills w^ould fasten the draft acts 
permanently upon the country. In time 
of war or even of a "national emer- 
gency" they would go automatically into 
effect. 

These bills bear scant resemblance to 
the "Swiss system," upon which they 
pretend to be modelled, but are thor- 
oughly Prussian in the highly central- 
ized military control they would set up. 
The American Union Against Mili- 
tarism is trying to get these and other 
important facts before the American 
people. Those interested should write 
to its headquarters. 203 Westory Bldg., 
Washingfton, D. C. 



—A $50 Liberty Bond will make you a life 
snhscriber of the Rkview and procure you 
a place on the roster of the journal's bene- 
factors. 

— He that lends an easy and credulous ear 
to calumny is either a man of very ill morals 
or has no more sense and understanding 
than a child. 



72 



THE FORTx\IGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



University Work in Sacred Music 

University work is specialized work. 
The tendency to specialization is a 
g-rowing one, manifesting itself more 
and more strongly, in professional as 
well as undergraduate life, in both of 
which it has greatly advanced knowl- 
edge of the various sciences and mas- 
tery over the laws of nature. In these 
days more than ever before, the need 
of specialists in every line of endeavor 
is becoming more and more urgent. This 
need is so apparent that as a conse- 
quence today we have thousands taking 
up university work where before there 
were but hundreds. 

A demand for university or special- 
ized work in nuisic is making itself 
heard, especially in Catholic Church 
nuisicj the grandest religious music 
literature extant. It is safe to assert 
that Catholic Church music in is vari- 
ous styles has been very little studied 
in America. If we wish any proof for 
this statement, all we have to do is to 
betake ourselves to the nearest Catholic 
church on some Sunday morning and 
assist at high Mass. The evidence is 
overwhelming that the study of Cath- 
olic Church nuisic as an art has been 
entirely ignored. There is an ignorance 
of this sublime nuisic literature on the 
part of cultivated men which is fre- 
cjuently acknowledged without shame 
and often without regret. Even those 
posing as Church musicians, and who 
devote their whole time to that work, 
often are as ready as any to confess 
that they know practically nothing of 
the subject with which they have to 
deal. 

If the music of the Catholic Church 
is the ennobling, beautiful, and sacred 
thing it is admitted to be, if it is of 
sufficient value to justify the enormous 
expenditure rejjresented by the great 
pipe organs made and purchased, the 
incomes paid to organists, choir-mas- 
ters, and members of church choirs, it 
would seem to have a claim on some 
direct study and to a place of at least 
appreciable dimensions in the recog- 
nized elements of an education for a 
young man who is to take u\) the work. 

There is a crying need for university 



study of the music of the Catholic 
Lhurch, and nothing less than univer- 
sity authority can accomplish, within a 
reasonable time, the work that is now 
needed. The mere fact that Catholic 
Church music is a recognized subject 
of instruction in our Catholic Univer- 
sity at Washington, will go far to add J 
dignity to its study, in the minds of | 
many men, who are now indifferent to 
it. To secure far-reaching and valuable 
results, time, money, and thought must 
be bestowed upon the problem now so 
pressing. 

The University stands not for cold 
abstract knowledge, but for the eleva- 
tion and education of men ; and while it 
works with the few, sending its influ- 
ence down to many through numerous 
intermediaries, yet it is bound to do, 
and has done in the past, whatever is 
necessary to render its beneficent work 
available for the uplifting of humanity. 
Our Catholic young men who have in 
view the work of organist or choirmas- 
ter in our churches, need and demand 
an education in an art so important and 
so intimately associated with our holy 
services. The ideal, of course, requires 
that the Catholic University should 
provide for an intensive study of the 
rich mine of Catholic Church music in 
its different phases, and should have 
means on hand to carry the student 
forward in the most abstruse research. 
The influence thus exerted will be felt 
in every Catholic church in the land. 

Adequate facilities for the study of 
.sacred music as literature can be of- 
fered only by the University, because, 
aside from its authority and influence 
it has in its undergraduate body the 
material most likely to profit from such 
work. .\ large endowment will be 
needed to j^roperly support a worthy 
dei)artment of Catholic Church Music. 
A building, including concert hall, libra- 
ry, pi])e organs, and an eminent faculty, 
are the necessary ef[ui])nicnt. Brains, 
high purpose and good method, are in- 
dispensable things ; yet three hundred 
thousand dollars would provide both 
equipment and endowment to begin 
with. The expense, great though it 
may seem, should not stand in the way 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



73 



of our having a properly equipped 
School of Catholic Church Music at the 
Catholic University of /Vmerica. Fabu- 
lous sums are donated and expended 
for the promotion and study of secular 
and profane music everywhere. At no 
distant date we hope some one with the 
means and the zeal for the honor of 
God's Church will establish the much 
needed Scliool of Sacred Music at the 
Catholic University that will not be 
hampered in its work by lack of what 
is necessarv. 

This is not a chimera. The compara- 
tively small endowment that I have 
mentioned would meet the necessary 
demands. The clientele of such a school 
would be the organists and choir-mas- 
ters of our churches who are serious 
in their efforts to bring about the re- 
form so earnestly desired by Pius X in 
his Motu Proprio. The school, admin- 
istered in a spirit of high art, would be 
a leaven of incalculable value in Cath- 
olic Church musical life; it would 
establish standards, very greatly 
strengthen the individual ideals of 
organists and choir-masters, and might 
be expected to result in the occasional 
discovery of talents of a high order, 
and thus at length the long sought-for 
reform in Catholic Church Music 
would begin to become a reality. The 
reaction upon the standard and style of 
music generally heard in our churches 
would be immediate. When it is proved 
that it is possible to improve the stand- 
ard of the existing church music by 
establishing a standard worthy of our 
holy services, church musicians will 
not hesitate to adopt such a standard. 
All deeply in earnest organists and 
choir-masters are seeking for this long- 
desired standard. Abuses have become 
so flagrant that the correct idea of what 
is right and proper in church music is 
almost entirely lost sight of. I am 
aware, to carry forward this work to a 
stage of usefulness will take great 
effort, but is not the goal worthy of 
the effort? (Rev.) F. Jos. Kelly 

Washington, D. C. Mus. D. 



— Dogma is not the absence of thought, 
bu' the end of thought. 



Errors in the American Standard 

Version of the Bible 

2 

In the Epistle to the Hebrews, ch. 
XlII, the readers are exhorted to prac- 
tice the Christian virtues. Conjugal 
chastity is recommended in verse 4: 
''Let marriage be honorable in all, and 
the bed undefiled. For fornicators and 
adulterers God will judge." In the 
original the first sentence reads: "Ti- 
iiiios ho ganios en pasin ka'i he koite 
amiantbs." The verb let he is not ex- 
pressed, but must be supplied from the 
preceding verse. Since the entire con- 
text is hortatory, the verb to be sup- 
plied cannot be assertive, as Luther, 
Beza, and the King James Version 
render it ("Marriage is honorable 
among all"), but must be in the opta- 
tive, as the American Standard Version 
correctly has it {"Let marriage he in 
honor among all"). Though correcting 
one, the A. St. V. has retained another 
mistake, into which the Protestant 
translators were evidently led by their 
eagerness to find marriage everywhere 
recommended to all persons indiscrimi- 
nately, namely: "among all," making 
all personal, whereas the context, be- 
cause hortatory, not doctrinal, makes 
it certain that en pasin must be render- 
ed in all, or, more plainly, in all things. 
The context shows that the author does 
not assert dogmatically the dignity of 
the marriage of all persons indiscrimi- 
nately, as Luther, Beza, and the King 
James Version would have it, nor ad- 
vise all persons to marry, as the A. St. 
V. suggests, but recommends to all who 
are married the practice of conjugal 
chastity, as the second clause clearly 
proves : "and the bed undefiled." 

Cornelius a Lapide aptly remarks 
that if Luther and Beza (who explain: 
"Marriage is honorable among all per- 
sons," expressly including such as have 
made the vow of chastity, i. e., priests 
and monks), were right, it would fol- 
low that marriage between brothers and 
sisters, fathers and daughters, mothers 
and sons, is honorable, — a thing which 
the Protestants themselves do not 
assert. 

(Rev.) JosF.rii Molitor, D.D. 



74 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



New Light on the Black Hawk War 

The chapter on the Black Hawk 
War in the second vohime of Dr. T. C. 
Pease's Centennial History of Illinois 
shows more clearly than has before 
been done the tragic nature of that 
episode, which marked the last of the 
Ir.dians in Illinois. 

Black Hawk's Sauk tribe had for a 
century held the beautiful and fertile 
area where the Rock River flows into 
the Mississippi as their burial, ground 
and village site. The women cultivated 
cornhelds parallel with the Mississippi 
and ganlens on the river islands ; the 
men fished, hunted, and dug lead. At 
a time when the whole western part of 
the State was still open to settlement, 
encroaching whites insisted on taking 
up claims in this small section, to 
which under any fair interpretation of 
their treaty with the government the 
Indians were entitled as long as they 
wished it. 

The final expulsion of the Indians 
came in midsummer, and they were 
sent across the Mississippi, when it was 
too late to plant corn anew in Iowa. 
When famine began that fall, braves 
who returned for corn to the fields 
they ha<l planted in Illinois were fired 
upon. The "war" was provoked when 
the simple-hearted old Black Hawk re- 
crossed the Mississippi to "make corn" 
with his friends, the Winnebagos, and 
the rallying frontiersmen, spoiling for 
a fight with the Indians, gladly as- 
sumed that he meant to be hostile. 
Black Hawk would have retired peace- 
fully, but was not ])ermitted. The 
hostilities culminated in the battle, or 
rather massacre, of Bad Axe. when the 
.Si'uks were surprised in their village : 

"They fought desjjerately," says Dr. 
I'easc; "but in their famished condi- 
tion they were no match for their op- 
ponents, who with bayonets fiercely 
forced them back from tree to tree to- 
ward the river. Women, with children 
rlinginj^ round their necks, plunged 
desperately into the river, to be almost 
instantly firowncfj or j)icked off by 

sharpshooters The steamboat 

Warrior came back to rake with can- 
ister sf»mc of the islands that the In- 



dians had reached. Old men, women 
and children alike were slain. 'It w\as 
a horrid sight.' wrote a participant, 'to 
witness little children, wounded and 
suffering the most excruciating pain.' " 



The Revelation of St. John 

Col. James ). L. Ratton has pub- 
lished a revised synopsis of his well- 
known work on the .Apocalypse, under 
the title. "The Revelation of St. John." 
Father Ernest R. Hull, S.J., in a notice 
of the book in the Exauiincr (LXX, 
34), says among other things: 

\\liatever we may think of Col. Rat- 
ton's line of solution, we must acknowl- 
edge that he works out his thesis w^ith 
a vigor and acumen which will prob- 
ably be felt convincing- by many minds. 
Briefly our own conviction is, first, that 
the Apocalypse fulfilled its direct and 
practical purpose in the generation for 
which it was written, and by which it 
was read. .Secondly, after that pur- 
pose was fulfilled, it continued to be 
of signal service to succeeding ages, 
but in another and indirect way. 
namely, as a piece of religious and 
devotional reading, highly dramatic, 
and suggestive indeed of eschatological 
truth, but not any substantive addition 
to our theological knowledge already 
furnished ]\v other parts of the New 
Testament. Thirdly, as regards its 
prophetic aspect, we believe that its 
scope lies far in the past, in which its 
foretellings have long been verified. 
Fourthly, and in particular, we do not 
believe that the "messages to the seven 
churches" were meant as an apocalyp- 
tic anticipation of the various ages of 
the world (hjwn to the second coming, 
but that they were a series of moral 
and religious lessons and warnings 
conveyed to certain sections of Chris- 
tians in the first century, who would 
easily recognize themselves under the 
disguise inider which the allusion was 
veiled. 

Colonel Kallon, however, thinks 
just the contrary, and writes ably in 
support of his contentions. 
►♦^j>*-« 

--Divine confidence cm swim npon those 
.sc.'is which feehlc reason cannot fatlioni. 



1920 



Till': I'ORTNlGIiTLY REVIEW 



75 



The Problems Confronting the Scien- 
tific Spiritist 

From a perplexed investigator: 

"Something over ix dozen years ago 
I was one of a small company who 
formed a circle for the investigation of 
'the phenomena called Spiritual' ; and 
it has occurred to me that some of our 
earlier experiences were perhaps worth 
recordmg on account of their bearing 
on the theory that such phenomena are 
produced by the 'subliminal self or 
subconscious mind. 

"Early in our investigations one of 
our number — - a gentleman — became 
'controller,' and in that condition 
manifested an extraordinary hilarity 
and a genuine vein of humor, which, 
however, sometimes bordered on the 
irreverent. So persistent was this 
mood that we resolved to get rid of the 
'influence' ; but this was not cjuite so 
easy. One evening an experienced 
Spiritualist of a more than ordinary 
'positive type' was with us and essayed 
to dismiss the controlling intelligence, 
but the attempt proved rather discon- 
certing and the result not without sig- 
nificance. As if securely entrenched, 
the 'control' or 'subconscious' held his 
grovuid like a Briton for several hours, 
and in spite of every form of attack. 
It was only after the clock had struck 
'the wee short hour,' and the relatives 
of the medium were in the greatest 
alarm, that the intelligence intimated 
'his' intention of 'relieving the medi- 
um' ; but, addressing 'himself to the 
gentleman who had striven so strenu- 
ously to dismiss him, he said : 'Under- 
stand, Mr. So and so, that I am going 
of my own free will, that you are not 
putting me away' ; and, shortly after, 
the medium was 'relieved.' 

"Now here was a 'subliminal self or 
subconscious mind more wonderful 
than any portrayed by Mr. Hudson 
himself. The latter tells us that the 
subconscious mind is 'negative' and. 'by 
virtue of the fundamental law of its 
being, must accept whatever suggestion 
is imparted to it' ; but here was one 
that repudiated all suggestions and was 
so 'positive' as to defy everybody. 
"What are we to make of it? Must 



we revise our theory regarding the 
character of the subconscious mind, 
and endow it with still more wonderful 
powers ; or must we acknowledge the 
inadequacy of the theory as an expla- 
nation of the phenomena?" 

J. G. R. 

Newly Discovered Sermons 
of St. Augustine 

The news which recently went the 
rounds of the American press that Dom 
Germain ]\Iorin, O.S.B., of the Belgian 
Abbey of Maredsous, had discovered 
some hitherto unknown sermons of St. 
Augustine, is true, but very much be- 
lated. The discovery was actually made 
early in 1914 and reported by Dom 
Morin in the Revue Benedictine for 
April of that year. \\'hile searching 
the ducal library of W'olfenbiittel 
(Brunswick) for patristic manuscripts, 
the learned Benedictine found a Latin 
codex of the ninth century, which for- 
merly belonged to the Alsatian monas- 
tery of Weissenburg. It is a copy of a 
still more ancient manuscript and con- 
tains ninety-six sermons attributed to 
St. Augtistine. Thirty-one of these were 
known before and are undoubtedly 
genuine. Nine were also known, but 
are abbreviated, altered or interpolated. 
Fifteen are spurious. Thirty-three, of 
which fovu' were partially known be- 
fore, whereas twenty-nine are entirely 
new, are genuine productions of the 
great Bishop of Hippo. 

Dom Morin has recentlv published 
the whole collection under the title. 
"Sancti Aurelii Augustini Tractatus 
sive Sermones Inediti ex Codice Guel- 
ferbytano 4096. Detexit, Adiectisque 
Commentariis Criticis Primus Edidit 
Gcrmanus Morin. O.S.B. Campoduni 
ct INIonaci ex Typographia Koeseliana. 
1917." The book is dedicated to the 
late Dr. Hertling "as a monument of 
Catholic peace amid a terrible world- 
conflagration," — "Georgio Comiti de 
Hertling. Magni Aurcli Augustini Se- 
dulo Indagatori. inter Furentis Orbis 
Incendia hoc Monumentum Pacis Ca- 
tholicae .\nimo Grato Vcnerabundo 
D. D." 

The introduction (XXXIII pages) 



76 



THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



contains a brief description of the 
manuscript and a summary of its con- 
tents. At the end there are three care- 
fully compiled indices. 

Of the thirty-three newly discovered 
sermons, the first deals "De Symbolo" 
and confirms the genuineness of Sermo 
213 of St. Augustine, which has been in 
doubt because no manuscript copy of it 
earlier than the 15th century was 
known. 2 and 3, "De Passione Domini," 
were delivered on Good Friday. 4 — 6, 
"De Xocte Sancta,'" are brief addresses 
given at the Easter vigil. 7 and 8 are 
Easter sermons. 9 — IS) are dailv ser- 
mons for the Easter octave. 20 and 21 
are homilies for the feast of the As- 
cension. 22 is a sermon on the birth- 
day of John the Baptist. 23 and 24 were 
preached in honor of SS. Peter and 
Paul. 25 is a five-minute address deal- 
ing with the privilege of asylum in 
churches. 26 — 28 are sermons in honor 
of St. Cyprian. 29, "De Martha et 
Maria Significantibus Duas Vias," is a 
homily on Luke X, 41 sq. 30 is a eulogy 
in honor of twelve martyrs who laid 
down their lives for the faith under 
Conniiodus, near Carthage. 31 is a 
beautiful homily in honor of certain un- 
named martyrs. 32 deals with episcopal 
ordination and is not only the longest 
but the most important of the whole 
collection. 33 is a homily, "De Muliere 
Cananca," according to Matthew, XV, 
21 -sqq. 

In an appendix follow nine sermons 
or treatises attributed to St. Augustine 
but probably comi)Osed by members of 
his school. 

The newly discovered sermons arc 
important for the study of dogmatic 
theology, patrology, homiletics, and 
church historv. 



NOTES AND GLEANINGS 



— The Bishop of Hartford, Conn., in 
a circular letter to his clergy, calls at- 
tention to the advisability of raising 
the insurance on churches and parish 
buildings. He says that in view of the 
increased cost of labor and building 
material it now takes more than twice 
as much to replace any parish building 
than it took eight or ten years ago. 



— Why not have a Nothing-in-Par- 
ticular Day? 

— In a recent interview in the Balti- 
more Sun Mr. Wm. J. Bryan said a 
popular referendum ought to be re- 
quired as a preliminary to a declaration 
of war. This is an excellent proposal. 
Our readers may remember that it was 
made about two years ago by the Car- 
dinal Secretary of State, speaking in 
the name of the Holy Father. We hope 
it will be written into the platform to 
be adopted at San Francisco. 

— Apropos of Sir Oliver Lodge's 
lectures the Catholic Transcript (Vol. 
XXIII, No. 32) recalls the fact that 
Dr. Orestes A. Brownson, who had 
himself followed the Spiritistic cult for 
a time, made two impressive points in 
his later Catholic writings on the sub- 
ject, namely, first that Spiritism in its 
extreme practice is "pure deviltry," 
and second that those who are devoted 
to it are in the vast majority of cases 
immoral. 

— Fr. D. J. Kennedy, O.P., says in 
a notice of the twelfth volume of Fr. 
Pcgues's "Commentaire Litteral" on the 
"Summa Theologica" of St. Thomas, in 
the January Ecclesiastical Reviezv: "St. 
Thomas joins with St. Jerome and St. 
Augustine in condemning and excluding 
from the churches theatrical singing 
which is for display, directing attention 
to the singer rather than to God. 'When 
my attention,' says St. Augustine, 'is 
drawn to the singing rather than to 
what is sung, I had rather not hear the 
singer {tunc mallcm non aiidire cantan- 
tctn).' Confess., x, c. 33." 

— It is curious to read this sentence 
in a volume marked with an episcopal 
imprimatur: "None but cave-dwellers 
believe any longer in apostolic succes- 
sion." The volume in question, "The 
Church and Its American Opportunity," 
is a collection of addresses given at the 
recent Episcopalian Congress in New 
York. We may quote as another curi- 
osity contained in the same volume 
that Dr. W. Austin Smith, the editor 
of the Churchman, in a particularly 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



77 



able address, inveighed against the folly 
of attributing the war to Treitschke, 
Nietzsche, and Bernhardi, instead of 
to competition for the world's markets. 
— Father Francis P. Duffy, chaplain 
of the 165th Infantry, gives his remi- 
niscences of the Great War in a book 
entitled "Father Duffy's Story. A Tale 
of Humor and Heroism, of Life and 
Death, with the Fighting Sixty-Ninth" 
(Kenedy). Father Duffy saw "no 
crucified soldiers, no babies with their 
hands cut off, ... no women chained 
to machine guns and no prisoners play- 
ing treachery." — "We fought the Ger- 
mans two long tricks in the trenches 
and in five pitched battles," he says, 
"and they never did anything to us 
that we did not try to do to them. And 
we played the game as fairly as it can 
be played." 

— The Rcvista Catolica, of El Paso, 
Tex., is taking up a collection for the 
suffering Mexicans who have been 
overwhelmed with misery by the erup- 
tion of a volcano in the State of Vera 
Cruz. "The district is rich in the prod- 
ucts of nature," say the editors of our 
esteemed contemporary in a circular to 
the press, "but for some ten years it 
has suffered all the miseries and 
horrors of civil w^ar. Therefore the 
wretched survivors must look beyond 
the confines of their unhappy country 
if the naked are to be clothed, the 
hungry to be fed, and if the tears of 
the widow and the orphan are to be 
dried." Contributions for this worthy 
purpose should be sent directly to the 
Rcvista Catolica, El Paso, Tex. 

— Pittsburgh has set a good example 
in curbing the law-breaking propensi- 
ties of meddlesome leaders of the 
"American Legion." We read in the 
Observer of that city (Vol. 21, No. 
31) : "Those at the head of the local 
'Legion' announced their intention of 
preventing the rarely talented Austrian 
violinist, Kreisler, from giving a con- 
cert here last Thursday evening. They 
wrote to the mayor, asking him to pro- 
hibit the concert. He refused to comply 
with the impudent request and sent a 
force of policemen to prevent any inter- 
ference with the artistic performance. 



As a practical protest against the an- 
noying officiousness of the legionaries, 
the art-loving public bought such a rec- 
ord-making number of tickets for the 
concert that the big Carnegie jMusic 
Hall could not have held all the pur- 
chasers, had they desired to be present. 
It was, however, filled to its capacity." 
—The Nation (No. 2847) calls at- 
tention to a striking incident which 
developed unexpectedly at a business 
session of the American Historical As- 
sociation at Cleveland. Prof. Hiram 



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surrounded by forest on all sides ; health- 
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"My Political Trial and 
Experiences" 

By Jeremiah A. O'Leary 

Just Off the Press 

A sensational story of the Political Experien- 
ces of a man of Irish blood who was singled out 
for destruction by the powerful influences of the 
British propaganda. 

How the Biitish propaganda was foiled. 

"Q. Well now. then, you have committed per- 
jury, you know that, don't yo\i? A. Yes, sir. 

Q. You know you were testifying falsely? 

A. Yes, I did " 

(From the testimony of Madame Gonzales 
under cross-examination. Quoted out of the 
mouth of a main witness for the government]. 
Page 290 of the Book. 



The book contains s6o pages, a biographical 
sketch of Mr. O'Leary bv Major Michael A.Kelly 
of the Old Sixty-ninth, a peisonal diary of the 
author kept during his imprisonment, and the 
true story of his trial; also 23 illustrations. 

Price $3.00 Post Paid 



Order now through the 

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78 



TlIK FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 



An Important Christological Work 

The Passion and Glory of Christ 

A COMMENTARY on the events from 
the Last Supper to the Ascension 

Adapted from the original of Monsignor F. X. Poelzl, S. T. D., Phil. D.. Professor of 
Theology at the University of Vienna, by A. M. Buchanan, M. A. 

Rkviskd and Editkd bv rev. C. C. MARTINDALE, S. J. 

3S4 pp. Svo. Cloth, net $2.75 

c\^-'"'\i^ll{ l^'t:Z:^V^:^''Ml^\,:X:ll ""' °"^ Y"'^^ ^•^e-'-^'y •- ^^'^^ '° fi"^ anywhere 
reader, ami he states as Ins oS.'^^^^^^ I",''" I'--^^,a«. this work to the 

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i^^& ot^^£^a.^^tS^"thrs^^rt £s =;S.:"--''° -^- "t;^,/Ls-;vj;^ 



I 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER, (Inc.) Publishers, NEW YORK 

St. Loitis: B. Herder Book Co. 



Bingham, of Yale, called the attention 
of the members to the fact that a paper 
on the recent attitnde of the Brazilian 
press toward the United States and the 
Monroe Doctrine, which was to have 
been read at one of the sessions by 
William R. Manning, of the Depart- 
ment of State, had been withdrawn 
after the programme was printed, at 
the request of the Department. A mo- 
tion ofTercd by Profes.sor Jjingham 
and warmly seconded by Professor 
Burr, calling upon the Council to in- 
vestigate the matter, was adopted. "It 
will be interesting to know," comments 
our contemporary, "ujjon what ground, 
if any. the interference of the Depart- 
ment of State with the published i)ro- 
gramme of a learned society is to be 
ji"«tified." 

— The M. }'. 'f lines in its issue for 
Jan. 13th printed a report of a speech 



l)y Judge Anderson of the U. S. District 
Court at Boston, from which we quote 
an interesting passage: "There are 
Reds, i)robably dangerous Reds. But 
they are not half as dangerous as the 
l)rating pseudo-patriots who, under the 
guise of Americanism, are preaching 
murder and shooting at sunrise, and to 
whom our church i)arlors and other 
jniblic forums have hitherto been open. 
Many, perhaps most, of the agitators 
for the suppression of the so-called 
Red menace are, I observe, the same 
individuals or class of forces that in 
1917 and 1918 were frightening the 
connnunity to death about pro-German 
plots. As United States Di.strict At- 
torney I was charged with a large 
responsibility as to protecting the com- 
nuuiity from pro-German plots. I 
assert as my best judgment that more 
than 99 per cent of the pro-German 
l)lots never existed." 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



79r 



Literary Briefs 



— l'*r. D. O'Mahoney lias added a second 
series to his collection of " Great French 
Sermons from Bossuet, Bourdaloue, and 
Massillon." It embraces principally transla- 
tions from Bossuet. Under the title, "Up- 
lifting of the Soul," are appended some sec- 
tions of Bossuct's beautiful" Elevations sur 
Ics Mysteres." wliich have never before been 
translated into English. (Sands and B. Her- 
der Book Co.; $3 net). 

— It is difficult to make out what object 
Mr. J. Herbert Williams aimed at when he 
wrote his treatise on "Inspiration" with its 
lack of logical sequence and its belated 
polemics against Cardinal Franzelin. There 
is no objection to laymen or "ordinary wri- 
ters" dealing with such abstruse theological 
subjects: but what is the use^of wasting 232 
pages of good paper when one has nothing 
new or particularly striking to offer? The 
book has the imprimatur of the auxiliary 
l)ishop of Edinburgh. (Sands and B. Herder 
Book Co.; $2 net). 

— John Joseph McVey. of Philadelphia, 
has issued the second and concluding volume 
of the very excellent "Exposition of Chris- 
tian Doctrine by a vSeminary Professor," 
which form part of the "Course of Relig- 
ious Instruction" edited by the Brothers of 
the Christian Schools. As the first dealt with 
dogma, so this second volume deals with 
morals. It is a kind of popular manual of 
moral theology, characterized by lucid def- 
initions, clear and substantial explanations, 
and supplied with summaries and synoptical 
tables for the use of teachers and students. 
We are not told who has adapted the work 
from French into English, but whoever he 
is. he has done his work well. The English 
version has been revised according to the 
new Code of Canon Law and is an ideal 
liook for advanced students and laymen 
gcnrally, and even the priest can peruse it 
witii profit because he will find in it things 
that he would look for in vain in his ordi- 
nary manual of theology. ($2.75 net). 

— -Those wdio know and appreciate the 
Commentary on the Four Gospels by Fr. 
Charles J. Callan. O.P.. will not need to be 
urged to purchase his new book, "The Acts 
of the Apostles." Like its predecessor, this 
work is practical in character and intended 
for priests and students of theology. It is 
clear, brief, and to the point and admirable 
in logical order and typographical arrange- 
ment. No better book could be imagined for 
the class room or for private study. There 
is a frontispiece in the shape of a colored 
map of Palestine in the time of Christ, a 
CI;ronology of the .\cts, and an excellent 
alphabetical index. The price is moderate — 
$j net. (New York: Jos. F. Wagner, Inc.) 
We are pleased to learn that the erudite 
author has in preparation a commentary on 
the Epistles of St. Paul, which is to be pub- 
lished by the same firm. 



— Being responsible for tlie adaptation to 
the needs of the English-speaking world of 
Koch's "J landbook of Moral Theology," we 
shall in all modesty have to await the verdict 
of competent critics on the third volume, just 
published by the B. Herder P.ook Co. ($1.50 
net). This volume, which will be followed by 
two, and possibly three more, deals with 
"Man's Duties to Himself," in two parts, of 
which the first is inscribed, "Individual or 
Personal Duties," and the second, "Voca- 
tional Duties." The former includes chapters 
on the moral significance and care of the 
l)ody, man's duties in regard to life and 
healtli, and his duty of developing his mind 
The latter, on the choice of, and faithful 
perseverance in, a vocation ; labor as a nat- 
ural necessity, a moral obligation, and a re- 
ligious duty; the right and duty of acquiring 
and possessing property ; duties in regard to 
honor, etc. Great care has been taken to 
adapt the volume to the demands of the 
English-speaking public, especially of Amer- 
ica, to clothe it in idiomatic English, and to 
make due use of the latest literature, espe- 
cially English, on the various subjects treat- 
ed. A learned professor writes us that the 
book "reads more like a novel than a scien- 
tific treatise," and we quote this opinion for 
what it may be worth, not knowing whether 
it is intended as a compliment or as a 
censure. 

Books Received 

4 Batch of Pamphlets from the English CathoUc 
Truth Society, 69 Soiithwark . Bridge Road Lon- 
don S. E. 1, as follows: (1) What the World 
Owes to the Papacy, by the Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
Grosch; (2) Rome and the "World Conference, 
by the Rt. Rev. Msgr. Moves, D D.; (3) St tran- 
cis as Social Reformer, by Fr. Thomas. O.SJ-.t.j 
(4) Grandfather Christmas, by the Rev. David 
Bearne, S.T.; (S) Souls for Sale, by Grace \. 
Christmas; "(0) Mrs. Neville's Convert, by Grace 
V Christmas. These are all penny pamphlets and 
can be purchased through the B. Herder Book 
Co., St. Louis, Mo. . 

Ii";piratiov. By T. Herbert Williams, xvi & 232 pp. 
i2mo. Sands & Co. and B Herder Book Co. 1919. 

Historic 'Struonles for the Faith. By John Gabriel 

Rowe. 196 pp. 12mo. Sands & Co. and B. Herder 

Book Co., 1919. $1.30 net. 
Great French Sermons from Bossuet, Bourdaloue, 

and Massillon. Second Series. Edited by the Rev. 

D. O'Mahonv. x & 364 pp. 12mo. Sands & Co. and 

B. Herder Rook Co. $3 net. 

CLERGYMEN, COLLEGES and ACADEMIES 
will find it to their advantage to consult 



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80 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



ii 



Turning to HIM 



99 



5N 



Is Cuulizalion Caving In? The Entire World Is An Inferno of Bolshevism — of 

Murder, Stealing, Hi/pocrisy, Lust, Famine, Sickness, Pestilence, Death. 

Is an ignored God scourging the human race to remind all that He 

reigns supreme! Is Religion a hopeless failure? Is Christ 

again ''asleep in the vessel of the Church''' f 

""\Ve await the day of revenge."' "I would sacrifice ten millions of lives." "Peace is 
Hell." Quoted from sermons by prominent clergj'men in New York. But contrast all 
such tongue-souled utterances with the following from THE HELIOTROPIUM : 

"Let the Universe be disturbed by tempests from every quarter, let armed battalions 
close in deadly fray, let fleets be crippled and destroyed by fleets, let the law courts ring 
with endless litigation, and still this is my chief busines in life, to conform myself entirely 
to the one and and only Will of God." 

For many years in Great Britain, the Continent and America educated Protes- 
tants, Catholics and men and women of no creed at all have turned to The 
Heliotropium. It has comforted thousands, so too will it solace and strengthen 
you and yours — especially in sickness, affliction and bereavement. As a tonic 
for zi'iU and thought even the mercenary pagan will find it worth a baker's 
dozen of the books that aim no liighcr than the fattening of a bank account. 

The Heliotropium 

"Turning to Him" By JEREMIAS DREXELIUS, S. J. 

The only ^vork in the history of civilization that deals solely and successfully 
with the DIVINE WILL and your will — that links the two. Your Wtll — God's Will. 
Ihe God of old. of the Old Testament and the New, the God that men, ^vomen and 
pulpiteer politicians have tossed aside — forgotten — the God that fiction-theologians 
have destroyed, selling you in His place their own carefully copyrighted God — 
all "finite," but as palpable, powerlul and responsive to the human misery of the 
day as a deified London fog. 

"Creedy?" No I "Controversial?" No I —Just God and You 



THE HKUOTROPIUM is one of my Favor- 
ite books and one which I have often recom- 
mended to others. It gets down to the very 
root of spirituality — absolute submission to the 
Will of God. 

In a quaint, attractive way, the author treats 
this most essential and important point from 
every possible angle, and one who reads it 
carcfulfy cannot fail to have his or her spir- 
itual life deepened and purified. 

KEV. J. ELLIOT ROSS, C.S.P., Ph.D. 



saintly Te 
of THE 



copy ot IJIK HELIOTROPIUM was given to 
me by a very young woman. I liked the work 
»o much that I read it through— and use it for 
my meditations. I urge mv pcntifents and 
other, to read THE HELIOtROPIUM, for it 
is a book that makes saints." 



My dear • : 

I have gone nearly through THE IIELIO- 
TROl'IUM and find it a most extraordinary 
book, one to thank (iod for. I do not know 
any book on the si)iritual life more valuable. 
The one truth in it is, of course, a central fact 
in life, and the old Bavarian hammers at it, 
hammers at it after the skilled manner of the 
classic rhetorician, with an amplification worthy 
of Cicero, until he gets it into one's soul. The 
English, too, is worthy of the original text. 

Read the book yourself slowly two or three 
limes and it will correct your liver. It is worth 
any fifteen books of the so-called classics. 
Yours sincerely, 
AUSTIN O'MALLEY, M.I)., Ph.D., LI..D. 



Delivered to any address in the world, $2 



THE DEVIN ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 



425 Filth Avenue 



Neiv York 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXVII, NO. 6 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



March 15, 1920 



Sad Days for War Authors 

Lieutenant Coningsby Dawson has 
fallen to scolding the public because it 
will buy no more war books. He cannot 
understand this disinclination to buy. 
"For the last four years," he says in the 
New York Times Book Review, *'vve 
have been continually assured that the 
end of the war would see the birth of a 
new literature, unparalleled in ideals 
and vigor." Authors, he goes on, are 
prepared and eager to fulfill the proph- 
ecy by inditing wonderful tales of "hero- 
ism, chivalry and inexhaustible sacri- 
fice," yet "in the season's flood of books 
there is scarcely a mention of the im- 
mediate and glorious past." Publishers 
firmly wave war-authors aside. The 
cost of paper is too high. A book that 
will not sell at least 3,000 copies can- 
not be published nowadays except at a 
loss. 

We can understand the melancholy 
state of mind of soldiers who have great 
books on their chests and cannot get 
them ofif. We can also understand the 
public which refuses to help by buying 
the books. Lieut. Dawson apparently 
does not know it^ but this "immediate 
and glorious past" business which im- 
presses him so much does not impress 
the public at all. "The public," says 
Reconstruction (Vol. II, No. 1), "does 
not regard war as 'glorious' and the 
more rapidly the late war ceases to be 
'immediate by drifting into the past,' 
the better satisfied the public will be. 
'Heroism, chivalry and inexhaustible 
sacrifice' may be admirable subjects 
with which to regale those who have 
nothing better to do with their time, but 
if so, the failure of the people to buy 
many books devoted to the exploitation 
of such subjects might seem to be proof 
that most persons, when they read, 
prefer to read to better purpose." 



The plain truth is that the Great War 
was such an unspeakable horror that 
most persons would like to forget it, if 
they could, as they might forget a very 
bad dream. They do not care to live the 
horror over again every time they read 
a book. 

This feeling is the country's best 
guarantee of peace, until another gen- 
eration comes along that was too young 
to be crucified by the war. 

♦-»<js-»-, 

The Paramount Issue 

Air. William J. Bryan now says that 
prohibition is the paramount issue. He's 
great on paramount issues, having had 
three or four in his time. In reality, as 
Mr. Reedy points out in his Mirror, 
"prohibition is only part of a paramount 
issue, the whole of which is the Prus- 
sianizing of the United States. That 
whole includes the espionage acts, the 
arbitrary authority of the postal depart- 
ment in suppressing publications that do 
not conform to the ideas of the Post- 
master General, the raiding of peaceful 
assemblages, seizures of books and pa- 
pers, deportations of people holding un- 
popular opinions, and personal auto- 
cratic government from the White 
House. Prohibition is but one nasty 
feature of an iniquitous system of gen- 
eral official interference with funda- 
mental liberties of the people. Mr. 
l.^>ryan is for prohibition of the liquor 
traffic, and if he is right on that he must 
stand for the same principle and method 
represented in all the other manifesta- 
tions of the spying, raiding, censoring 
and suppressing system including the 
presidential hectoring over and brow- 
beating of the Senate and insisting upon 
the abdication of all personality by the 
members of the cabinet. Mr. Bryan is 
on the wrong side of the paramount 
issue." 



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THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



Hope and Charity 

By Uenky T. Hkck 

Pontifical College Josephimim 

Columbus, Ohio 

The cuts that hurt the soul of nio 
May heal the souls of other men : 

So. Thine. 
Give grace to me. to say with Thee, 
"Thy will, O Lord, be done ! Amen ! 
Xot mine." 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugexe Weibel, V.F. 

(Third Iiistalhnciit) 

Chapter U 

MY COLLEGE YEARS 

W'hen I was sent to the Benedictine Abbey 
oi Einsiedeln I kitfew enougli Latin to be 
enrolled in the second year's course. But 
all my other supposed scientific acquirements 
and proud imaginings were soon shattered. I 
soon found that my French was far from 
being correct and that even my German edu- 
cation was lacking in many points. I had 
been called the best reader in the high 
school, and, therefore, felt about perfect, at 
least in this branch. How great was my as- 
tonishment and shame when I was called up 
to read for the first time, and. expecting ad- 
miration and praise, heard all the scholars 
laugh, even before I had finished. I had 
been taught to read in a declamatory way at 
the high school, whereas at the college they 
read in monotone, only emphasizing the dif- 
ferent expressions and raising the voice 
somewhat for a question. During the first 
year I could not reconcile myself to the 
new way. 1 seriously thought of quitting 
my studies and becoming an artist. I was 
rated that year at a little above middling. 
Whilst hesitating and contemplating a course 
at the polytechnicum at Zurich, I finally came 
to the conclusion I would try another year of 
classical studies. Our class that year was 
assigned to Rev. Father Cclestine, a young 
/Tcalous priest, as main professor. He 
brought intense life into our class. The 
majority of us began to study witli such 
energy and perseverance that we became con- 
.spicuous throughout the institution. From 
that time on I liked my studies and man- 
aged to climb up and become "facile prin- 
cei)s" in Latin for the balance of my college 
years. Fr. Cclestine taught us for three suc- 
cessive years. It was customary for a pro- 
fessor to have the same class but two years. 
I'.ut our class was sd attached to this ex- 
cellent professor that, at the end of two years, 
we unanimously petitioned to have him also 
for the third year C rhetoric). As our peti- 
tion was granted the whole class ref*urncd, 
and we were over forty "rhetoricians" that 
year. P.ut the same year this promising 



teacher met with an accident by falling. The 
doctors for some time treated him only for 
his eyes, but after several weeks it was dis- 
covered that his skull had been fractured. 
The good man had been teaching for six 
weeks in that condition. After having been 
two weeks in vacation we were informed that 
he liad died, at the age of twenty-eight. 
-About a hundred pupils, among tliem almost 
his whole class, came from all parts of Switz- 
erland, Germany and Austria, to be at his 
funeral. I never saw so many tears shed by 
priests and students at tlie funeral of a priest 
as in this instance. His memory was kept in 
grateful remembrance by his pupils, of whom, 
the majority have since followed him into 
eternity. One of the last to follow his mas- 
ter and teacher was the great Indian mis- 
sionary, Father Martin Kcnel, O. S. B., who 
died in Bismarck, North Dakota, in 1917. Of 
him Morgan said, "If all priests were like 
Father Keiiel I would recommend the gov- 
ernment to turn over the Indians altogether 
to the care of the Catholic Church." 

During those years at college P. Martin 
Marty, O. S. B.. then Prior of St Meinrad's 
.-Vbbey, St. Meinrad, Ind., visited Einsiedeln. 
He tried to get missionaries for America 
and took a number of students with him. I 
was one of those who had applied, and was 
ready to go. but my father objected. Father 
Marty went to see my father personally, but 
found him inflexible. He would not consent 
foi me to leave before I was of age ; he said 
lie felt responsible for me that long. Tlius I 
had to remain at the college and I thank God 
for it. Whilst serious study was prescribed 
and severe discipline enforced, plenty of rec- 
reation and joyful exercises relieved' the 
work. A volunteer corps of cadets was 
formed among tlie students. All the officers 
were elected by a free vote in Swiss demo- 
cratic style. As the little students of the 
grammar and syntax classes exceeded the 
number of the older students, it happened 
that I was elected general. Upon this a loud 
protest followed from the "rhetoricians" and 
the "philosophers." I was at that time only 
about fourteen years old, small for my age, 
and knew nothing of military matters. There- 
fore, another student, a tall "])hilosopher," 
Dobele, now the Rt. Rev. Msgr. Dobele, Rec- 
tor of St. Clara's Church, in Basle, was elect- 
ed general. He had been a cadet in another 
school and knew the military regulations. 
However. I was made an officer. Our uni- 
forms consisted of cassock, sash and skull 
cap. a wooden gtm. and a haversack. But 
f)>ir drilling followed strictly the Swiss mili- 
tary regulations and our officers studied ev- 
erytiiing carefully, b'or absence or neglect in 
our dress we were lined, and those fines paid 
for the refreshments on our excursions. At 
the end of the sch')ol year we had about 200 
francs left, which we gave to a reform school 
for boys in the neighborhood. 

One winter we built a large fort of ice. VVe 
gathered snow and made blocks witli it, 



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88 



building lliick wall-s. In the evening recrea- 
tion, we would pull a large water wagon to 
the fountain and get water to pour over the 
walls, so that the blocks next morning would 
be solidly frozen. This was continued until 
we had erected a respectable castle, in a cor- 
ner of the abbey buildings. For the assault 
the boys were divided into two classes. One 
party had to defend the fort, preparing a lot 
of ammunition on the top, and the others as- 
sailed it. Our ammunition consi.sted of snow 
balls. To give an idea of the massive con- 
struction of the "fort," it may suffice to add 
that on the 8th of August, when we left 
sciiool, there was still a pile of snow left in 
that corner. 

During the war of 1870 it was said that 
the boys of seventeen years of age might be 
called to help guard the Swiss frontier. We 
were indefatigable in drilling at that time, 
and most of us were exceedingly anxious to 
become real soldiers. I know I dreamed al- 
most every night of being in the war. and I 
was very sorry that I was not quite seventeen 
years old. However, it never came to that. 
The war ended before they called for cadets 
of seventeen years. 

Among my other teachers, whilst in Ein- 
siedeln, I may name : Rev. Father Eenno 
Kiihne, Dr. phil., author of several works 
and for fifty years rector of the school, who 
some years ago celebrated his diamond jubi- 
lee; and the Rev. Dr. Albert Kuhn, still 
teaching, though over eighty years of age, 
and also a well-known author. It was 
through Father Kuhn and Father Rudolph 
Blattler, professor of drawing and painting, 
that I acquired the original paintings of De- 
schwanden for St. John's Church in Hot 
Springs. This talented artist left a great 
many beautiful altar paintings and frescoes, 
especially in the churches of the neighbor- 
hood. I took private lessons from him. 

My vacations were very interesting because 
of numerous pleasant journeys I was able 
to take. On one vacation trip with four 
other students (I\l2ttler, Redding, Theiler and 
Muff), we climbed — for there was no other 
way at that time— the following mountains : 
Rigi. Mythen, Stanserhorn and Pilatus. Be- 
ing provided w^ith shawls and Alpine sticks we 
looked like tourists. We visited a Ca- 
puchin church upon INIount Rigi. A Capuchin 
father came and our guide spoke to him in 
high German. The good father evidently took 
us for Protestant tourists. Falling in line, 
our guide asked him many questions, which 
the good father readily answered, and said 
we were so quick to understand that it would 
not take much for us to become Catholics. 
By and by the situation became critical ; we 
were afraid the good monk might discover 
that we were Catholic students from Ein- 
siedeln and left him as quickly as we 
could. 

When we were on the "Mythen," the only 
hotel on the top was already closed for the 
season. Being hungry, we opened by force 
a window, and, entering, found some refresh- 



ments. We left about as much money as we 
tliought would be a fair price, but signed in 
the visitors' register as "Prince of Wales" 
and other such high titles. 

From there we went to Mt. Pilatus. The 
evening before we danced until midnight in 
Nicholas Muff's house, near Kriens. After 
midnight we left. In pasing Eigenthal, in 
the forest, where there were living tlirce an- 
chorites, near the Chapel of the Last Judg- 
ment, in the midst of a dark forest of pine 
trees, we sang above the hermitage the "Gloria 
in Excelsis" with four voices, but did not 
speak a word. We supposed that would be a 
wonderful consolation for the brothers. When 
we came toward the hotel in the early morn- 
ing, we imagined, as the sun had been shining 
a long time and we had net slept, that it was 
late, and we ordered dinner. The guests en- 
joyed our mistake and our singing and paid 
our bills. 

All of those students except Redding, who 
is an engineer, became priests. Mettler be- 
came Father Theodore, O. S. B. ; Theiler 
became Father Placidus, O. Cist., and IMuff 
Father Celestine, O. S. B. The two last- 
named priests are authors of renown. 

The highest peak of the Pilatus is called 
"Esel." From the hotel a circuitous path 
leads up to it where the grandest view awaits 
the tourist. For daring travelers there is a 
shorter way, through the "Krieseloch," an im- 
mense opening in the rocks. A long ladder 
is fastened along the rock. We took that 
way and sat on that ladder over the dizzy 
heights. Straight down, several thousand 
feet below us. flashed the black waves of the 
Lake of the Four Cantons, and above us the 
peak of the mountain. We remained in that 
dangerous position for quite a while, singing, 
one song after another. The mere remem- 
l)rance of it has since made me shudder many 
a time. 

Returning, I remembered my father had 
given me twenty francs to buy a pair of 
shoes. I suppose he thought I needed them 
for the trip. Anyway, I did noj; waiit to re- 
turn without the shoes, and went into a store 
in Lucerene. I must have been black and 
dusty from my trip. I know I felt weary 
for want of sleep. In any case the store- 
keeper must have taken me for a day laborer 
and gave me a pair of heavy shoes, tipped 
with big nails. The shoes cost but ten francs. 
I carried them on my cane over the shoul- 
ders, not remembering that I had an empty 
traveling bag hanging on my back into which 
T could have put them. It happened that Dr. 
Xavier Schmidt, the Secretary of State, 
passed me in his coach on the way to pay a 
visit to my family. Upon arrival he men- 
tioned that he had passed a silly boy carrying 
a pair of shoes on a stick, with his empty hav- 
ersack hanging from the shoulders. My old- 
est sister guessed that I was that foolish boy 
and went out to look for me. As soon as 
she sa^v me and saw how sleepy T looked, 
she related to me what Dr. Schmidt had said, 
and told me to go to bed quickly that he 



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March 15 



might not find out that the simpleton be- 
longed to our family. For a long time I was 
teased about those shoes, which I could not 
wear at home on account of the nails and 
the noise they made, and was not allowed to 
take to college. 

After I had been at home about a week an 
article in the daily papers brought the news 
that the hotel on tiie Mythen had been 
broken into in the absence of the watchman. 
The article remarked that the burglars must 
have been pretty honest people, as they left 
money for what they had taken, and took 
good care to close tiie windows and shutters 
caiefully before leaving. It also gave the 
names registered in the book, "Prince of 
Wales." etc. I kept very quiet about it, as 
did also the other boys, for a time. We 
never dreamed of having done anything 
wrong. After returning to college we told 
some of tlie students of our adventure, and a 
talented student of philosophy wrote an epos 
in hexameters about it, which was published 
in the Holzaffcl. the "official paper" of the 
students, and was read publicly at table. 

Another time Mr. Brugger, later Abbot 
Columban, of Einsiedeln ; Mr. Gunther and I 
spent our vacation together. We first went 
to Baden and there took some hot baths, but 
did not stay long. In Basle we heard the 
opera "Freischiitz." .About thirty years later 
the same opera was produced at the German 
theatre in St. Louis, and I went to hear it. 
The singing and playing in Basle had been 
far superior, but the wonderful electric ef- 
fects, especially in the wolf's glen, were 
naturally grander in St. Louis. 

One of the most enjoyable trips of my 
student years was the return of about fifty 
students to our ".Alma Mater." We all met 
on a steamer in Lucerne. There we ])0ught 
immense coarse straw hats, something like 
the Mexican sombrero, for ten centimes or 
two cents a piece. Arriving in Brunnen, it 
was raining. We tried to engage several 
wagons at a hotel, but could not agree con- 
cerning the price, and the hackman we were 
talking to told us he had to consult his part- 
ner before he could consent to take us at our 
own price. During his absence we consulted 
and figured out hr-w much we could afford to 
spend on our meals and refreshments in case 
the man did not come dr>wn to our price. It 
was resolved, in case the answer should he 
unfavorable, that not a word should he said, 
but we would all leave immediately on foot, 
in spite of the rain : and no one was to open 
an umbrella. He did not come down to our 
price. In rows of eight, with our big som- 
breros, preceded by two acting as clowiis, we 
walked singing and yodling, as if we were 
basking in the finest sunshine. People looked 
out from every window. 

We had a great deal of fun on that trip, 
and one thing wc enjoyed especially. Upon 
our leaving the college, the Prefect, Father 
Bernard, admonished us very emphatically 
to be temperate in eating and drinking. In 
regard to drinking, he told us never to order 



more than half a "schoppen," a rather small 
measure. Thus we did; but on that trip, 
taking the bad weather into account, we 
thought we were justified in doubling the 
measure, and told the innkeeper to bring each 
two half-schoppen. He wondered why we 
did not have just one bottle, but we insisted 
on having our wish. As soon as we arrived, the 
good Prefect, among other things, asked us 
if we had ever ordered more than half a 
schoppen, and we answered that we had al- 
ways complied with liis wish. He gave us 
great praise before the other students. I may 
add that none had drunk too much. 

On one occasion, when my people were 
digging potatoes, and I was still a little stu- 
dent of about twelve years, I helped them 
carry the potatoes in large baskets upon my 
head to the wagons. My father happened to 
come out to the field, and was greatly sur- 
prised upon finiling me carrying such heavy 
loads. As I had been sickly a great deal the 
first seven years of my life, I was regarded 
as a weak boy. Besides this, I used to work 
right-handed, wliilst all my people were left- 
handed, and, therefore, my working looked 
odd to them. Repeatedly, when I tried to 
help somewhere, my father would say, "You 
had better stop and read or play; it makes me 
tired to see you working." This was a great 
mortilication for me, but now, when my fa- 
ther saw how strong I was, he was pleas- 
antly surprised, and told me to come to his 
bureau in the evening. Tliere he gave me a 
handful of money and told me I could travel 
for five weeks wherever I wanted. I started 
in company with an older brother, then a 
student of philosophy, and my oldest sister. 
The latter followed us only as far as the 
"Rigi." We two brothers went on together 
for a few days, but when my brother fre- 
quently, especially on our trip tlirough Ap- 
pcnzcll, insisted upon working out problems 
in mental arithmetic, as a good and_ neces- 
sary exercise for me, and a nice pastime for 
him, I declared I had had enough arithmetic 
during llic school year and now wanted to 
satisfy my curiosity and take a vacation. I 
l)roposed that we separate, like Abraham 
and Lot. We agreed, but my brother re- 
marked, "In a couple of days you will be 
lioniesick and return." I replied that I would 
see about that. Tie then went to the Rhine 
falls, at Sch.-iffhausen, and other places, 
wliilst I wandered in the direction of Vorarl- 
bcrg and Tyrol. After a couple of weeks 
my brother was at home, but I fini.shed my 
allotted five weeks and saved half of the 
money my father had given me. 
{Tn be continued) 
»^»^$^^ 



— .After reading the Rp.viKw, hand it to a 
friend ; perhaps he will subscribe, and you 
will have done him a service and helped 
along the apostolafe of the good press. 

— We have always two duties to perform — 
we nnist work and we must i)ray. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



86 



Lord Haldane on British and German 
Statesmanship 

Viscount Haldane, in his new book, 
"Before the War" (London : Cassell & 
Co.), undertakes to defend the British 
government against two charges : to 
wit, (1) that it did not recognize that 
Germany was bent upon war and did 
not prepare adequately for defense; 
(2) that it did not keep clear of foreign 
entanglements, but joined in the policy 
of encircling Germany. 

The more serious indictment is that 
by the attitude which they took up on 
the one hand to France and Russia, on 
the other to Germany, the British gov- 
ernment were partly responsible for 
the war. So far as their desires were 
concerned Lord Haldane has an easy 
case. The very narrative of his mis- 
sion to Germany in 1912 is proof of the 
anxiety of the Asquith government to 
come to an understanding. He shows 
that the German proposal that England 
should pledge itself to neutrality was 
impracticable. Friendship with France 
apart, how could England be precluded 
from intervening if there was danger 
of the Channel ports coming into Ger- 
man hands ? Lord Haldane nowhere 
makes any pretence that British inter- 
est was limited to Belgium. It was the 
coast opposite to her own shores that 
concerned England, and for this rea- 
son — apart from any wider European 
view — she was bound to keep her 
hands free for the protection of France 
at need. As to the alleged British in- 
tention of violating Belgian neutrality. 
Lord Haldane points out that the 
"Minister" supposed to be in the secret 
could only be himself, and he categor- 
ically denies that during his tenure of 
office he either suggested or heard any- 
one else suggest any such plan. 

Where Lord Haldane is less success- 
ful is in relation to the charge, vigor- 
ously urged by Lord Loreburn, that the 
Cabinet had no clear conception of its 
own commitments to France. Indeed, 
he does not combat this charge direct- 
ly, but it is presumably with this in 
mind that he formulates the limits of 
publicity : 

"There are topics and conjectures in 



the almost daily changing relations be- 
tween governments as to which silence 
is golden. For, however proper it may 
be in point of broad principle that the 
people should be fully informed of 
what concerns them vitally, the most 
important thing is that those to whom 
they have confided their concerns 
should be given the best chance of 
success in averting danger to their 
interests." 

To this those who think with Lord 
Loreburn reply (1) that any under- 
standing which committed England in 
reality, if not in words, to the defence 
of France was of vital importance. It 
was a matter not of details but of the 
entire direction which British foreign 
policy must assume. They add (2) that 
the nature of the understanding with 
France was witheld not only from 
Parliament but from the Cabinet as a 
body, and (3) that it was not even clear 
in the minds of Lord Grey, Lord Hal- 
dane, and Mr. Asquith themselves. The 
consequence was, they proceed, that 
when the time came to act, there was a 
moment of irresolution at home, while 
abroad there was an uncertainty which 
helped to precipitate the war. Had it 
been quite clearly known, both in Petro- 
grad and in Berlin, that England would 
go into the war on certain conditions, 
but only on certain conditions, they 
believe that war would have been 
avoided. 

Lord Haldane's picture of German 
foreign policy is the contrary of that 
which most of us frame. It was, in his 
view, no more dictated by a single will 
than that of Britain. There were, he 
says, two (if not more) powers in Ger- 
many — the civil and the military. The 
former desired peace, the latter, headed 
by Tirpitz, if it did not precisely desire 
war, was determined to impose its will 
on Europe by terror. On the sincerity 
of the Chancellor Lord Haldane dwells 
repeatedly. That of the ex-Kaiser is 
perhaps less unequivocal, for the Kaiser 
had in speech at least to keep on terms 
with the militarists, but on the whole, 
Lord Haldane writes — and on this point 
there is no single Englishman with such 
ample means of judging: "I believe 



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March 15 



the Emperor and Bethnianii lo liavo de- 
sired whole-heartedly the preservation 
of peace. But to that end they took 
inadequate means, and the rcsuh was a 
disastrous faihire to accomphsh it." 

The body responsible for the war, he 
believes, was the Germati General Stall", 
and so far as any one individual can 
bear the blame, that individual, accord- 
ing to Lord Haldane's accoum. is Ad- 
miral von Tirpitz. 

But there is a higher point of view 
from which the responsibility is seen to 
be more diffused. 

"The ultimate and real origin of this 
war." says Lord Haldane, "the greatest ' 
hiimanity has ever had to endure, was 
a set of colossal suspicions of each other 
by the nations concerned." Every man 
who fostered these suspicions, English 
journalist or Prussian professor, has his 
share in the guilt. From this wider view 
Lord Haldane concludes his volume 
with an "epilogue" pleading with re- 
straint and dignity for a more rational 
attitude towards England's late enemies. 
He points to the great part which Ger- 
many has played and — whether Britain 
likes it or not — will play in all the essen- 
tials of civilization. He reminds his 
countrymen that "we have never hither- 
to ke|jt up old animosities unduly long, 
and that has been one of the secrets of 
our strength in the world." He makes 
no appeal to extremists, but would have 
the people return to their normal sanity 
and dispassionateness of judgment. 
Only so can we look- forward to a 
healthy future for civilization in a world 
that contains, as he estimates, a hundred 
millions of Germans. numl)ering among 
them many of the most capable and 
best-instructed minds of the race. 



Spiritism — Another View 
Tn the l-.ditdr : 

.Sf)mc time agfj I wrote to you on the 
attitude it would seem advisable for us 
to take in rej^ard to Spiritism. After 
reading the five articles compiled and 
arranged by Mr. Raupcrt for your es- 
teemed F. R., and also other matter on 
Spiritism, I am convinced more than 
ever that we are making a mistake in 



giving this new cult so much free adver- 
tisement. What benetit can we expect 
from our present policy of throwing 
these so-called scientific investigations 
with their captivating titles into the open 
market? It is almost axiomatic that in- 
vestigations stir up muddy waters. In- 
vestigations of Spiritism seem to me to 
come under this heading. For a nerv- 
ous class of people, such as we have to- 
day, this policy might be fraught with 
danger. H such investigations have to 
be made, their results ought not to be 
left in the hands of anyone, but should 
])roperly come to us through ecclesiasti- 
cal authority. 

If 1 may offer a criticism of the ar- 
ticles. "Some Light on the Mystery of 
Evil," 1 would say that they do not 
prove anything. Mr. Raupert, in giving 
them their peculiar title and releasing 
them for print, clearly intimates that 
the distressing case of the deceased 
priest offers another instance of Spirit- 
ism. To my mind, however, they are 
nothing more than a case of wrong dia- 
gnosis. \\y chance it happened that the 
American Ecclesiastical Review in the 
January number of this year carried an 
article by the Rev. Fr. Agius, S.J., on 
the "Relations of Scruples to Mental 
Breakdown." The author, following 
approved spiritual writers, gives a sur- 
vey of scruples that must be read to be 
ajipreciated. 

He shows how scruples are to be dis- 
tinguished from temptations and how 
they can lead to obsession and delusion. 
He also states how people suffering 
from delusion are apt to be bothered 
with outside influences, such as devils, 
angels, persons, and voices — all the cre- 
ation of their deceased minds. After 
reading the articles, "Some Light on the 
Mystery of l^vil" and then the article 
on the "Relation of Scruples to Mental 
Breakdown" one cannot help but say 
that l^V. Agius gives the solution that 
Mr. Raupert vainly sought, a solution 
sf;undly C'atholic, .safe and sane, with a 
few hints on the discerning of spirits 
thrown in for good measure. 

(Rev.) Kmil M. DiX-k 

Hnffalo. N. V. 



1920 



TilK FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



87 



Timely Protests 

It was a genuine relief to all right- 
nnnded Americans to see the protest of 
live Episcopalian bishops, one Methodist 
Episcopal bishop, and sixteen other 
I*rotestant divines against the deporta- 
tion of men without judicial trial, 
against the repressive legislation pend- 
ing before Congress, against the suspen- 
sion of the Socialist members of the 
New ^"ork legislature, and similar "evi- 
dences of an excited mood on the part 
of many of our people." The protest is 
w orth reprinting. It reads as follows : 

"\\\\ the undersigned, ministers of 
the Church of Christ, believing that 
the political institutions of our country 
commend themselves to the reason and 
conscience of mankind sufficiently to 
stand the test of such freedom of speech 
as has hitherto, in time of peace, been 
accorded by our government to the 
aliens who have come to us for asylum, 
as well as to our citizens, are moved 
to make an appeal to the people of the 
churches of America on account of cer- 
tain measures, inconsiderately under- 
taken, which threaten the basic prin- 
cij)les of our government. We have in 
mind, in particular, the deportation of 
men without judicial trial, the proposed 
repressive legislation now before Con- 
gress, threatening the primary rights of 
free speech, free press and peaceable 
assembly ; the suspension of Social- 
i.sts by the Xcw York State Assembly, 
and other evidences of an excited 
mood on the part of many of our peo- 
ple. We have long been saying that 
constitutional changes can be effected 
v.-iihout violence in America, because of 
our right to free expression of opinion 
l)y voice and ballot. We cannot now 
deny this American substitute for vio- 
lence without directly encouraging re- 
sort to revolution. In the conviction, 
therefore, that our American institu- 
tions will survive because they have the 
willing allegiance of the majority of 
(•ur citizens, we urge the people of the 
churches of America to use their in- 
fluence for the return to that old faith 
in the fundamental principles of our 
civil libertv." 



The expulsion of the Socialist mem- 
bers of the N. Y. Assembly in particu- 
lar, has elicited a strong letter from the 
Rev. Dr. John A. Ryan, of the Catho- 
lic University of America, to Mr. Mor- 
ris Hillquitt, from which we quote the 
following salient passages : 

"You and your associates are com- 
bating the most brazen and insidious 
political outrage that has been com- 
mitted in this country since 1877. I 
agree with the social and political prin- 
ciples held by your five clients as little 
to-day as in the days when you and I 
crossed swords in the pages of Every- 
body's Magazine, but I hope I still be- 
lieve in justice, in democracy, in the 
reign of the law. 

"Possibly my desire to see your pres- 
ent cause triumph is not altogether 
unselfish, for I see quite clearly that if 
the five Socialist representatives are ex- 
pelled from the New York Assembly 
on the ground that they belong to and 
avow loyalty to an organization which 
the autocratic majority regards as 'in- 
imical to the best interests of the State 
of New York,' a bigoted majority, I 
say, the Legislature of Georgia may use 
the action as a precedent to keep out of 
tliat body regularly elected members 
who belong to the Catholic Church. 
For there have been majorities in the 
legislature of more than one Southern 
State that have looked upon the Cath- 
olic Church exactly as Speaker Sweet 
looks tipon the Socialist party." 

Needless to say, the Fortnightly 
Review endorses both of these protests. 
The last paVagraph of Dr. Ryan's cour- 
ageous letter deserves the special atten- 
tion of those of our misguided coreli- 
gionists who cannot see that in approv- 
ing the persecution of the Socialists 
they are endangering the Catholic 
Church. 

In our opinion, the attacks upon lib- 
erty and democracy which we are now 
witnessing are dangerous enough to 
elicit the strongest possible protests 
from every Catholic in the land. If 
liberty is destroyed in America, no body 
of citizens will be made to suffer so 
([uickly and so sharply as the members 
of the Catholic Church. 



88 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



Errors in the American Standard 

Version of the Bible 

3 

In 1 Cor. IX, St. Paul tells his Co- 
rinthian Christians that he does not wish 
to make use of his Apostolic right to be 
maintained at tiieir expense, in order 
not to give offence to the heathen 
among whom he labored. In verse 5 
he asks : "Have we not a right to take 
about [with us] a sister, like the rest of 
the Apostles and the brethren of the 
Lord and Cephas?" (Westminster 
\'ersion). Other Apostles, who evan- 
gelized the Jews, did make use of this 
right, for there was no danger of scan- 
tlalizing the Jews by this practice. 

The American Standard Version ren- 
ders verse 5 thus : "Have we no right 
to lead about a wife that is a believer, 
even as the rest of the Apostles?" thus 
making St. Paul say that' the other 
Apostles had wives and took them along 
on their Apostolic journeys. By impli- 
cation the reader is led to believe that 
S'. Paul did the same, and that he jus- 
tified his action by appealing to the prac- 
tice of the elder Apostles. 

Now, we know of St. Peter that he 
was married before he was chosen as an 
Apostle of Christ. \\'e know also, from 
his own words, that he left all things to 
follow his Master (Matt. XIX, 27-29). 
If any of the other Apostles were mar- 
ried before they were called by Jesus, 
they certainly left all things, as St. Peter 
did, when our Lord called them to the 
Apostolic life. St. Paul tells us in 1 
Cor. VH, 7, that he lived a fclibatc life. 
St Luke in his Gospel (VIII. 1-3), 
te'ls us that certain women followerl 
Chri.st and ministered to Him of their 
substance. In a similar way the Apos- 
tles who worked among the Jews em- 
ployed pious women as missionary help- 
ers: but St. Paul would not avail him- 
self of such help for fear of scandal- 
izing the gentiles. We can readily per- 
ceive that he deemed it necessary to lay 
special stress on the female character 
of "adelphen" (sister) to distinguish it 
clearly from the rorrcspfjnding mascu- 
line noun "adcl|>hon" (brother, i. c, a 
Christian man). In oral speech such 
stress is usually expressed by an em- 



phatic pronunciation of the distin- 
guishing syllable. But as St. Paul was 
in Ephesus while dictating this letter, 
the Corinthians could not hear his em- 
phasis. He. therefore, added the word 
"gynaika" (woman) after "adelphen," 
to make it plain that he, as well as the 
other Apostles, had the right to avail 
himself of female helpers in his Apos- 
tolic labors, but that he chose to have 
only male helpers, so as not to scan- 
dalize the heathen. 

The Greek word Siyiic by itself may 
mean zcoman as well as 7vifc. The con- 
text in every case must decide in which 
meaning the word is used. The Prot- 
estant translators, no doubt on account 
of their aversion to celibacy, rendered 
gync by wife, thereby violating the rules 
of Greek syntax and ignoring the light 
which other N. T. texts throw upon the 
passage in question. 

The Greek has adelphen gynaika, a 
sister-woman. Sister here means, as 
the corresponding brother frequently 
does in the N. T., a believer, a Christian. 
The compound expression sister-wom- 
an, therefore, means a Christian woman. 
According to both the Hebrew and the 
Greek idioms such expressions, com- 
posed of a generic noun, as brother, 
sister, prophet, prophetess, widow, Jew, 
etc., are nominal appositions and do not 
express two distinct ideas, but one idea 
only, which is best rendered in English 
by omitting the generic noun. This the 
American Standard Version has rightly 
done in very many cases, for instance, 
Judges IV, 4: "Nor Deborah, a proph- 
etess," where the Hebrew has : "Debo- 
rah, a woman-prophetess ;" Acts I, 16 : 
"P>rethren." where the Greek has andres 
adelphoi, "men-brethren." 

In Greek, as in Hebrew, many per- 
sonal nouns which denote employment, 
station or age, are treated as adjectives, 
and the words man or woman are 
joined to them, if the person is to be 
considered in relation to his employ- 
ment, station or age. But these words 
arc omitted if the person is considered 
a.> merely performing the duties of a 
particular office or employment, for in- 
stance : aner mantis, a man who is by 
profession a soothsayer ; mantis, a tnan 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



89 



who acts for the time being as a sooth- 
sayer. (Cfr. Klihner, Grammar of the 
Greek Language, p. 367, Rem. 3, N. Y., 
1858). 

The Hebrew in such expressions reg- 
ularly places the generic noun (man, 
woman) before the specific noun 
(brother, prophet, etc.). For this kind 
of nominal apposition in Hebrew cfr. 
Gesenius. Hebrew Grammar, § 131 b. 
In Greek, however, the generic noun 
may either precede or follow the specific 
noun. I will cite a few cases where the 
generic noun stands in the second place, 
this case being the less frequent : grans 
gync, Ar. Th. 345; Dem. 19, 283; 
dUiOai gvnaikcs (slave- women), Odyss, 
Vn, 103; XHI, 66; Iliad VI, 323; IX, 
477: klopes andres (thieves-men), 
Eurip., Rhes. 645 ; mantis ancr (a sooth- 
sayer-man). Find. I, 5, 49; see also 
Pmd., XI, 33; Iliad XI, 514. In the 
N. T. Greek we have Acts XVII, 12; 
h.cllcnidon gynaikon ( Greek- w^omen) 
and 1 Cor. tX, 5 ; adclphcn gynaika 
(sister-woman). 

I have purposely cited a number of 
cases where the generic follows the spe- 
cific, since it has been asserted that in 
1 Cor. IX, 5, gynaika, because it does 
not precede adclplicn, cannot be the 
generic woman, but must be taken as 
the predicative accusative of the verb 
to lead about, and consequently as the 
specific zvifc. [ hope that the readers 
of the F. R. will see that the assertion 
referred to is not well founded. 

Joseph Molitor, D. D. 
-.-.-S>^-. 

— We regret to record the death of 
the Rev. Joseph V/ilhelm, Ph. D., D. D., 
who. after serving on the English mis- 
sion for thirty-one years, withdrew to 
his native Aachen early in the war. He 
was a distinguished theologian, collabo- 
rated with Dr. Scannell in "A Manual 
of Catholic Theology," translated "The 
Catholic Manual" from the German of 
Father T. Pesch, S. J., edited the "In- 
ternational Catholic Library," contrib- 
uted to the Catholic Encyclopedia and 
to a number of Catholic periodicals, 
among them the F. R. May he rest in 
peace ! 



That National Shrine 

To the Editor: 

The project of erecting a $5,000,000 
national shrine as a votive offering from 
the Catholics of the United States, is 
worthy of Solomon, who built the fa- 
mous temple through the labor contribu- 
tions of the entire nation. For seven 
years 180,000 teamsters, laborers and 
stone and wood cutters worked one 
month out of every three. Another army 
of 180,000 mechanics, artists and fin- 
ishers must have been similarly em- 
ployed one month out of every three. 
Instead of building our votive shrine 
in seven years, it might be well to imi- 
tate the pious cathedral builders of 
old and permit more than one genera- 
tion to contribute to its beauty. The 
building of St. Peter's Church in Rome 
occupied 175 years; the cathedral of 
Florence, 146 years ; that of Notre 
Dame, Paris, 200 years ; that of Salis- 
bury, 60 years. In those days pious 
designers did not seem anxious to mo- 
nopolize the credit for erecting monu- 
ments to the glory of God. However, 
the constructive work of increasing and 
guaranteeing multitudes of worshippers 
might logically precede the building of 
a great votive church. The Church of 
St. Sophia in Constantinople, founded 
by Constantine, and rebuilt by Justinian, 
was transformed into a mosque in 1453. 
Some of the most beautiful French 
cathedrals are visited oftener by tourists 
than by worshippers. Nearly all the an- 
cient cathedrals in England are stripped 
of crosses, statues, and altars. 

The maintenance of a five-million- 
dollar building is a serious problem, and 
might cause the neglect of some neces- 
sary spiritual work. Half a century ago 
it took $30,000 annually to maintain 
St. Peter's Church in Rome. Anti- 
Catholic prejudice would not have to in- 
crease very much to bring about taxa- 
tion of church property. Such an emer- 
gencv might turn a five-million-dollar 
building into an onerous burden. 

Would not a votive church in the 
South, where the Catholic population in 
many of the States is three or less per 
cent of the whole, and where so many 
scattered and isolated little flocks have 



90 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



divine service only at long and intermit- 
tent intervals, or not at all. redound 
more to the glory of God. after a rich 
and rife harvest of souls shall have been 
gathered? $2.5aiOOO would do won- 
ders for our neglected colored people so 
often subjected to odious discrimination, 
exploitation and race hatred. It would 
furnish and pay the salaries of many 
priests and teachers for ten years. An- 
other million and a half would raise our 
long-neglected Mexicans on this side of 
the border to a decent and intelligent 
level of Christianity and citizensliip. 
Though pauperized andj degraded by 
various agencies, they would build 
churches and schools if we furnished 
and supported a sulTicient number of 
priests and teachers for a few years. 
They are now despised and looked upon 
as mistrusted aliens in the country of 
their birth and of their forefathers. 
Thousands of them do not know who 
is president of the United States. $1.- 
500,000 thus spent on our poor, though 
deserving Mexicans, would solve the 
■'Mexican Question," because, as Col. 
L. Mervin Maus says, the Mexicans on 
our side of the border would win for us 
the everlasting esteem and friendship of 
the Mexicans in Mexico. The balance 
of the five million votive church fund 
could be used as advantageously for our 
neglected Italians and Indians. Millions 
of very languid adherents of the Church 
would blossom forth as living and de- 
voted members, and the Church would 
be placed above suspicion or jealousy in 
the eyes of the American people. She 
would automatically become a wondrous 
>afcguard for American institutions. 
;ind in time the Catholics of America 
might be happy to make a ten-million 
votive church ofTering as an act of ever- 
lasting gratitude. G. Z. 



Negroes in the K. of C. 
To the liditor : 

For sfime time various |>er>oiis havi- 
been writing in y<nir magazine about the 
admittance and non-admittance of col- 
ored Catholics in'.f) the Order of the 
Knights of Cohimbus. I have been 
watching the arguments very closely, 



as 1 am much interested in this con- 
troversy, being in charge of a colored 
mission for the last ten years. I do not 
know if it is against the constitution of 
the order, or only a conventional matter 
among the lodges, to take or not to take 
colored men into the organization, but 
the fact exists that there arc colored 
men in that order. All through the 
South, upon close examination, we shall 
tind colored blood among the Knights. 
1 would not make this assertion if I did 
not know such cases personally. Of 
course, the men in question go every- 
where as white men, but they^now that 
they are (colored) negroes), and others 
know it also. Therefore, why all that 
fuss? 

(Rev.) P. J. Wendkl 
Meridian, Miss. 

•-»<iv»-« 

Value of the "Corpus Juris Canonici" 

Regarded as a code of ecclesiastical 
laws, the old "Corpus luris Canonici" 
leaves much to be desired, and those 
who wish to ascertain the law of the 
Church on any given point may well 
iind it a relief to turn from that maze 
of Decretum, Decretales, and Extrava- 
gantes, with their bewildering refer- 
ences and conflicting decisions, to the 
luminous simplicity of the New Code of 
C anon Law. But those who fancy that 
the old "Corpus luris" may now be dis- 
carded as obsolete, are reminded by Fa- 
ther W. II. Kent {Tablet, No. 4131), 
that it is something much more than a 
mere code of dead laws. For the main 
body of the book is not composed of 
dry, abstract, impersonal canons, but of 
])apal letetrs which are for the most part 
very human documents. I)isho])S, from 
all parts of the world, write to the Pope 
to consult him on some case in their dio- 
cese, and the Pope's answer finds its ap- 
propriate place in the "Corpus luris Ca- 
nonici." Regarded in this aspect the 
collection is a luminous object-lesson in 
medieval life and history, and while 
dciling ex profcsso with all manner of 
questions and all sorts and c(jnditions of 
men, it furnishes, however indirectly 
and undesignedly, the best and jnosl 
practical treatise "I)e Romano I'on- 
lilice." 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



91 



The Espionage Act at Work 

The first indictment under the Esjji- 
onage act made since the armistice 
comes in the case of three Socialists in 
Syracuse, N. Y. The case shows how a 
sedition law may work when the coun- 
try is no longer fighting. Three Ameri- 
can-born citizens — Steene, Hotze, and 
Preston — were brought to trial for the 
literature they had distributed, adver- 
tising a meeting of protest against tlu^ 
continued imprisonment of i)olitical 
prisoners. The men were found guilty 
on four counts : conspiracy, distribu- 
tion of seditious literattire, inciting and 
promoting resistance to the govern- 
ment, and bringing the armed forces of 
the country into contumely and disre- 
pute, as well as obstructing enlistment. 
The offenders were senteiiced to a year 
and a half each. 

"In the facts of this case," comments 
the Nc-iu Republic (No. 271), "there is 
enough to warn any American w4io 
cherishes the htmiblest notions of his 
personal freedom. The literature 
which Steene, Hotze and Preston dis- 
tribtited was made up chiefly of ac- 
cotmts of tortures claimed to have been 
inflicted upon political prisoners in dis- 
ciplinary barracks. Congressmen have 
circulated such accounts inider a gov- 
ernment frank. The punishment which 
comes to these men for the same sort 
of action shows how handily legislation 
apparently enacted for one ptirpose can, 
in a time of hysteria, be used by cotirrs 
and prosecutors and juries for a piir- 
l)ose entirely different. The Espionage 
act — so the public thought — was de- 
signed essentially to protect our military 
efforts from the German spy system. 
It has ended finally, by putting in jail 
three men who appeal to their govern- 
ment as humanitarians." 

•-♦<j>^.-. 



A Remedy for Poison Ivy 

7"o the llditor : 

In your Feb. 15th issue (p. 51), cat- 
nip leaves are recommended as a rem- 
edy for poison ivy. Catnip is not al- 
ways to be had, and hence a simpler, but 
at least equally effective remedy may be 
welcome : 



JMace a small handful of linseed 
( flax) in a white coth and tie a string 
around the cloth, so that the seeds are 
somewhat loose in the bag thus formed. 
Place the seed in warm (not boiling) 
water for thirty miiuites, then gently 
rub the affected parts with the bag, 
using just enough pressure to force out 
the liquid. Replace the bag in the water 
and use again and again. 

This is a wonderful remedy and a 
])oon to all who suffer from poison ivy. 

J. M. Sevenicii, 
Editor Der Laiuliiianii, Milwaukee, \\'is. 
•-•-^>»-» 



NOTES AND CiLEAMNGS 

— President Wilson's recent letters 
show that he has lost something of his 
erstwhile mastery of speech._^ His new 
style is — what shall we call it — tun.nil- 
tuous ? 

— The Ecclesiastical Review (Feb.) 
criticises J]rother lienjamin's drama- 
tized version of Canon Sheehan's "My 
New Curate," because, our contempo- 
rary says, it "lacks the essential delicacy 
which separates the priestly character 
from that of the traditional stage fig- 
ure." 

— Scott and Seltzer, feeling that the 
public might be prejudiced against a 
l)Ook with a German author's name, 
have announced "The Burning Secret" 
by Stefan Zweig as by "Stephen 
Branch." Zweig is a nice easy word 
to translate, but what can we do about 
Goethe. Schiller or Heine? 



Position Wanted 
Immediately 

B Y 

Well Trained Young Organist 

With Some Experience and 
Much Good Will 



Address : 

N. N., care Fortnightly Review 

i8 South 6th St., St. I.ouis, Mo. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



— There ought to be a law forbidding 
the composition, or at least the publica- 
tion, of free verse until the perpetrator 
has qualified by writing, say. a sonnet or 
a page of iambic pentameters. 

— We are pleased to know that the 
condition of the Rev. Charles Becker, a 
professor of St. Francis Seminary. St. 
Francis, Wis., who has been ill for some 
time at Effingham. 111., is improving, and 
gladly comply with the request to in- 
form his many friends of the fact 
through the F. R. 

— The U. S. Supreme Court has de- 
cided that information illegallv acquired 
by Department of Justice officials in a 
"raid" cannot be used as a basis for 
subpoenaing testimony for trial. 
Thereby is has plainly condemned as 
unconstitutional and illegal the whole 
series of nation-wide "raids" with which 
Attorney-General Palmer has sought to 
save an imperilled country and enter- 
tained a jaded electorate. 

— The reported revision of terms by 
the Allied Council does not bv any 
means deal with all the aspects of this 
complicated problem. But it at least in- 
dicates that the problem is being faced, 
practically and not emotionally, and that 
recognition is being now granted to the 
fact that the economic recuperation of 
Central Europe is as necessary for the 
world's return to a normal status as is 
the recoverv of England, France and 
Italy. 

— A teacher and organist is seeking 
a position. He is not only thoroughly 
competent in both capacities himself 
(being a graduate of the Normal Col- 
lege at St. Francis. Wis., and a former 
pupil of Prof. John Middelschulte and 
Prof. Albert .Sicbcn), but can furnish 
with his own family an orchestra of six 
pieces (piano, violin, cello, double-bass 
flute, slide trombone, double-bass eupho- 
nium, and solotonc). He has declined 
an oflfcr from the Kedpath Chautau(|ua 
to go on the platform, but would like to 
take a position, at a reasonable salary, 
in some Catholic community, where he 
would have an opportunity to use the 
extraordinary talents of his children 
a!:d at the same time to give them a 
good education. 



Bargains in Second-Hand Books 

Blackmorc-. S. A. (.S.J.) The Kiddles of Ilamlet and 
the Newest Answer. Boston, 1917. $1.50. 

B)i(i7iVr. G. Abriss der deutschen National-Litteratur. 
Freiburg, 1895. $1. 

B.iart, P. A. Legal Fornuilarv, or, A Collection of 
Forms to be Used in the Exercise of Voluntary 
and Contentious Jurisdiction. New York, 1S98. $2. 

liourassa. Hcnn. Le Pape Arbitre de la Paix. 
Montreal, 1918. 75 cts. (Wrapper). 

Cecilia, Mad.inic. Outline Meditations. N. Y., 1918. 
$1.25. 

Kcch-Pii-uss. Handbook of Moral Theology. Vol. II. 
St. Louis, 1919. $1. 

Aufnisliiic. P. C. (O.S.B.) A Commentary on the 
New Code of' Canon Law. Vol. II. Clergy and 
Hierarchy. (Canons 87-486). St. Louis, 1918. $2. 

Lahauche, L. (SS.) God and Man. Lectures on Dog- 
matic Theology. N. Y., 1916. $1.25. 

Klcist, J. A. (S.J.) The Dream of Scipio (De Re 
I'ublica VI, 9-29). With Introduction, Notes, and 
an English Translation. N. Y., 1915. 50 cts. 

Ryan, J. A. Alleged Socialism of the Church Fa- 
thers. St. Louis, 1913. 40 cts. 

Ruhl, Arthur. The Other Americans. The Cities, 
the Countries, and Es])ecially the People of South 
America. Illustrated. N. Y., 1909. $1.50. 

Riiskiii, John. The Crown of Wild Olive, and Sesame 
and Lilies. N. Y., s. a. $1. 

Pohlc-Prcuss. Mariology. A Dogmatic Treatise on 
the ni. V. Mary. 2nd ed. St. Louis, 1916. 75 cts. 

ll'altcr, F. Aberglaube imd Seelsorge, mit beson- 
dorer l>erucks:chtigung des IIyi)notisnius und 
Spiritismus. Paderborn, 1904. 70 cts. 

Medley. J. C. (O. S. B.) The Light of Life. Ser- 
mons. London, .s. a. $2. 

Mizart, St. George. An Introduction to the Ele- 
ments of Science. London, 1894, $1. 

Slater, Thoa. (S.J.). A Manual of Moral Theology. 
2 vols. N. Y., 1908. $3. 

Slater, Titos. (S.J.). A Short History of Moral 
Theology. N. Y., 1909. 40 cts. 

Clarke, Isabel C. The Deep Heart. A Novel. N. Y., 
1919. $1.10. 

De Concilio, J. Catholicism r.nd Pantheism. N. Y., 
1874. $1. 

fJelliiuier, Frans. Die kirchliche Vollgewalt des 
apostolischen Stuhles. 2nd ed. Freiburg, 1887. 
75 cts. 

Col'Isteiii. D. and .'Ivrr'v 1\1. M. Bolshevism: Its 
Cure. Boston, 1919. $1.10. 

Scbastiani, N. Summarium Theologiae Moralis ad 
Codicem luris Canonici Accommodatum. 3rd ed. 
Turin, 1919. 95 cts. (Wrapper). 

Conrow J. P. (S.J.). Out to Win. [Talks With 
l!oys]. N. Y., 1919. $1. 

Pohle-Preuss. The Sacraments. Vol. I. (The Sacr. 
in General; Baptism; Confirmation). 2nd revised 
ed. St. Louis. 1917. $1.20. 

/:.! Ilreto, P. Jos. (O.Caf.). Compendium Theologia; 
Moralis iuxta Novum Codicem. Turin, 1919. 85 
cts. (Wrapper). 

Schmidt, Geo. T. The American Priest. N. Y., 
1919. $1. 

P. V. Casus Conscionliae his praescrtim Tcmporibus 
Accommodali. 3 vols. Paris, 1885. $2.50. 

Kaujniann, Peter. The Temple of Truth or the Sci- 
ence of ever I'rogrcssive Knowledge. Cincinnati, 
().. 1858. 50 cts. 

Lynch. Dmis (S.J.). St. Joan of Arc. Life-Story 
of the Maid of Orkans. N. Y., 1919. $2.15. 

Wa'i'iaman. Mary T. The Finding of Tony. A 
Novel. N. Y., 1919. 90 cts. 

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The Fortnightly Review, St. Louis, Mo. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



93 



— On March 1st the owners of the 
railroads got their property back from 
the government with a goodly guaran- 
tee of earnings. The public will get 
what they can compel the owners to 
yield. The workers are put off with 
oily Wilsonian promises. "The Presi- 
dent," says W. M. Reedy in his Mirror, 
"does a fine job of 'stalling.' It's the old 
Wilsonian story. When he says a thing 
will be all right, it is all right, and don't 
you doubt it, for if you do, you'll 'break 
the heart of the world.' " 

— We have ascertained that the blun- 
der which we noted (F. R., XXVII, 2, 
p. 29) in a recent book catalogue is- 
sued by the Catholic Extension Society, 
was made by an employee entrusted 
with the compilation of the catalogue. 
The superior officers had no oppor- 
tunity to revise the proofs because of 
the shortness of time and the pressing 
demand for the catalogue, which had 
already been delayed in consequence of 
the untoward condition^ in the printing 
trade. None of the officials of the So- 
ciety intended any insult, and all regret 
exceedingly that the unfortunate over- 
sight occurred. 

— On another page of this issue we 
print a communication from a dead 
man. The Rev. P. J. Wendel, S. V. 
D., died of the influenza soon after he 
had written his letter to us on "Negroes 
in the K. of C." He had spent ten 
\ears of his life among the negroes of 
the South and knew their needs and 
aspirations as few others know them. 
Some of his more recent commmiica- 
t'unis to the press dealt with the need of 
a native colored priesthood. That negro 
priests are needed if the colored race is 
to be converted to Catholicity, no one 
will deny; but the lack of Catholic 
home life and training among the ne- 
groes is a great obstacle that will have 
to be overcome, at least to some extent, 
before we can hope for vocati<ms to the. 
priesthood among the colored people. 

— We have received the following 
note : "It is a small matter not calling 
for public comment, but for the sake of 
historical accuracy, violated in your Jan. 
1st issue, I beg to inform you that the 
editor of TJie Month is not Fr. S. F. 



Smith, though he is the doyen of its 
staff, but your unworthy servant, Jo- 
seph Keating, S. J., who succeeded Fr. 
Gerard, in April, 1912. Thanking you 
for your kindly comments and wishing 
you all the New Year's graces. Yours 
sincerely, The Editor of The Month. 
London, Jan. 15th, '20." We thank Fr. 
Keating for his welcome correction and 
assure him that the error shall not be 
repeated. 

— The Semaine Religiciise of Quebec 
(Vol. 32, No. 22), publishes the text 
of an indult granted by the Holy Father 
to the Bishop of Joliette, by which the 
faithful of that diocese are permitted, 
for ten years, to substitute Wednesday 
for Saturday as a day of abstinence in 
Lent. For this country the indult has 
also been renewed, but only, we believe, 
for two years — for the reason, we were 
told some time ago, that Rome wishes 
all countries to comply with the univer- 
sal law as laid down in the new Code. 
The latter reason can hardly stand, in 
view of the ten years' renewal just 
granted to a Canadian diocese. 



''My Political Trial and 
Experiences" 

By Jeremiah A. O'Leary 

Just Off the Press 

A sensational storv of the Political Experien- 
ces of a man of Irish'blood who was singled out 
for destruction by the powerful influences of the 
British propaganda. 

How the Biitish propaganda was foiled. 

"Q. Well now. then, vou have committed per- 
jury, vou know that, don't vou? A. Yes. s;r. 

Q. You know you were testifying falsely? 

A. Yes. I did " 

(From the testimony of Madame Gonzales 
under cross-examination. Quoted out of the 
mouth of a main witness for the government]. 
Page 290 of the Book. 



The book contains ,s6o pages, a biographical 
sketch of Mr. OXearv by Major Michael A.Kelly 
of the Old Sixtv-ninth, a peisonal diary of the 
author kept during his impti.sonment. and the 
true story of his trial; also 23 illustrations. 

Price $3.00 Post Paid 



Order now through the 

Jefferson Publishing Co. 

21 Park Row New York City 

Deliveries prompt Order Now 



94 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



The New Canon Law 

A COMMENTARY AND SUMMARY 
BY 

REV. STANISLAUS WOYWOD, O. F. M. 

With a Preface by Very Rev. Msgr. Philip Bernardiiii, J. U. D. 

Professor of Cauou I.aw at the Catholic University, Washington, D. C. 

Complete in one vohinie, large Svo, 452 pages. Cloth, net, $3.50 

.Glided weight and authority are given to the ivork by the commendatory preface written for 

it by the I'ery Reverend Monsignor Philip Bernaydini, J . U. D., Professor 0/ 

Cauou Law at the Catholic University in Washington. 

A very full Index of Subjects eiiliauces the useful uess of the work, 
facilitating ready reference to its contents on anj' particular subject. 



DO YOU WISH 
TO KNOW 



C The New Marriage Legislation? 
I The New Laws Concerning the Clergy? 
■I The New Laws Concerning Religious? 
I The New Canons on the Sacraments? 
V. And all other Church Laws of interest to you? 



1; 



The3' are all stated 

J- in full and concisely 
explained in this hook 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 

123 Baiclay Street NEW YOKK 

8i. Loitis: B. Herder Book Co. 



— The pastoral letter of the hier- 
archVj^as a piece of news, was "released 
for publication" on Monday, Feb. 23d 
— "in time," complains the Catholic Citi- 
ccus." "for the dailies to i)ublish it .sev- 
tral days ahead of the Catholic week- 
lies." Our Milwaukee contemporarv 
ironically adds : "The new hierarchical 
news bureau thus places the Catholic 
press under obligations for special con- 
sideration." Strangely enough, several 
of the "official organs" disregarded the 
"release" date and ]jublished tlu; letter 
ahead of their more conscientious con- 
temporaries. The new scheme of hier- 
archical control of the Catholic jjress 
will fail just as disastrously as did the 
famous attempt to "Toomeyize" that 
same i)ress .some six or seven years ago. 
What we need are independent Catholic 
journals, and if they are conduct cfl with 
ability and honesty, the people will sup- 
|H»rt them. 

•-•-^» • 

— Don't worry over tr'MihJc, it never broke 
a date yet I 



Literary Briefs 



— Tlic B. Herder Book Co. has in prepara- 
tion an English translation of J. Ti.xeront's 
excellent "Precis de Patrologie." 

—Prof. H. Ct. K. White contributes to the 
Li-eli Classical Library tlie first volume of a 
translation df .\usonius, with an interesting 
introduction. He lliinks that, witli all his 
faults, this fourth-century poet may still be 
read with interest and advantage, because he 
tells us wliat life was like and wiiat men were 
like in his age. 

— To promote the study of St. Thomas, the 
S Congregation for Seminaries has requested 
the faculty of the Collegium Angelicum of 
the Dominican Fathers in Rome to edit a 
new school edition of the Summa Theologica 
with a commentary, calculated "to render the 
text more easily understandable." Tiie com- 
mentary is to be based on that of Bl. Capponi 
dc Porrecta. The first part of this new edi- 
tion of the "Simnna" will be published in the 
near future. 

— In "Judicial Reform," by Jolin D. Works, 
\cw York: The Ncale PuI)Iisiiing Co.), a 
jilea for the simplification of judicial pro- 
cedure is made by the author, who has had 
cxi)erience both on the bench and in the 
C S. Senate. He believes in doing away 
with the distinctions between courts, quot- 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



95 



ing witli ailmiratiun the ]>ritish Judicature 
act of 1S73, which threw together tlie Courts 
of Common Law, of Equity, the Exchequer, 
Probate and Admiralty. He would check 
the abuses of repeated appeals, made for the 
sake of delay and other reasons. He would 
do away with many e.xisting practices in his 
own State and in others, as well as in the 
United States courts, which liave been 
abused. The objects for which lie is striv- 
ing will be approved by most readers, wlielli- 
er they be lawyers or not. 

— Prof. Eoin MacXeill, of tlic National 
L'niversity of Ireland, in a series of lectures 
titled "Pliascs of Irish History" ( B. Herder 
Book Co.; $4.30 net), aims at supplementing 
what appears defective and at correcting what 
appears misleading in the treatment of early 
Irish history such as the public lias been 
accustomed to. He emphasizes the need of 
an entirely new history of Ireland from the 
fifteenth century onward, written out of the 
records of the Irish people. Some of his 
conclusions will surprise the reader. Thus 
he shows that there is no trace in Irish his- 
tory, literature, or even legend showing that 
the Irish regarded themselves as a Celtic 
people. The real difference between them 
and the English, in his opinion, is that the 
Irish are descended from the men of the 
new stone age, whereas in England the type 
of Paleolithic men still survives. We hope 
Prof. McNeill will some day give us the true 
Irish history which he desiderates. 

— A reviewer' in the Times Literary Sup- 
plement (No. 939). concludes a notice of 
"The Parish Gilds of iVledieval England," by 
the Rev. H. F. Westlake (London: S. P. C. 
K."), with the following, for a non-Catholic 
quite remarkable passage : 

"No grander e.xpression has ever been 
given to the modern philosophy of prayer 
than in the lines : 

Still raise for good the supplicating voice 
]'>ut leave to heav'n the measure and the choice, 
Safe in His povv'r, whose eye discerns afar 
The secret anihush of a specious pray'r. 
Implore His aid, in His decisions rest, 
Secure whate'er He gives. He gives the best. 
Yet we know that in Johnson the man still 
contended with the philosopher, and he 
could wish that the Church allowed the effi- 
cacy of prayers for the dead. To-day, as in 
the desolate years after the Black Death, 
there is not one of us but has his ow^n list 
of 'brethren departed.' Can we say that a 
spiritualist scniicc marks and progress over 
'a solemne masse of Requiem ffor alle our 
brethren and sustren qwycke and deede?'" 

— No doubt many readers will be delighted 
with "My Political Trial and Experiences," by 
Jeremiah A. O'Leary, the redoubtable editor 
of Bull, wlio fearlessly told some unpleasant 
but salutary truths in the course of the w;ar. 
until his paper was suppressed and he him- 
self arrested on a- charge of violating the 
Espionage act. O'Leary is a clean-cut and 
courageous fellow, with an excellent record 
as a man, citizen and lawyer, and far from 



being a German spy, acted as a true patriot, 
who did not wish .America to become a satel- 
lite of Great I^ritain. The book includes a 
l)iographicaI sketch of Mr. O'Leary by Major 
Michael .A.. Kelley, a life-long friend, and a 
preface by Joseph W. Gavan. But by far the 
most interesting portion is Mr. O'Leary's 
own account of his arrest and trial, wdiicli 
latter, as our readers are aware, ended in an 
acquittal, though thanks to a conspiracy of 
the daily press, most of us have not been 
aware that the author triumphantly conduct- 
ed his own trial and convinced several of the 
star witnesses whom tlie government 
brought against him. of downright perjury. 
.\ careful reading of the book discloses a 
record of corruption such as few of us would 
liave thought possible. (Jefferson Publ. Co., 
21 Park Row. N. Y. City; $3 postpaid). 



Books Received 

Catechism of llic Rcticiions Profession. Translated 
from the French and revised in conformity with 
the New Code of Canon Law. ix & 220 pp. 12mo. 
Metuchen, N. J.: Brothers of the Sacred Heart. 
1919. $1.60, postpaid. 

Man's Great Concern: The Management of Life. 
By Ernest R. Hull, S. J. xiii & 177 pp. 12mo. 
New York: P. J. Kenedy & Sons. Cloth, $1.25; 
paper, 35 cts. 

Lc Message du Sacrc-Coeur a Louis XIV et Ic P. dc 
la Chaise. Stude Historiqne et Critique par L de 
Rccahic. 125 pp. 12mo. Paris: E. Chiron, Edi- 
teur, 40, rue de Seine. 2 francs. (Wrapper). 

Kiircgcfasstes Handbuch dcr Kafholischen Reliqion 
von W. Wilmers S. J. Ftinfte Auflage, neii hcr- 
ausgegebcn von J. Honthcim S. J. iv & 634 pp. 
8vo. "Ratisbon: Fr. Pustet. 1919. 

The Virtues of a Religious Superior. (De Sex Alls 
Seraphim). Instructions by the Seraphic Doctor, 
St Bonaventure. Translated from the Latin by 
Sabinus Mollitor, O. F. M. iv & 112 pp. 12mo. 
B. Herder Book Co. 60 cts. 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Eiglitli Street 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
has produced repeat orders for printing in the 
SIOUX INDIAN, LATIN, ITALIAN, FRENCH, 
HUNGARIAN, SPANISH, GERMAN languages 

Its facilities for quick delivery of printed 
books, booklets, pamphlets, folders, etc.. 
in any language are not excelled. 
Prices very rea.sonable. 




§fElNER^SSI*^S'GEC9c 



BADGES, 



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96 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



Clean literature and clean womanhood are the Keystones of Civilization: 
— this apboristlcally defines the Ideals of the Devln-Adair Imprint. 



The Census Bureau jyublished figures that prove that ^^every ninth marriage the 
countrr/ orer tci-minatcs in dirorce — that divorce is increasing nearly twice 
as fast as marriage. ^^ If you're married or if you're about to be mar- 
ried any Annalist, Actuary — or shrewd '*sjdoj7" will lay you from 
eight to ten to one that YOUR marriage will be a failure — 
that YOU will wind up in the Divorce Court. 

The Devil's wav is the divorce way: the ratio in the larger cities is one in seven to one in three — 
bad enough, truly; but just as surely as "you cannot be a little bit married — or a little bit dead," the 
thousands of thoughtless, hasty and fly-bv-night war marriages will send the average of domestic up- 
heavals to panic figures. Read GREAT WIVKS AND MOTHERS, lend it to others— to your mis- 
mated friends and neighbors — ibove all send it to the youth of both sexes, graduates and undergradu- 
ates of fashionable colleges who (at the most fateful of periods — the adolescent) are being rounded 
into adult life on the works of malt? and female wantons — men and women who if alive would not 
be allowed within smelling distance of a cotter's cottage. The subtle hypocrisy of such impelling 
exemplars makes for cumulative far Kaching harm — harm that fairly snuggles into church, State ami 
society — that inspires and supports the lust-Iucred leading theatres with their bedroom art — their 
publicity barkers, fJrunting "girl from a convent" for the gaze and thoughts of the tired shekel 
getter. GRK\T WIVES AND MOTHERS will help to turn houses into homes— will assuredly lead 
to marriage and happiness of the kind that's worth a picayune — the kind that lasts. 

No good U'owan ever married a man except for love — for life 

No real Man cvei married a zvoman except for love — for life 

With this book the comrade of all men and women a Bachelor in time will be an 

ignored novelty — and as for Spinsters there will be few if any in the 

loorld old enough to shy at a mirror. 

Great Wives and Mothers 

By HUGH FRANCIS BLUNT 

The Boston Editor, Writer and Poet i 

This Is the age oi War — and Woman. In the War history repeated with horror- 
laden emphasis. In Woman's dominating activities are i«e to have a rebirth of the 
Eleventh Century ? There is no middle course for Woman; her influence is infinite 
and eternal in results, for she leads to Heaven or lures to Hell. 

"One after another the great wives and 
mothers pass over the pages, a noble procession 
that thrills the reader and makes him proud of 
his Catholic ancestry. I-'rom land to land, from 
age to age, they have handed down the torch 
of faith and piety, a;iJ the sweet odor of their 
holy lives purifies the atmosphere of any home 
which is privileged to make their acquaintance. 
The book is intended principally by its author 
to lighten the labors of priests who arc direct- 
ing sodalities, but it has a place in every Cath- 
olic family. Convent-schools also would be 
wise to place it on their shelves, it wni oe an 
inspiration to their (jupils and a stimulus to 
make their lives sublime. 

The style is simple, careful and entertaining. 
The book deserves a warm welcome." 

REV. J. HARDING ITSMER, S.J. 

Large Crown Octavo — Prrstpaid ^'J.oO al, Bookstores or 

THE DEVIN-ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 



"Possessed of genuine interest for readers of 
either sex and all ages. The work is especially 
timely at present, when, as the author remarks 
in his preface, 'the world in many different ways 
is seeking to turn our women from the pursuit 
of the Christian ideal in wifehood and mother- 
hood.' The appetizing contents of the book may 
be judt'cd by these selections from the chapter 
headings: Margaret Rojier, Elizabeth Scton, 
Jerusha Barber, Mary O'Conncll, Margaret 
Ilaughery, Lady Georgiana Fullerton, Pauline 
Craven, and 'Some Literary Wives and Moth- 
ers.' " — THE AVE MARIA. 



1'25 Filth Avenue 



New York, U. S. A. 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXVII, NO. 7 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



April, 1, 1920 



Failure of Another .Political Nostrum 

The revolt against the primary system 
has spread in ^lissouri, where the St. 
Louis Bar Association, after a long and 
careful investigation of the subject, has 
adopted strong resolutions calling for 
the abandonment of the primary or such 
radical changes of the law as will place 
it on an entirely new basis. 

The principal coniplaints against the 
primary are that it costs too much, re- 
sults in shutting out many candidates 
and in securing the nomination of oth- 
ers who are undesirable; that it does 
not tend to encourage the independence 
of the voters as promised, but makes 
them more than ever subservient to the 
I'oliticians ; and, as a consequence, keeps 
the Ijosses in power instead of getting 
rid of them, and, finally, that no plat- 
form is adopted as a guide to candi- 
dates for office, and a pledge to the 
voters of the policies to be pursued. 

In the light of these objections, the 
St. Louis Bar Association asks for four- 
teen important amendments, e. g., that 
th.e country districts be relieved from 
the primary altogether, that the nomi- 
nation for judgeships be made by con- 
ventions^ that the matter of selecting 
political committees be changed in view 
of the fact that the present methods 
tend to the advantage of the political 
classes, etc. 

The revision will require much care 
and consideration, and changes in the 
direction of greater simplicity. But, as 
we have repeatedly pointed out, many 
complaints made against the primary are 
really against the people themselves. If 
the latter do not turn out and vote as 
they should at the primary elections, it 
is because of their carelessness and lack 
of interest in public matters, as INIassa- 
chusctts recognizes by its constitutional 
amendment to compel electors to vote 
u!">dcr a pimishment for their failure. 



A Patriot Who Opposed His Country 
in War 

If to oppose one's country in a war 
which one regards as unjust denotes 
lack of patriotism, then Abraham Lin- 
coln was no patriot, for, as we read in a 
notice of the second volume of the Cen- 
tennial History of Illinois ("The Fron- 
tier State," by Theodore Calvin Pease), 
in the Catholic Historical Rcviczo 
(Vol. \' , No. 4), Lincoln consistently 
opposed th(; Mexican war from the hrst 
and stigmatized it as one of "rapine and 
murder, robbery and dishonor." He 
felt that Illinois had sent her men to 
Mexico "to record their infamy and 
shame in the blood of poor, innocent, 
unoffending people, whose only crime 
was weakness." In a. speech before the 
house, January 12, 1848, he declared 
that President Polk "is deeply conscious 
oi being in the wrong; that he feels the 
blood of this war, like the blood of 
Abel, is crying to heaven against him; 
that originally having some strong mo- 
tive ... to involve the two countries in 
a war, and trusting to escape scrutiny 
bv fixing the public gaze upon the ex- 
ceeding brightness of military glory- 
that attractive rainbow that raises in 
showers of blood, that serpent's eye 
that charms to destroy — he plunged into 
ic, and was swept on and on till, dis- 
appointed in his calculation of the ease 
with which Mexico might be subdued, 
he now finds himself he knows not 
where!" 

Lincoln's "uncompromising attitude 
was deeply resented by his opponents," 
adds the writer, "but his patriotism was 
never questioned." We may add that 
history bears out his unfavorable vie\t 
ot the Mexican war. Wonder what she 
will say seventy years hence of Ameri- 
ca's participation in the great European 
war ? 



ys 



THE FORTNIGHTLY RF,VIE\V 



April 1 



The Tryst 

By Charles J. Ql'ikk. S.J. 
St. Charles College. Grand Coteau. La. 
Where is the Iieart that bears no hidden pain. 
That does not cherisli it above all guerdons 
prized? 
For in reniombrance joy is found again. 
When our beloved dead crowd 'round sweet 
Memory's trvst. 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene WeibEl. V.F. 

( Fo u t th Iti %ta Urn en I) 

CllAPTKU HI 

L\ THE MO.\.\STERV 
During the school year 1870, in Xoveinher. 
my stepmother, Katherina Weibei, nee 
Halter, died. Several days before this event, 
I was constantly haunted by the thouglit that 
this noble woman, whom T loved most ten- 
derly, had to die. I dreamed about it, and 
ci'uld play no more during recreation, there- 
fi-re, I went in the evening into the students" 
chapel to pray. The chapel served as our 
oratory, where the students said their morn- 
ing and evening prayers, held their sodality 
meetings, and heard the sermons. The 
I'lessed Sacrament was not kept there, though 
the chapel was quite large, and tlie number of 
the students in the hundreds. I had never 
before dreamt of visiting the place during 
recreation time. I was astonished to find 
over forty students engaged there in prayer. 
The morning after I could stand the suspense 
no lunger. l)ut went to see the prefect. Father 
Bernard Benziger, and asked him for permis- 
ion to go home because I thought my mother 
was dying. He asked me whetiier I had had 
any information or a letter about it. I re- 
plied no, but told him I could neither sleep 
nor rest by day or night, and felt she was 
>i;rely going to die. He laughed and told me 
to go to class, remarking that a wrong con- 
struction might be placed upon my liomc- 
going were my mother not sick, because ev- 
erybody would suppose that I had been dis- 
mi.s^ed. Therefore I went to school, but could 
Iiay no attention to anything. At noon 1 
again went to the prefect. Seeing me so ex- 
cited, he told me to cfjnsult with my elder 
brother, Roman, a lay brother, who is still at 
the Monastery at Einsiedtln. and if he gave 
me permission to go home I could go. My 
brother was very much surjirised and con- 
sidered my anxiety the result of a nervous 
disorder. He remarked. "\'ou had better go 
home or else we may be o))Iige<l to send you 
l.> St. Urban." This is the insane asylum for 
the canton of Lucerne. I did not miufl this 
remark, but was glad to be alile to leave for 
home. .Mtbough the snow was deep. 1 wotild 



not wait for the next morning's stage, but 
startetl immediately on foot over the steep 
mountains of the "Katzenstrick" and 
"Aogeri" to Zug. I arrived in that city 
about 5 o'clock p. m. There were big crowds 
at the depot, but I went up and down saying 
the beads for my mother whilst I waited for 
the train. I arrived at home about 11 o'clock 
p. m. Upon entering the town my feelings 
changed. I said to myself "What am I going 
to say if everybody is asleep?" Approaching 
our house I saw no light and became scared. 
I did not realize that the shutters were hiding 
llic lights. Witli trembling heart I went to 
tile door and knocked. .Almost immediately 
came my oldest brother, now almost eighty 
years old. He asked me how in the world I 
had come home, and why? I told him the 
wliole story. Preceding me through the cor- 
ridor he said that mother had indeed been 
sick ; that they had called in the priest ; and, 
linally, that she had died at 5 o'clock that 
evening, so that my brother Roman, in Ein- 
sicdeln, must have received the news by tele- 
gram several hours before I reached home. 
.Motlier had been sick but a few days. Less 
tlian half an hour before she died three visit- 
ing physicians declared her much better. My 
stepmother had been a very retired woman. 
She kept a stricter enclosure than the aver- 
ago nun ; in fact, she seemed to know but the 
way to church and back home. Her only 
vacation was a yearly pilgrimage to Einsied- 
eln. She was constantly occupied with the 
cares of the family and always cheerful. 
Therefore I thought she was hardly known to 
the outside world. Great was my astonish- 
ment, therefore, when, at her funeral, the 
])arish church was crowded as on a great 
feast. The whole theological factulty of Lu- 
erne assisted at the funeral. 

I hardly ever saw my mother reading a 
newspaper, whilst all the others read them, 
and sometimes she remarked laughingly that 
she felt like burning all cards and newspapers. 
The daily i)apers were read regulavly at our 
house, and father did not like to be disturbed 
when he was reading. He and some friends, 
mostly town officials and older gentlemen, 
played cards sometimes until late at night. 
On such occasions it was not easy to get a 
reasonable answer to any question. Once we 
came near losing a herd of cattle on that ac- 
count. I was about ten years old, and I used, 
at times, to watcli the cattle on the pastures. 
One day I asked my father whether I should 
lead them into a certain clover field. Not 
paying any attention to what I had said, he 
simi)ly remarked. "f)h. yes, yes!" I did so, 
.m'hI the cows soon became bloated and liafl 
to be tapped, but hapi)ily none of tiiem died. 
1 was n(jt scolded for my mistake. However, 
the card playing was not allowed to interfere 
with our studies. We children had our own 
rt)om in which to study, and always retired 
at the appointed liour. 



1920 



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99 



Whilst attending sciiool we generally had 
to say tile rosary with mother after "coffee" 
in the afternoon. Thus we were almost con- 
slantiy under the care of our mother. 

With the many people coming to our house 
mother was always friendly, but she never 
Itusied herself about her neighbors' affairs. 
She richly deserved the honors conferred 
upon her ; for she was always a very kind 
and good mother and made no distinction 
between her own children and the others. 
She tried to raise us all well and confirm us 
in the love and fear of God. She came of an 
old family that had lived for centuries in 
Eschenbach. Her father, Jacob Halter, had 
been a local school teacher for fifty years. 
He had a considerable farm about a mile 
from town. He gave his children a good 
education, and two of his boys became mem- 
bers of the Cantonal Council, and held im- 
portant offices. Mother was full of com- 
mon sense, and very often in my sermons 
throughout my ministry, I would recall some 
of her sayings, and use them for preaching. 
Slie frequently reminded us that we should 
be very thankful to the Lord for being so 
good to us. She would say, "How good the 
Lord is ; you are eleven children and you all 
liave sane minds and sound bodies." That 
we might always be satisfied with our lot in 
life, she used to advise us to look down to 
those who were worse off than we, and never 
to look up to those who seemed to be more 
favored. This thought has stayed with me 
ever since, and always proved to be a source 
of contentment. 

During the scholastic year 1870 to 1871, I 
turned my attention to my future vocation. I 
iiad met absolute refusal from my father to 
follow Prior Marty to America to become a 
missionary. I had an invitation to continue my 
studies for the secular priesthood at Lucerne, 
or in Monza, Italy. However, I turned my eyes 
toward the monastic vocation. Two of my 
classmates entered at Einsiedeln, and some 
others joined the Capuchins, whilst I made 
my application at the Abbey of Mariastein. 
I had suffered from bronchial trouble and 
coughs every winter in the raw climate of 
Einsiedeln, and thought that the mild climate 
among the beautiful vineyards and pleasant 
fields of Mariastein would be better suited for 
me. My petition was answered in the affirma- 
tive. 

Three of my cousins, daughters of my 
father's youngest brother, entered the reli- 
gious state the same year. 

On the Feast of St. Lawrence, 1871, I en- 
tered the Benedictine Abbey of Mariastein as 
a candidate for the order. 

This abbey has a famous shrine of the 
Blessed Virgin and is most beautifully situ- 
ate I over abrupt cliff's, in a charming country, 
rich in natural beauties, with vineyards and 
fertile lields of wheat and pastures, dotted 



with fruit trees, which had an especial attrac- 
tion for me. 

Within a few minutes' walk were the ruins 
of the famous Landskron, a strong fortress, 
dismantled in 1815. 

On the Feast of St. Simon, 1871, I re- 
ceived, together with a lay brother novice, the 
habit of St. Benedict from the Very Rev. 
Prior Augustine. From that day on we botii 
received daily two instructions in the reli- 
gious life, the holy rule, the traditions and 
customs of the house and the vows. The lay 
I)rothcrs were treated, in our abbey, just like 
the other religious. .According to the rule of 
St. Benedict all the religious are alike, and 
only a few are supposed to be priests. St. 
I'.cnedict says, in his holy rule, that a priest 
must not claim any exceptions or preference 
for himself, but keep his place according to 
the time of his entrance. Only at the altar 
he must be allowed precedence according to 
to his dignity. The Holy Lawgiver remarks, 
concerning the priest, that the higher his dig- 
nity, the better he should observe the holy 
rule. He himself was no priest. But the 
church regulations, in the course of time, 
iiave changed all this considerably, so that 
now only clerics may vote and the majority 
of the monks are priests. 

Our abbots used to consult with the broth- 
ers before a chapter meeting was held, and 
then report their opinion to the members of 
the chapter. Thus they tried to observe and 
follow at least the spirit of the holy rule. I 
well remember a conference, after the death 
of Abbot Leo Stockli, in which Father Vin- 
cent Motschy, later abbot himself, remarked 
that it seemed to him an injustice and dis- 
grace that faithful brothers, who had worked 
for many years in the comnuuiity, had no 
voice in the election of their father abbot, 
v.hilst young fratrcs, as I was then, could 
vote. I happened to be the youngest fratcr. 
He thought that this was a real "junker rule" 
and opposed to the spirit of the great patri- 
arch, St. Benedict. Forrnerly all the monks 
used to recite the office. The lay brothers 
were as such introduced by John Gualbert, 
who wanted the priests and choir monks to 
be absolutely contemplative, and to do no 
manual work, have no business transactions, 
and never to leave the monaster}'. 

Therefore, he introduced, besides the choir 
monks, brothers, not obliged to the recitation 
ot the divine office. They should attend ex- 
clusively to all business and perform the man- 
ual work. 

The rule of St. Benedict makes a Benedic- 
tine Monastery a most democratic institution, 
wliere no preference or distinction is allowed 
on account of wealth or nobility. 

St. Gualbert also established a sisterhood, 
in a separate convent, whose members, under 
tlie superintendence of a lay brother, had to 
do the cooking, sewing and other domestic 
work. 



100 



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April 1 



Eut often in the course of time the choir 
religious charged tliemselves again with the 
temporal atTairs. 

I know of a monastery of the strict Cister- 
cian observance whore the clioir sisters used 
to bo tlie doorkeepers, and were greatly sur- 
prised when, at the visitation, it was ordered 
that such a distracting duty belonged exclu- 
sively to the lay sisters. 

In our monastery of Mariastein a great 
deal of the work was done by paid men. such 
as tailors, shoemakers, barbers, day workers, 
etc. Most of the outside business transac- 
tions were done by trusted laymen. But there 
are comnuniities where they seem to imagine 
it requires a man in holy orders to buy a 
cow; where the handling of money and deal- 
ing with the world is almost regarded as a 
piivilege of the clerical class. 

The lay brothers are sometimes called 
"cotncrsi." but this name should really apply 
to all Benedictine monks, as they all make 
the vow of "conversion of morals." 

With the above-named Brother Meinrad, I 
made my simple profession on the first of 
November, 1872, the day of the golden jubilee 
of Abbot Leo's profession. 

The general idea is that the novitiate is a 
time of trial and constant mortification. The 
early rising, 4 o'clock, was rather hard for 
me, but I overslept myself but once as far as 
I can remember during the whole year of the 
novitiate. I enjoyed the best of health con- 
tinually, and the whole life seemed to me 
rather a constant spiritual enjoyment. The 
fasting, in Lent and .\dvent, without anything 
to eat or drink from 4 o'clock in the morning 
until noon, was rather trying, but, as a rule. 
the superiors were inclined to be very mild 
and often even checked our zeal. The mas- 
ter of novices hardly ever permitted any nov- 
ice to wear the hair shirt, or use tlie dis- 
cipline except on the days when the general 
custom of thv house prescribed it. There was 
hardly any sickness in the monastery and 
surrounding country, and, therefore no need 
of a physician. The nearest doctors lived in 
Ba>>le antl Rodersfort, several miles distant. 
Mf-nths passed without a doctor coming to 
the monastery. There was such fraternal 
kindness as I never met elsewhere. The 
great multitule of guests were unanimous 
that nowhere else they enjoyed such hospita- 
ble reception as at Mariastein. 

According to the rules of the house, the 
day's wfirk began with the recitation of the 
Divine Offtce at 4 o'clock in the moroing. 
The divine service was celebrated with great 
splendor. ICvcry day there was a Hixii .Mass 
and often two. On Sundays and feast 
days the High Mass was accompanied by a 
"•plendid orchestra, com|)oscd of the religious 
and students. ()u the great holy-days of the 



year the abbot celebrated Pontifical High 
Mass, and the monastic orchestra was re- 
inforced on such occasions by famous nmsi- 
cians from the neighboring city of Basle. 
Every day after the singing of the Vespers 
the convent went in procession to the mirac- 
ulous shrine of the Blessed Virgin Mary, to 
do her homage by singing the "Salve Regina." 
This shrine consists oi a large cavern on the 
mountain side over which the abbey was 
Iniilt. The community went in procession to 
the shrine from the choir of the church, 
through the monastery, descending a stair- 
case under the abbot's house, and entering the 
cliapel's large gallery, wliere there was also 
a pipe organ. 

The peopfe, visiting the shrine, had to leave 
from the church by a staircase under the side 
chapel of St. Joscpli, leading into a long cor- 
ridor hewn into the rocks, and illuminated by 
acetylene lights. About half way through the 
long corridor they met, to their right, the 
chapel of the Sorrowful Mother, dating from 
the 15th century, and built by the counts of 
Roichensberg; leaving tliat chapel and con- 
tinuing tlieir way toward tlie slirine. the pil- 
grims were obliged to descend a staircase of 
ninety stops before entering the sanctuary. 
The slirine, containing the miraculous Ikon, 
is quite remarkable. 

Alban Stolz, in his "Sem, Cham und 
Japhet."' says that this ciiapel gives the pil- 
grim a good idea of the grotto of the nativ- 
ity at Bethlehem. The large cavern is left 
in its natural rudeness. Only towards the 
west, on the open side, is there an artiticial 
stone wall. Its frescoing represents climbing 
grapevines, and is so natural that the arti- 
ficial wall, with the two beautiful stained 
glass windows, can hardly be distinguisjied 
from the natural rock of the chapel. There 
are two altars side by side. The choir and 
the sanctuary of the chapel are enclosed by 
high iron gratings. To one side of the sanc- 
tuary, a door leads into the sacristy, and from 
the sacristy steps lead up to the long gallery, 
where the religious assist at the services. 
The space down in the cavern has room for 
aliout five hundred persons. The grotto nar- 
rowing under the gallery ends with a group 
of statuary representing the scene of Mt. 
Olivet. Early every iMonday morning a 
High Mass was celebrated in this chapel. 

■ Silver lamps burned the whole year round 
in front of the altars, whilst on one side, in 
the gallery, huge votive candles arranged like 
organ pipes, would be lit during the services, 
and daily iluring the singing of the "Salve." 
These candles are e.x votos, received from 
different towns anri cantons in thanksgiving 
ff)r favors attributed to the miraculous Ma- 
donna. 

Clo be (Oiillinird) 



1920 



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101 



Crown Prince Frederick's Diary 

in 1888, after the death of Emperor 
I'riedrich, the Deutsche Rundschau 
published what purported to be ex- 
tracts from his diary, deaUng mainly 
witii the conversations and negotiations 
which led to the proclamation of the 
Empire at Versailles. They created an 
immense stir, for the old Emperor Wil- 
helm and Bismarck were shown to have 
been by no means enthusiasts in the 
matter. Crown Prince Frederick ap- 
])ears to have been constantly urging 
them along, even suggesting the use of 
force if certain recalcitrant princes 
vv'ould not accept the proposed constitu- 
tion. The Grand Duke of Baden Avas 
exhibited as the foremost and most ar- 
dent canvasser, but the King of Bavaria 
as sullenly hostile (he was eventuall}' 
persuaded to consent and sign a formal 
letter), and Wiirttemberg little better. 
Bismarck was furious at the publication 
of the diary, his newspapers hinted that 
it was a forgery. Then Professor Geff- 
ken announced that he vouched for and 
had provided the extracts, that he had 
taken them from the original diary 
w hich had been lent him for three weeks 
bv the Crown Prince. He was accused 
of high treason for divulging State doc- 
uments. Now Edward Engel, the his- 
torian, publishes the full text ("Kaiser 
Friedrich's Tagebuch ;" Halle : Diek- 
mann). with many interesting details of 
the Geffken afifair. Early in 1889 the 
proceedings were dropped ; it is believed, 
on the initiative of Wilhelm II. The 
world of 1888 had learned that the for- 
mation of the German Empire was not 
the unanimous desire of the German 
kings and princes ; that the Crown 
Prince, who was kept out of things po- 
litical by the King and the Chancellor, 
saw farther than they could see and was 
prepared to take risks in order to obtain 
what he judged was for the immense 
future benefit of the German race, while 
Bismarck, who, as Dr. Engel sarcasti- 
(">llv remarks, "always behaved to the 
Kings of Bavaria and Wiirttemberg 
from the standpoint of ^ Minister, the 
most highly-placed German official, cer- 
tainly, but still an official, and a sub- 
ordinate." was not prepared to try for 



more than what seemed diplomatically 
possible. With the constitution of the 
P2mpire Frederick desired, as stated in 
the diary, to give a greater measure of 
political freedom ; this Bismarck looked 
upon as too dangerous, and we know 
now that he was wrong. 

The most interesting part of the ex- 
tracts to-day is the expressed wish of 
Frederick to make a friendship between 
Great Britain and Germany the keystone 
of his foreign policy, his desire "to forge 
a chain between the two lands so emi- 
nently marked out for each other," and 
to quench the "hate against England" 
(October 20, 1870), which was cropping 
up. Well may we wonder, with Engel, 
what turn history would have taken 
"had Kaiser Friedrich reigned twenty 
years, into 1908, over the death of Queen 
N'ictoria, and well into the reign of his 
good friend {hcrzlich befreundeten), 
King Edward VII. Germany might have 
hj.d a smaller fleet, but she would have 
been in 1920 a greater nation than she 
is." 



Stop Lynching Negroes! 

To the Editor: — 

Bishop Keily, of Savannah, Ga., with 
the help of a devoted band of Catholic 
lavmen, is making a tremendous efifort 
to stop the barbarous practice of lynch- 
ing, burning, and quartering negroes. 
]\Iay God help him to succeed in stamp- 
ing out this disgrace, not only in his own 
State, but throughout the country. Our 
conscience must be very callous, indeed, 
seeing that that pagan, merry-making 
practice hardly evokes a mild protest. 
How honorable, how Christian, how- 
democratic it would be if the whole 
.Vmerican people were of one mind on 
this subject with the heroic Bishop of 
Georgia. The Catholic press, and like- 
wise the clean secular press, should rally 
to his aid. 

The Fortnightly Review, I know, 
will do its duty, as it always does. 

Yours for justice and charity. 

(Rev.) Raymond Vernimont 

»—^^-»~m 

—How about that new subscriber you 
promised to send us last year? It is still 
time to keep your promise. 



102 



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April 1 



Blasco Ibanez and His Writings 

Those of our clergy whose work 
brings them nnicli in contact with Eu- 
ropean immigrants, especially from 
Italy" and Spain, have noticed the 
vicious leer and hateful glances often 
cast at them by men from these coun- 
tries. But the poor fellows who try to 
show their contempt for the Church of 
their fathers are rather to be pitied 
than condenmed. For it is frequently 
their self-styled leaders — the editors of 
their native Socialist and anarchist pa- 
pers, their politicians and lawmakers, 
the teachers in their higher institutions 
of learning, and the "'popular' writers, 
who have turned them against the 
Church, which has lifted the Latin na- 
tions from degrading paganism into the 
light of Christ's Gospel. 

C^ne of these '"popular" writers has 
lately come to our shores, and press no- 
tices would make us believe that his 
books arc being sold by the '"huntlrcd- 
thousand." It is Vicente Blasco 
Ibanez. the author of '"The .Shadow of 
the Cathedral," which the publishers 
advertise as a novel showing "in the 
form of a vivid, dramatic story, rich 
with historic interest and human feel- 
ing, the i^resent mental and social de- 
cadence of Spain." 

It is books of liction of this t\pe 
which breed contempt for the Church of 
the poor in the heart of the wage- 
earner, and which beget the leer and 
the hateful glance in the eyes of the 
toiler when he meets a minister of that 
Church whose deepest sympathy goes 
out to him. 

Catholics in ICuropc had long ago 
Ixren warned of the vicious tendency of 
"The .Shadow of the Cathedral." For 
in hi.s excellent guirle to French fiction 
(Mh ed.. 1908). the Abb^^ Louis T.eth- 
lA-ni. refers to Ibanez as a "fiery anti- 
cU-rjcal," and characteri/.es the bor)k as 
an "odious pamphlet against llie (';ilh 
f»h'r religion." 

.Several Catholic editors have sus- 
picted the hand of religious bigotry in 
the immen.sc vogue that the works of 
thi«« .'^panisli writer are now cnj(*ying in 
|jigli>h translations. Thus /Inirrud 
( .Sefit. 6. L>KM ronrbidcs n brief notice 



as follows: "As Ibanez is a bitter anti- 
Catholic who has written a series of 
novels which are expressly designed to 
nijnre the Church, and indeed to under- 
mine all faith in Christianity and teach 
instead downright paganism, it would 
be interesting to learn the character of 
the propaganda that is now zealously 
IMonioting the spread of his pernicious 
works in this country." 

J'^ftort to foist the works of Ibanez 
upon the public is also suspected by a 
writer in Kccdy's Mirror (May 2, 
1919). "I iind it somewhat difficult to 
take seriously the contemporaneous 
hubbub and hysteria anent Ibanez 
among i)ublishers and their underwrit- 
ers. . . . As a matter of fact, the first 
Jbanez book to be translated was that 
very 'Shadow of the Cathedral' now 
being exploited with so mucli beating of 
tom-toms and circus parading. It ap- 
peared in 1909 — precisely ten years ago. 
Moreover, it was published by the same 
publishers who are now reissuing it, in 
the identical translation, printed, if I 
mistake not, from the old plates and 
with the same frontispiece half-tone of 
the Cathedral of Seville. The only dif- 
ference is that the new edition contains 
a rapturous introduction by Mr. How- 
ells, who. after its ten years' lapse in 
innocuous desuetude, has just awakened 
to the fact that it is a masterpiece." 

'ihis frank admission of a "Book 
Buyer" in Rccdy's Mirror, with the sig- 
nificant reference to "tom-toms and cir- 
cus paradings," .should o))en the eyes of 
readers who arc in danger of being de- 
ceived by the bombastic advertisements 
of the j)tiblishers. 

The "Introdtiction" by W. 1). How- 
ells, who declares that "the reader of 
course perceives that it [the story] is 
intensely anti-ecclesiastical, but could 
make no greater mistake than to imag- 
ine it in any wise Protestant," will not 
im])ress anv one who knows the history 
of .Spain, and wlu) remetnbers what 
that coimtry owes to the Catholic 
Church. Mr. Howells does not share 
the broad sym^jathy of earlier scholars 
like Irving, Longfellow and Ceorge 
Ticknor. who could appreciate the no- 
liler aspects in the life and art and story 



1920 



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103 



ot that country. His gratuitous as- 
sumption that the book of Ibanez is a 
successful plea for the social regenera- 
tion of the Spanish people will not be 
accepted by those who hold to the be- 
lief that spiritual and moral forces 
stand supreme in the making for right- 
eousness and social progre*5S. 

According to ^Ir. Howells, Gabriel 
Luna, the hero of the story, "is the 
standard-bearer of the scientific revolt 
in terms of fiction which spares us no 
hope of relief in the religious notion of 
human, life, here or hereafter, that the 
1 lebraic or Christian theology has di- 
vined." The fearful havoc played by 
such atheistic teachings among the 
masses ought to be sufficient to write 
down its propagandist not as a friend, 
but as the most terrible enemy of the 
])eoplc and of all social progress. 

Gabriel had spent some years at the 
seminary, but leaves abruptly to join the 
Carlists, who are fighting for the 
Church and the monarchy. ^Military 
life gives him a desire for worldly ad- 
venture and he does not return to To- 
ledo after the war in order to finish his 
studies for the priesthood. "He wished 
to follow the course of events, to see 
new countries and dilTerent customs." 
He journeys to Paris, and there "was 
accomplished the great transformation 
of Gabriel." 

Almost over night the former sem- 
inarist and loyal son of the Church is 
changed into a tiery advocate of Dar- 
winian philosophy and a lierce defender 
of the grossest materialism. He be- 
comes a docile disciple of Renan, while 
"his faith in Catholicism as the only re- 
ligion disappears completely." The 
Spanish youth is aided in the process of 
shedding the last remnants of his Cath- 
olic belief by "throwing liimself into the 
free and joyous life of the Quartier. 
wearing out the elbows of his sleeves 
on the tables of the beershops." 

I*age 79 comprises a summary of the 
modern doctrines which Gabriel intend- 
etl to ])reach in the campaign for "the 
innocent evolution of humanity." "Ga- 
briel had met with his new religion and 
he gave himself over to it entirely, 
dreaming of the regeneration of man- 



kind through its stomach." On t4ie next 
page we read that "a young English- 
woman of weak health, but burning like 
himself with all the ardour of revolu- 
tionary propaganda . . . became Ga- 
briel's companion." Together they 
went to Holland, "and thence to Bel- 
gium, settling afterwards in Germany, 
always traveling from group to group 
of 'comi)anions.' " 

Now this method of regenerating and 
uplifting mankind "via the stomach," 
and allowing large license in choosing a 
"companion" of the kind that (jabriel 
took to himself, has often been tried in 
the history of social progress. But the 
attempts always ended in failure. The 
Ivoman Emperors sought to cajole the 
angry mob and to stifle the voice of re- 
bellion by lavish promises of "panis et 
v'ircenses." But these largesses, appeal- 
ing only to the sensual cravings of the 
crowd, could not hold back the revolu- 
tion. The appeal of the hero of the 
.Spanish novel to "the stomach" of the 
])eople. and the opening of the door to 
sensual desire will only plunge the 
masses into darker wretchedness. 

Ihroughout the book, wherever con- 
venient, tlie author "takes a slap" at the 
l)igotrv, narrow-mindedness and general 
"benightedness" of "church-ridden" 
Spain. On page 90 we are told of the 
"absolute and irrational faith" of the 
l)riest, Don Antolin, one of the canons 
of the Toledo Cathedral. Any idea that 
docs not square with the author's meth- 
od of "liberating" humanity is irra- 
tional. Moreover, Don Antolin "had 
that blessed and entire want of educa- 
tion so appreciated by the Church 
in former years." We are not told 
when the Church began to change her 
tactics of keeping the intellects of her 
sul)jects in dark ignorance. On an ear- 
lier page the Cathedral of Toledo is re- 
ferred to as "that growth of seven cen- 
tf.ries. built by vanished greatness for a 
dving faith." 

.Such language has been used by other 
"liberators," like Voltaire. Joseph Mc- 
Cabe. and Tngersoll. But the Church is 
not dving in Spain. She is at this very 
moment entering u])on a new era of 
splendid constructive work, especially 



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April ] 



for the*laboring classes and for the agri- 
cultural population. Was it the 
"Reds." with their fiery onslaughts upon 
the "tyranny of the Catholic Church," 
or social apostles, like Fathers \'icente, 
and Palau and Bishop Laguarda ? 

From a recent pamphlet of the Cen- 
tral Bureau* we quote some facts con- 
cerning the fine social work of Spanish 
Catholics. "Spain has learnt the need 
of Catholic lay activity. The Catholic 
laity, inspired and directed by leaders 
like the late Bishop of Barcelona. Msgr. 
Casanas, hy his successor, Bishoji La- 
guarda y Fenollera, by the indefatigable 
'social apostle' Fr. \'icente, by Orto y 
I^ra. de Castro and Cepeda, built up 
a 'social organization' on the model of 
the German \'olksverein. Up to the 
year 1912 — we regret that we have not 
more recent statistics — it had, during 
five years of its existence, done won- 
derful work. It secured a building of 
its own. namely, a community house or 
*Casa del Pueblo.' In this plant 'were 
installed a press and administrative of- 
fices. Twenty- four social secretaries 
were there busily engaged. During the 
year 1912 they answered 15,000 re- 
(|uests for information on social serv- 
ice questions and on matters of organi- 
z.-'lion. They drew up study plans, out- 
lined programs of social reform, draft- 
ed constitutions for workingmcn's clubs, 
etc. They furnished assistance in 16,- 
000 cases to national, individual, and 
foreign associations. There are one 
Innidred and forty affiliated societies 
which are guided by the main office. It 
enjoys the aid of seventy-five 'consult- 
<rr>' and 16.000 associates from all 
classes of society. Under its direction 
were held 1200 meetings, lectures and 
conferences. It published 4,500.000 
leaflets, program;! and i)amphlets, be- 
sides newspapers and magazines. It is 
IfKjked upon bv Spanish Catholics as an 
'inspiration office' for all their social 
works and workers." 

(To be concluded) 



Col. Roosevelt and Abbot Charles 

The St. Leo Cadet (Vol. II, No. 1), 
l)ublishes the text of several letters ad- 
dressed by the late ex-President Roose- 
velt to the Rt. Rev. Abbot Charles 
Mohr, O.S.B., D.D., of St. Leo Abbey, 
St. Leo, Fla. These letters were writ- 
ten in 1908, 1511. and 1912, respectively, 
and are characteristic of Col. Roose- 
velt's attitude of fairness and charity 
towards men of all religious denomina- 
tions. Of the Catholic clergy he says 
in one place : 

"1 very sincerely wish well to the 
Catholic Church. There are very few 
ministers with whom I have been able 
to work as I have been able to work 
with a number of parish priests, because 
tliey seem to me to possess the union of 
big purpose and of practical power to 
do good, which is essential if we are to 
get real achievement." 

The friendship between Col. Roose- 
velt and Abbot Charles dated back a 
good many years. The two met for the 
first time in Jacksonville, Fla. Abbot 
Charles was introduced to the Colonel 
as Abbot of St. Leo. Roosevelt ex- 
]')lodcd with his high-pitched "Delighted 
to meet you, Abbot Charles." and then 
supplemented the greeting with the con- 
fession : "All the information I have 
hitherto had of abbots was from Sir 
^^'alter Scott's novels. You are the 
first living abbot I met." 

The St. Leo Cadet, we are moved to 
add. is one of the most creditable of our 
Catholic college publications, and we 
regret to notice that, because of the un- 
toward conditions in the printing and 
])a|)er trades, it is compelled to susj^end 
pu1)lication, at least temporarily. May 
it revive soon in greater splendor! 



-»^$>-*"«- 



♦ Catholic Lay ;\rtivity l>y Rev. .Klbcrt 
Muntsch. S.J. Central Hurcau. 201 '!'« mplc- 
f'Mf^., St. Lf>tii«. Mo. 



BOIL IT DOWN 
Have yf)U lia<l a tlioiiKlit that's liappy? 

Boil it down. 
Make it short and crisp and snappy — 

Boil it down. 
\\ lien your mind its gold has minted, 
Down the page your pen has sprinted, 
I f you want your effort printed, 

Boil it down. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



105 



Protection of Art in Time of War 

Prof. Paul Clemen has just published 
the second volume of his important 
work, "Kunstschutz im Kriege" (Leip- 
sic : E. A. Seemann). It embodies re- 
jiorts from a number of experts who 
were entrusted by the German and Aus- 
trian governments with the duty of see- 
ing to the protection of works of art of 
:ill kinds, from buildings to manuscripts 
and reliquaries, in the districts visited 
by the war. The tirst volume dealt wath 
the Western front ; the present covers 
operations in Italy, Poland, the Baltic 
States, Serbia, Rumania and the whole 
Eastern scene of war as far as xA.fghan- 
istan. 

The Allied nations have not been ac- 
customed to associate the warlike opera- 
tions of the Central Powers with any 
tenderness for the art-treasures of in- 
vaded territories. It appears, however, 
that the safeguarding of these treasures 
did really engage the attention of the 
Central Powers, each army had its art 
commissioner, and the general and his 
stafif were instructed to afford him all 
facilities in the way of transport, labor, 
etc., which w^ere consistent w'ith the par- 
amount rc(iuirements of military opera- 
tions. 

The instructions issued with regard 
to the Italian front are typical of the 
general scheme. They fall under three 
heads : Protection for buildings of a 
monumental character ; collection and 
removal to places remote from the scene 
of action of movable objects of art ; re- 
]>air of monumental buildings damaged 
and endangered, but not destroyed, by 
artillery fire. 

It is fully admitted by Dr. Clemen 
that the execution of these instructions 
fell far short of the intention ; but many 
details are given to show that an effec- 
tive organization charged with this task 
really did exist, and that it did what- 
ever was possible in the circumstances. 
In the advance to the Piave. for exam- 
ple, apart from plunderings of deserted 
nniseums and palaces carried out by the 
Italian peasantry, no buildings of im- 
portance were destroyed, and few pic- 
tures or movable objects stolen or In- 



jured. Excei)tions are the fourteenih 
century frescoes, and others by Borde- 
none, in the chapel of S. Salvatore, near 
vSusegana, which were destroyed by 
Jtalian shells, and an altar-painting by 
I'^rancesco da Alilano in Conegliano, 
which was stolen, and has not been 
traced. Cases are given in which paint- 
ings stolen from collections had been 
traced through their being offered for 
sale contrary to regulations, and they 
V. ere restored to the owners. Per contra, 
the Italians are accused of much wanton 
destruction, c. g., the shelling of the no- 
ble but in modern times useless sea- 
fortress of Duino. 

Throughout this volume the attitude 
of the German and Austrian authori- 
ties, as protectors of the common culture 
of Europe, and scrupulous in regard to 
historical memorials in enemy' coun- 
tries, is contrasted with the destructive- 
ness, not only of the Italians, with whom 
the present volume is mainly concerned, 
but likewise of the French and the Eng- 
lish. The former are taken to task for 
their overthrow of recent German me- 
morial sculptures in Alsace and Lor- 
raine and the latter are accused of wan- 
ton outrages in Ciermany; for instance, 
it is alleged that they overthrew the 
Kricgcrdcnkiiial in Diiren and maltreat- 
ed the statue of Kaiser Wilhelm I in 
Bonn, etc. 

The London Times, to which we are 
indebted for our summary of the con- 
tents of Dr. Clemen's volume, concludes 
its very fair and just review of it with 
the following paragraph (Literary Sup- 
])lement, No. 937) : 

■'Apart from the not inexcusable de- 
sire to make the most of every act of 
destruction which can be set down to 
the enemy, the spirit which created the 
organization described in this book is 
a-^hnirable. and we have no doubt that 
this spirit animated the commissioners 
whose rei)orts from the main body of 
the text. The organization in question 
and its work deserve careful study by 
every civilized ])ower, in view of the 
])ossibilities. which are still only too 
real, of future wars being waged in 
lands crowded w'th memorials of art 
;uid historv." 



106 



THE FORTNIGHTLY RI-A IKW 



Ai)iil 1 



The Collection for the Starving Chil- 
dren of Central Europe 

A niissionarv writes to us : 

"1 road in the Feb. number of the 
liiilcsiastical Rct'iew The encyclical let- 
ter of our Holy Father, urging the col- 
lection of alms for the starving chil- 
dren of Central Europe. In this touch- 
ing appeal His Holiness says: 'We, 
therefore, command. X'enerable Breth- 
ren, that you in your respective dio- 
ceses have a collection taken up for 
the star\-ing children of Central Eu- 
rope ) on the 28th day of December.' 
Could you tell me whether the ordi- 
naries of the U. S. obeyed this solemn 
mandate of the \'icar of Christ, and 
whether the faithful contributed as gen- 
erously tor this worthy purpose as they 
tlid for the starving children of Bel- 
gium?" 

The Holy Father's encyclical letter 
reached this country too late to enable 
the ordinaries to take up the collection 
for the starving children of Central Eu- 
rope on Dec. 28th. In some dioceses 
( c. g., St. Louis, Chicago and Pitts- 
burgh), the collection has been taken up 
since, and in the others it will no doubt 
be taken up in the near future. In view 
of the Holy Father's urgent appeal, it 
is to be regretted that the archbishops 
and bishops in their recent pastoral let- 
ter neglected to recommend this work 
of mercy to the charity of the American 
people. 



Lectures by "Ex-Nuns'' 

.\pro|)os of a recent "ex-nun'.' lecture at 
I'rankffirt, Ky , Col. V. H. Callahan \vrite.s: 

The Commission on Religious Preju- 
dices gave a great deal of attention to 
anti-Catholic propaganda of this kind, 
but after very mature! consideration con- 
cluded that no elTort should ever be 
niade by Catholics to interfere with 
either the preliminaries or the meetings 
tlieni.selves, but recomiiKiuled that some 
si:l>sef|uent action always be taken by 
enlisting the co-operation of non-Calh- 
olirs. 

There are always a great lunnber of 
jion-Catholici. including Protestant 



clergy, who are not in sympathv w.ith 
lectures and ineelings of this kind, and, 
in tm-ii. will lake some part in a meeting 
to repair the damage done, in the inter- 
est of the comnumity and to restore a 
more peaceful and congenial relation- 
ship between the citizens, which is al- 
ways disturbed and sometimes de- 
stroyed. 

If this procedure is followed, it is al- 
ways possible to turn a disadvantage of 
this kind into an advantage for all con- 
cerned. P. II. C.\LL.\n.\N 

Loiiisi'illi'. Ky. 

Shakespeare as an Editor 

The pri'seiU tendency of research is 
to estal)lish the contention that "Shake- 
speare" was chiefly an inspired editor. 
In recent issues of the Eondon Tiuies' 
Literary .Sup[)leinent those two dragons 
of learning, .Mr. Dover Wilson and Mr. 
A. W. I'ollard, have been recording the 
results of their examinations of the 
earliest .Shakespearean Quartos ; and 
this is what they say of the first: "It 
seems to us clear that 'Romeo and 
Juliet' in the 1^'irst Quarto was derived 
from a MS. which had been partly 
worked ovir l)y Shakespeare, though 
still ri'taining many fragments of an 
earlier ])re-.Shakcspearean play." 

It is much the same with the rest of 
the plays. On examination they one and 
all prove to be .Shakespearean "editions" 
of previous works. Of the "Merry 
Wives of Wmdsor," for instance, no 
less an authority than Mr. J. M.. Robert- 
son says: "The original l^kiy was draft- 
ed bv another than .Shakespeare"; and. 
".Shakespeare did but insert the best of 
the comic matter." 

.Messrs. Dover Wilson and Pollard 
are even more precise concerning this 
particular pla\-. for they assert that it 
was based upon a play, "The Jealous 
( V.medy," which existed before 1592, 
and was hastily "worked over" by 
.Shakespeare and "(nie or more collabo- 
rators" when the rcfjuest came from 
l'",Ii/.abeth to show b'rdstaff in love. The 
antotint ".Shakes])eare'' himself put into 
il is probably very small. A good editor 
does ;is little as possible ! 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



10/ 



NOTES AND GLEANINGS 

— .\ national organization of Cath- 
olic women has been founded under the 
auspices of the National Catholic \\'el- 
fare Council. Its aims are extensive 
and praiseworthy, and we wish the la- 
dies success. 

— It is amusing to read the enthusi- 
astic reports of the recent Washington 
conference of Catholic pressmen, ap- 
pearing in some of our European con- 
temporaries. We, who are nearer the 
scene and have better means of infor- 
mation, know that the conference was 
merely a "gabfest," which has led to 
nothing as yet and most probably will 
lead to nothing. 

— The following conversation was 
overheard at a production of John 
Drinkwater's play. "Abraham Lincoln" : 
Young woman : "That's a fine play ; 1 
never knew so much about Abraham 
Lincoln before, except that he never 
told a lie." Elderly woman : "I agree, 
my dear, it's a very impressive play ; 
but you must admit that the ending is 
highly improbable." 

-7:7 Falacio, the official journal of 
the Museum of New Mexico, the School 
of American Research, the Archaeolog- 
ical Society of New Mexico, and the 
Santa Fe Society of the Archaeological 
Institute, in its Vol. VIII, No. 1, repro- 
duces Mr. John T. Comes' recent article 
in the /•". 7^. on the Alission style of ar- 
chitecture. The same number of our 
contemporary contains an interesting 
illustrated paper on the "Penitentes" of 
Xew Mexico, with translations of a 
number of their religious hymns. 

— A Dutch Catholic paper, Dr 
StuiidanI, says that the castle of Amer- 
ongen, where ex-Emperor \\'illiam has 
had to seek a place of refuge, served 
forty-five years ago as the .residence of 
Cardinal Melchers, archbishop of Co- 
logne, while exiled from his native land 
by the infamous Kulturkampf. ( )ur 
Dutch contemporary recalls the warning 
alleged to have been given at that time 
bv William's grandmother to her hus- 
band: "All this banishing and impris- 



t)ning of priests will bring no blessing to 
our house!" 

— Our vocabulary is beginning to show 
startling changes. We lately read in a 
news report : "The family is in ex- 
tremelv comfortable circiunstances, the 
father being a shii) carpenter." .Vnd in 
another : "The man is a well-to-do la- 
borer." Both statements were made in 
good faith, with no hint of the jocose 
which but a short time ago would have 
been their portion. Are we now to look 
for such reports as these : "The family 
is in actual want, the father being a 
school teacher (or church organist)," 
or "The man is a poverty-stricken l)rain 
worker'' ? 

— Anti-English feeling in the U. S. 
is the subject of Mr. Owen Wister's 
latest book, "A Straight Deal : or, the 
Ancient Grudge." He tries to show- 
that this feeling was never wholly justi- 
fied and is now most unwise. Our read- 
ers m^iy remember that in a previous 
book, "The Pentecost of Calamity," Mr. 
\\'ister sought to show that anti-Gcr- 
iiian feeling was wholly justified. Com- 
menting on this contradictory attitude, 
the New Republic says: "The impor- 
tant thing, apparently, is not so much to 
understand prejudices as to fortify the 
ri(/lit ours." 

■ — It was recently pointed out in the 
BulTalo Echo (Vol. V, No. 52) that 
there is more behind the Caillaux trial 
than Masonic intrigue, and that the real 
reason why Joseph Caillaux is being 
persecuted is that, as Prime Minister 
of France, he tried hard to thwart the 
plans of the nulitarists and to avert war. 
From what has been published so far 
of the evidence brought against him 
it appears that this view of the case is 
correct. The trial is entirely political in 
character. It is, as the Manchester 
ihtardiau (weekly ed., Vol. II, No. 9) 
observes, "essentially a contest between 
the ultra-patriotic and what one may 
call the more 'European' tendencies 
competing for dominance in France." 
If M. Caillaux is condemned there can 
be no doubt that widespread and vehe- 
ment i)opular passions will be roused. 



108 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



— Pastors who desire something more 
CathoHc than the Boy Scouts for their 
boys, especially the neglected, are re- 
quested to write to 128 \V. 37th Str., 
Xew York, for literature concerning the 
Catholic Boys' Brigade, an organization 
founded three years ago by the Rev. 
Thos. J. Lynch. This organization is 
especially adapted to large cities and 
aims chiefly at reaching such Catholic 
boys as are in no way or at the most 
but slightly attached by any affiliations 
to the Church of their baptism. \\'e 
notice that the Brigade has the endorse- 
ment of the Capuchin Fathers of St. 
John's Church, who have started a 
branch in their parish. 

—The extent to which some eugenists 
are willing to go is illustrated by a book, 
"Le Haras Humin" (which may be 
translated "The Human Stud"), by Al- 
bin Michel, a professor of the Paris 
Ecole de Psychologic. The author ad- 
vocates the substitution for Christian 
monogamy of legalized and system- 
atized polvgamv. The scheme involves 
the selection of a limited number of 
highly developed males, who shall head 
the "stud," and the passage through it 
of a series of healthy young women. 
The analogy with an animal breeding 
plant is complete. It is but fair to say, 
however, that not all eugenists share the 
author's materialistic views (see The 
Survey, March 13, p. 754). 

— The Annual Messenger of the Ne- 
gro Missions of the .Society of the Di- 
vine Word, for 1919, issued by the Mis- 
sion Press of Techny, 111., furnishes 
much interesting and valuable infor- 
mation on the negro missions of the 
South, in which several i)riests of the 
S. \'. D., have been active since 1906. 
Throughout the i)ami)hlet runs a strong 
plea for a colored priesthood. Xo col- 
ored priesthood is possible unless we 
have Catholici family training among 
the negroes, and it is to this indi.s])ensa- 
blc condition that our missionaries are 
devoting their efforts, mainly by pro- 
viding means of Catholic education 
for colored children. The work of the 
negro missions is not yet receiving the 



Bargains in Second-Hand Books 

Blackmcrc. S. A. (S.J.) The Riddles of Hamlet and 

the Newest .Xiiswer. Boston, 1917. $1.50. 
Bnigicr. G. .Miriss der deutschen National-Litteratur. 

Freiburg, 1895. $1. 
Diinit, P. .-1. Legal Formulary, or, A Collection of 

Forms to be Used in the Exercise of Voluntary 

and Contentious Jurisdiction. New York, 1898. $2. 
Bourassa. Iloiri. Le Pape Arbitre de la Paix. 

Montreal, 191S. 75 cts. (Wrapper). 
Cecilia. Mad.jinc. Outline Meditations. N. Y., 1918. 

$1.25. 
.luijustiiic, P. C. (O.S.B.) A Commentary on the 

New Code of Canon Law. Vol. II, Clergy and 

Hierarchy. (Canons 87-486). St. Louis, 1918. $2. 
KIcist. J. A. (S..r.) The Dream of Scipio (De Re 

Publica VI, 9-29). With Introduction, Notes, and 

an English Translation. N. Y., 1915. SO cts. 
R\ait, J. A. Alleged Socialism of the Church Fa- 

'thers. St. Louis, 1913. 40 cts. 
Riihl, .Irlhur. The Other Americans. The Cities, 

the Countries, and Especially the People of South 

.'\merica. Illustrated. N. Y., 1909. $1.50. 
Rnskin, John. The Crown of Wild Olive, and Sesame 

and Lilies. N. Y., .f. o. $1. 
Clarke. Isabel C. The Deep Heart. A Novel. N. Y., 

1919. $1.10. 
De Coiicilio, J. Catholicism and Pantheism. N. Y., 

1874. $1. 
Golistein. D. and .4ie>v M. M. Bolshevism: Its 

Cure. Boston, 1919. $1.10. 
Conrov. J. P. {S.J.). Out to Win. [Talks With 

P.oysl. N. Y., 1919. $1. 
P. ]'. Casus Conscientiae his praesertim Temporibus 

Accommodati. 3 vols. Paris, 1885. $2.50. 
L\ncU. Prnis (S.J.). St. Joan of Arc. Life-Stcry 

of the Maid of Orleans. N. Y., 1919. $2.15. 
Pohle-Preuss. Soteriology. 2nd ed. St. Louis, 1916. 

50 cts. (Title page somewhat disfiguivl). 
Hinkson, Kath. Tynan. The Story of Cecilia. N. Y., 

1911. 50 cts. 

C'lffex. P. The Science of Logic. 2 vols. Lonilon, 

1912. $4. 

IVoxwod. S. (O.F.M.) The New Canon Law. A 
Contmentarv ;irid Summary of the New Code. 
N. Y., 1918. $2.50. 

Lcitner M. Lehrbuch dcs kath. Eherechls. 2nd ed. 
Pn.lerborn, 1912. $1.25. 

Felt en. J <>.<:. Die Apostelgeschichte ubersetzt luul er- 
l.liirt. iM-eiburg, 1892. $1.25. 

M Wiley. I'enanz. Der lezte Novize in Andechs. Er- 
r.ali'trig. Einsiedeln, 1906. 50 cts. 

''ie- in linn. M. Ileinricb Melchior Muhlenberg, Patri- 
..-.•cli der Inlli. Kirche Nordamerikas. Sell'Stbio- 
gr.-tphie (I7I1-1743> niit Ei liiuten.ngen. Allen- 
town, Pa., 1881. $1. 

I.ennn.<i, J. B. (tr. J. l-'itzpatrick). Catechism on 
.Modernism, according to the Encyclical "Pascendi," 
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Finke. If. Bricfe an Frie<lrich .Schlegcl. Cologne, 
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Sheehan. Canon. I'arerga. \ Companion Volume to 
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Dyroff, ./. Carl Joseph Windiscliniann und sein 
Kreis. Colofrnc, 1916. 35 cts. (Wrapper). 

MaeXeill, lioin. Phases of Irish History. Dublin, 
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Welter, S. Ev.uigelien und .A()ostelKeschiclite nach 
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The Fortnightly Review, St. Louis, Mo. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



109 



sympathy and support \Yhich it so richly 
deserves. 

— The new Department of Social Ac- 
tion of the National Catholic Welfare 
Council, consisting of Msgr. Splaine, 
Dr. Kerby, Mr. Chas. P. Neill, Mr. F. 
P. Kenkel and five or six other gentle- 
men, is now starting on its pretentious 
work. It is to "deal with the whole 
field of citizenship and social and indus- 
trial relations," under the direction of 
the Rev. Dr. John A. Ryan and Mr. 
John A. Lapp. Arrangements are be- 
ing made to offer to Catholic colleges 
and seminaries a free course of lectures 
on social questions by competent priests 
and laymen, and to furnish the Catholic 
press with "reliable information about 
the industrial facts and movements of 
the day." The Department of Social 
Action has its headquarters at 1312 
Massachusetts Ave., N. W., Washing- 
ton, D. C, and requests us to say that 
it is at the service of the bishops, the 
clergy, and Catholic organizations. 

— Our new Secretary of State, Mr. 
Bainbridge Colby, according to The Na- 
tion (No. 2853), is "a man of attractive 
personal appearance and a facile speak- 
er who has been on every side of the 
political fence." Everybody who has 
known him and watched his political 
career, has been stunned by the appoint- 
ment. "When one thinks of the great 
men who have held the office of Secre- 
tary of State — Jefferson, ^Marshall, 
Seward, and Fish, not to mention oth- 
ers," says our contemporary, "and then 
remembers that Mr. Colby as a lawyer 
is not even in the front rank of New 
York attorneys, questions as to Mr. 
Wilson's fitness to rule must again pre- 
sent themselves." Perhaps the Presi- 
dent is playing some deep political game. 

— The National Board of the Knights 
of Columbus has issued some sugges- 
tions for councils that intend to publish 
bulletins. The Catholic Citizen ap- 
l^roves of these suggestions as "both 
timely and needed." but adds the query : 
"Why should the individual councils of 
the K. of C. waste time or money on 



local bulletins?" There is no need of it 
whatever, as the Catholic weeklies al- 
most without exception are willing to 
print all K. of C. iterns that are worth 
I)rinting and a lot that aren't. Then 
there is the national organ, the Cohim- 
biad, for specifically organization news. 
After reading the National Board's 
well-meant advice, by the way, we can't 
help asking: Why are these instruc- 
tions not exemplified in the Columhiad? 
Surely that journal is anything but a 
model of what a national official organ 
should be. 



"My Political Trial and 
Experiences" 

By Jeremiah A. O'Leary 

Just Off the Press 

A sensational stoiy of the Political Kxperieii- 
ces of a man of Irish blood wlio was singled out 
for destruction by the powerful influences of the 
British propaganda. 

How the Biitish propaganda was foiled. 

"Q. Well now, then, you have committed per- 
jury, voit know that, don't you? A. Yes. sir. 

.'.."Q. You know yo\i were testifying falsely:-' 
A. Yes, I did " 

(From the testimony of Madame Gonzales 
under cross-examination. Quoted out of the 
mouth of a main witness for the government). 
Page 290 of the Book. 

The book contains .■;6o pages, a biographical 
sketch of Mr. O'Learv by Major Michael A.Kelly 
of the Old Sixty-ninth, a peisonal diary of the 
author kept during his impf isonment, and the 
true story of his trial; also 23 illustrations. 

Price $3.00 Post Paid 



Ord"er now through the 

Jefferson Publishing Co. 

21 Park Row 

Deliveries prompt 



New York City 



Position Wanted 
Immediately 

B Y 

Well Trained Young Organist 

With Some Experience and 
Much Good Will 

.\d<lress : 

N. N., care Fortiiightlj^ Review 

18 South 6tli St., St. Louis, Mo. 



no 



TlIK FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



Til* Most Noleworfliy CoiitriWatioii lo Sermon Literalur«' of Kecent \e«r8 

Sermons for All the Sundays 

and for the Chief Festivals of the Year 

By the Right Rev. John S. Vaughan, D. D. 

Bishop of Sebastopolis 

With an iDtroduction by 

Most Rev. John J. Glennon, D. D. 

Archbishop of St. Louis, Mo. 

Twt) Voliiiiifs. octavo, about (UO pp. Per set, bound in elotli. net $6.00 



Hi«tio|i A'aiiKiiaii. out ^>i tlie f;.nu>iis six V.iugliaii 
brothers who wciil to the .Mt.ir, has devoted himself 
particularly l» pidpit and missionary vork. a^d 
while he gained distinction from the iniblication ot 
a number of books of de!i^htfid literary qualities, 
his chief renown c.^me to him througli his remark- 
able iKrrfomiances in the pulpit. 

!Ic is regardetl as one of the greatest living pulpit 
speakers and hence this collection of his SP-R>iONS 
will l>e received with the greatest interest. 



I'.ISHor V.\Uc;iI.\X'S SERMOXS breathe the 
very spirit of virility that characterizes their vig- 
orous author. lie treats his subjects in original, 
striking ways, and his command of effective illustra- 
tion is exceptional. 

.\breast of the times in feeling, these SKRMONS 
will be found to be full of life and spirit, and a 
treasure trove of thought and suggestion for pulpit 
teachers. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 

'j;; i^.iivli.y Sheet NEW YORK 

St. A'M'/v.- /). Herder Book Co. 



Liteiaiy B fiefs 

— FatJicr S:il)imis Mollitor, O.F.M., lias 
turned into readable English St. Bunaven- 
ture'i famtnis treatise, "De Sex .-Mis Sera- 
phim," aptly entitling it, "The Virtue;; of a 
KeliKious Superior." The volume is a useful 
vade-mecum for religious superiors ami tiiose 
who are likely to become such. ( B. Herder 
ikK>k Co. ; 60 rts. I. 

^The "Kurzgefassies Ilandbuch der K.i- 
tJ-.oliichen Religion." by the late Fr. \V. Wil- 
nier*, S.J.. has iK-eii reissued in a fiftli edition 
by Er. J. Hontheim. S.J. It is a little classic, 
and unique in that it contains what is prob- 
ably the most succinct summary of Catholic 
the<»loKy in non-technical language. The 
editor justly cf>mpares the "Haiidl>tirh" to the 
summot' ihi'olo^icar of the Middh .Ages. 
( F'ubli.«hcd by Pustct, of Ratisbon ; i)ricc not 
•tated). 

— L'nder the title, "Teaching Children the 
Mass," the Rev. Er. Eranci-, A. GafTney, O.P., 
ha< compiled a little brochure designed tohclji 
parents and teachers in instructing tlujrhil- 
drcn with regaril to the externals of the Holy 
Sacrifice. On j6 pages, .vttio., he gives in 
<kiniple *tyle rigorously condensed informa- 
tion on the language'^, lights, linens, altar. 
liturgy, aivl the vestment* used at Mass. The 
Ux/kict in apt to prove helpful. rs[iecially to 
those teachers who have little «;r no leisure 



for such work. (Published by John W. Win- 
tcn'cli, 59 E. j\Iain St., Columbus, O. ; price, 
10 cts. ; $7.50 per 100). 

— '"Scintillae Ignatinac sivc S. Ignatii de 
Loyola Scnteiitise et Effata Sacra per Sin- 
gidos Anni Dies," by P. Gabriel Hevenesi, 
S.J., is the sufficiently explanatory title of the 
latest voluine in Pustet's "Bibliotheca Asceti- 
ca." edited by the Rev. Er. Brehm. There is 
an appcndi.x containing log select extracts 
from the writings of St. Philip Neri. and a 
very full "Judex reruni." With its 500 pages, 
the volume, in an elegant tlexible leather 
binding and gilt edges, is cheap at $1.25; a 
still cheaper edition can be had in cloth bind- 
ing for 75 cts. (Pustet & Co., Inc.). 

—Mr. John P. O'llara. editor of the Ctitli- 
I'Hc Seiiliitcl, lias j)iil)lislied "A History of 
the L'niled States," which, in several respects, 
is an imi)r()vemeiit upon the various text- 
books hitherto available for Catholic schools, 
though we would not venture to say that it is 
the standard work so long desiderated by edu- 
cators. The author's brief account of Ameri- 
ca's share in the Great War is fairer and 
more accurate than any we have yet seen. 
We miss bibliographical references, with rc- 
li.-'ble critical estimates, to standard works 
on the vari'jus phases of American his- 
tory. Pastors and teachers would do well 
to inquire into the merits of this history, evi- 
dently intend(*d for the liighcr grades of the 



1920 



THE UORTNMGHTI.Y REVIEW 



111 



parochial and the lower grades of the high 
scliool. and to compare its ontstanding fea- 
tures with tliose of its competitors. (Mac- 
millaii Co.; I1.25.) 

— ^fr. vStephen Graham, who served as a 
so!<lier in the Piritisli army during the war, 
has published a book, "iV Private in the 
Guards" (^Alacmillan), which shows that the 
atrocities were not all on the German side. 
We were particularly struck with his descrip- 
tion of how a British captain shot two German 
officer-prisoners after Festubert (p. 217) ; 
how a sergeant, after the capture of a Ger- 
man machine-gun post, salutes his officer and 
asks '"leave to siioot the prisoners, sir," and 
then proceeds to do it in cold blood (p. 218) ; 
liow the bombing instructor lays down as part 
of the instructions "the second bayonet man 
kills tile prisoners" (p. 219) ; how the Lewis 
.yunncr is similarly instructed to shoot down 
Germans with tlieir hands up (p. 219), and 
how a private in the Welsh Guards in an 
occupied village shot a wounded German in 
liis sleep; how that German was left to die 
slowly on the village dung heap, with eight 
iioles in him, by a group of other Guards- 
men, and then how an atrocity story was 
manufactured out of the incident to the effect 
that the German had crawled out of a cellar 
and killed and wounded half a dozen women 
and children before being disposed of (pp. 
221-2). These and other similar allegations 
are made not against ordinary soldiers, but 
against the very flower and cream of the 
British army, his Majesty's own Guards! 

—The venerable "Dean" (V. Rev. W. R.) 
Harris writes to us from Toronto: '"Most 
of the reviewers and critics of my 'Essays 
in Occultism, Spiritism, and Demonology' 
failed to understand that the little book was 
intended for the instruction and enlighten- 
ment of the very great number of our young 
people who are wage-earners in shops, offices, 
stores, factories, and foundries. It was not 
written for the intellectuals of otir colleges, 
universities, and learned professions, who 
are. hy their superior Catholic training, im- 
mune to attack from 'isms.' People who de- 
pend on their hands for their living--and 
tliey are here in Canada fully ninety-five per 
cent of our Catholic population — will not 
read books such as Dr. Liljencrants's 'Spirit- 
ism and Religion.' Spiritism, Theosophy, 
Christian Science, and like novelties draw 
their perverts, when they are Catholics, from 
the young men and women who will not read 
books or pamphlet.s which are as dry and 
wearisome as a mathematical problem. Cath- 
olic philosopliers. theologians, and writers in 
more than one countr)^ for two hundred 
years have addressed themselves almost ex- 
clusively to the educated. The common peo- 
ple, the' working classes, were fed on literary 
pap. intended for babes of Grace, on books 
written by men and women — mediocrities — 
who tilled their works with pious legends, 
nivths. and inventions. The manhood of 



I'lance is religiously dead in consequence, 
and that of Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Latin 
America is dying. What I admire m your 
Fortnightly RkvuCw is the elasticity of its 
pages, making it as e.isy to be read and un- 
derstood by the workingnian as by the 
scholar.'' 



Books Received 

/ //<• Loir iif Biol he IS. I'.y Katli;iriiif Tynan llink- 
si)n, _'/_' pp. 8v<>. I'.t-nziger P>i..!!. $1.75 net. 

77i(' Catholic .■liiu-iiran. I'y Rt-v. (lenrge '1'. Schniiilt. 
xi & 148 pp. liino. I'-enzigcr I'.ros. $1.25 net. 

A Histnrv of the United States. I'.v John V. O'llara. 
xii & 461 pp. 12nio. Tlie MacMiDan Co., 66 Fifth 
Ave., New York City. 1919. $1.25. 

Our Sa-<'ioi-'s Own Words. A Daily Thonglii from 
the Ciospel on the One Thing Necessary. I'.y V. .1. 
Kcmler. C.M. viii & 127 pp. 32mo. .\lchison, 
Kas. : Abbey Stiulent Press. Imitation leather, 
75 cts. : cloth, 6Sc., postpaid. (For sale by the 
n. Her.ler P.ook Co., St. Louis, Mo.) 

Kefort of the First .Aiinnal Mectiiifi of the Francis- 
can lldiicational Conference, St. I.nuis, Mo.. June 
29, 30, <!»(/ Julv 1, 2, 1919. 168 pp. 8vo. Cin- 
cinnati, O. : Office of the Secretary, 1615 Vine Str. 
(.Wrapper). 

'J caching Children the Mass. By Francis A. Gaflney, 
O.P. 26 pp. 32 mo. Columbus, O. : John W. 
Wiuterich. 59 K. Main Str. 10 cts.; $7.50 per 100. 
( \\'rap])er). 

Manuel des Franc-Catholiques. Une Ligue Nationale. 
sous I'figifle lilt Sacre-Cotur conti-e les Sectes 
.Secretes Condaninees. L'Ennemi ,-'i Coml)attrc: 
Notions Essentielles. Par Louis Ilacault, Publiciste. 
96 pp. 32nio. Quebec: Le Ralliemenl C. 1". A. 
12 cts., postpaid. (Wrapper). 

Bibliotheca .Iscetica Edita a Fr. Brehin, Sacerdote. 
Vol. X: Scintillae Ignatianae, sivc S. Ignatii dc 
Loyola Scntcntiac ct Effata Sacra quae per sin- 
tiuios anni dies di.<!tribHlt P. Gabriel Hevcncsi S. 
J. Cum Affendice Continente Scntcntias S. 
Philipfi Xerii, viii & 474 pp. 32mo. Fr. Pustet & 
Co., Inc. 1919. Cloth, 75 cts.; leather, gilt edges. 
$1.25. 



/^T r:D/^V■^/IC^.l who desire to have maim- 

able cost, can save worry by corresi>ondin>{ with the 
old reliable prinlitif; lion-~e 

The Jos. Berning 
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112 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 

Can You Talk to the Dead? 



April 1 



"It ivill hi' of the (/rcdtcst ralitc to Coiijefisors, Doctors, Lawi/ers — 

and to all men <uid nom'U icho prefer saniti/ oj thought 

— (i)id action.'''' 

Spiritism and Religion 

Can You Talk to the Dead ? 

By Baron Johan Lil jencrants, A. M., S. T. D. 
With Foreword by Dr. Maurice Francis Egan 

and 

Foreword Appreciations by Cardinal Gibbons and John A. Ryan, D. D. 
the well-known Sociologist 



No mailer what our relijjion, our minds 
have been confronted daily with the 
awful yet wonderful and thrilliiifj pres- 
ence of the Hereafter. No one can es- 
cape the thought of it, llie fact of it ; nor 
can any one escape the relentless ques- 
tioning that it forces upon every mind 
capable of even momentary thought. 

This book on Spiritism is scholarly; 
it is scientific; it is sound in its think- 
ing. I consider it a real advance in the 
literature of Spiritism. 

J. Card. f'.iBnoNS 



Spiritism and Religion is l)e5'ond 
doubt the best book on that subject in 
the Hn^lish language. In its clear and 
comprehensive account of the phenom- 
ena and practices of Spiritism, its con- 
cise presentation of the opinions of 
authorities in this field, and its keen 
analysis and criticism of both phenom- 
ena and authorities, it is easil)' without 
a rival. It is scientific without being 
dry, and its conclusions will not easily 
be overthrown. 

John A. Ryan, D.D., 

Professor of Sociology. 
L'j.tliolic II Diversity of Aineiica. 
WasbiiiKtoii, 1). C. 



Retdhi as 'uderesthifj as a lii(/li-rlass norel, it should he used for 
siipfdfiuntfanf rrndnifi in (ill Aiddcmies and Collcffcs, Jor it is chicfiy 
the fdnr<itrd rin.s.srs mho iirc now trastinff time, mind, nioneif and 
rharnrtrr, ft <k Icing to anil rnriching mediums, not one oJ whom can 
possd/lfi tell thrm or you half as niueh that 'is both satisfging and 
assuring as will hr found in SriHITTSM AM) RELIGIjON — 
CAy yOf TALK TO THE DKADf 

rriff $.■;.()(» |»()stp;ii<l ;it liooksf orc.^ of 



THE DEViN ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 



425 Fifth Avenue 



Neiv York 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXVII, NO. 8 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



.April 15, 1920 



The Salaries of Teachers and Organists 

''Amicus Justitiae" contributes to the 
Ecclesiastical Rcviezv (No. 3) a short 
but important paper that should be 
taken up and discussed in every Catholic 
journal of the U. S. It deals with the 
salaries of our school teachers and 
church organists. 

First the teachers. They are divided 
into two classes: religious (Brothers 
and Sisters) and lay teachers. Both 
classes never received the remuneration 
they were entitled to for their valuable 
services ; to-day they are sadly inider- 
paid. As the writer says : $200 to $300 
a year paid to a Brother or Sister will 
not meet even the very economical needs 
of community life. 

The condition of our lay teachers is 
not much better, nay, probably worse, 
because their needs are greater and their 
salary is lower in proportion. "Amicus 
Justitiae" does not stress the just com- 
plaints of the lay teachers sufficiently. 
They are a patient lot, but their ranks 
are thinning, and unless we pay them 
decently, the tribe will soon be extinct. 
The second class of persons con- 
cerned in the discussion are the church 
organists. Like the lay teachers, the or- 
ganists never received an adequate com- 
pensation even in normal times ; at pres- 
ent, when the unskilled laborer demands 
and receives seven or eight dollars a 
day in order to be enabled to support 
his family, the Catholic organist must 
still get along with a salary of from 
$300 to perhaps $1000 a year (few con- 
gregations pay more than $500). This 
beggarly income most organists eke out 
by giving private music lessons, but. as 
"Amicus" points out. the opportunities 
for such extra earnings are in many 
cases very limited, and, besides, consid- 
ering the time and labor spent in attend- 
ing to divine service and training the 



choir singers — all of which rc([uires 
special gifts and a preparatory training 
— we are not doing justice to these serv- 
ants of the Church by denying them a 
fair and independent support. 

It is evident that something will have 
to be done. The pastors alone cannot do 
it. As A)iierica said not long ago (Dec. 
20, T9), "it can be done only by an im- 
mediate and generous response of our 
Catholic people to the exhortations of 
the hierarchy and of the parish clergy." 

It is comforting to learn that some of 
our bishops have already taken steps in 
this direction. ]\Iay the others soon fol- 
low ! 



A Plea for Reliable Catholic Statistics 
Father L. J. Kenny, S.J., in a paper 
printed in the current issue of the Bulle- 
tin of the Catholic Educational Associa- 
tion (Vol. XVI, No. 2), insists on the 
importance of "Preserving the Records"' 
of Catholic life and activity in America. 
Incidentally he emphasizes a point that 
has been more than once urged in this 
Review. While it cannot be shown, he 
says, that the diocesan chancellors are 
in duty bound to work gratis for the 
publishers of the Catholic Directory, 
they would set us all a worthy example 
were they to report correctly each year 
the number of baptisms, marriages, and 
burials. 

Father Kenny is right. As at pres- 
ent compiled, the statistics on these vital 
points are practically worthless. We 
have not even a reliable approximation 
of the birth rate among our Catholic 
population. If such figures as are avail- 
able really indicate the state of Cathol- 
icity throughout America, says Fr. 
Keny, it is time to institute a complete 
revolution in the mode of Catholic life 
in this land, or— to "prepare for a 
deluge." 



114 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



A Prayer 

By Alfred Xorris 
I would not ask Thee that my days 

Should flow quite smoothly on and on; 
Lest I should learn to love the world 

Too well, ere all my time was done. 

I would not ask Thee that my work 
Should never bring mo pain nor fear; 
Lest I shoidd learn to work alone, 
And never wish Tiiy presence near. 

I would not ask Thee that my friends 
Should always true and constant be; 

Lest 1 should learn to lay my faith 
In them alone, and not in Tliee. 

But I would ask Tliee still to give 
By night my sleep, by day my bread, 

And that the counsel of Thy Word 
Should shine and show the path to tread. 

And I would ask a humble heart, 
A changeless will to work and wake. 

A firm faith in Thy providence. 

The rest — 'tis Thine to give or take. 



M?M 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 
liy the Rev. Joux Eloene Weibei 



V.F. 



{Fifth Installment) 



The monastery itself had been established 
\n Beinwil, in the Canton of Solothurn, fif- 
teen miles south of Mariastein. It was 
founded in 1085. to replace the famous Bene- 
dictine .\bbey of Granval, which', for its de- 
votion to the Pope, had been burned and its 
possessions confiscated by tiie German Em- 
peror, Henry I\'. in the year 1080. Monks of 
Hirsaw were the first religious. The mon- 
astcr>' had miny possessions. St. Bernard 
of Claivaux visited it while at tiie .\bl)ey of 
Lu.xeuil, in the neighborlK)od. An alibot of 
Beinwil was present at the Council of Basle. 

The pilgrimage of Mariastein, fifteen miles 
north of Bcinwil. is very old, as a letter of 
the Council of Basle mentions it as a ven- 
erable shrine. Tradition gives as its origin 
the fall of a child from the great heiglit into 
the deep rocky chasm, and the child l)eing 
saved through the invocation of the i'.iesse<l 
Virgin. That child, when grown uj), lived 
25 an anchorite at that place. Later the 
shrine was attended by a secular priest. In 
1471 it was given over to the .Augustinian 
monks of Baste. After this monastery had 
ffcrished in the Reformation, secular j»riesls 
again took charge of the shrine, imtil, in 
1636, it was given over, with two ncighltf^ring 
parishes, to the abbot and convent of i'einwil. 
Alx^vc the grotto of the Virgin there was at 



that time a hermitage and a small cliurch, the 
Cliapel of Our Lady of Seven Sorrows, to- 
gether with a house and garden for the at- 
tending priests. Otherwise all was forest. 
Xow everything was changed ; above the 
grotto arose a monastery with a largo church. 
Tile forest was cleared to make room for 
fertile lields. vineyards and orchards. Solemn 
d;iily services were held, and a school for 
young men was connected with the abbey. 

The first abbot of Mariastein was Fintan 
Kiefer, famous over the whole country for 
his zeal and learning. He was- apostolic vis- 
itor of many monasteries and as papal dele- 
gate presided over the elections of three 
bishops of Basle. Although there were still 
monks left in Beinwil, the majority from that 
time on resided in Mariastein, where there 
was such a great field for activity. Thus the 
abbey brouglit the shrine to great fame, so 
nincli so that a book, '"Helvetia Sacra," in 
t;gj, refers to it together with Mont Serrat 
in Spain, Oettingen in Bavaria, Maria Zell in 
.\iistria, and Einsiedeln in Switzerland, as 
one of the most famous shrines in the world. 

Then came the French Revolution. Thou- 
sands of Catholic Frencli sought consolation 
in Mariastein. I^fteen hundred inarriages 
were celebrated by French people in Maria- 
stein during a few months and thousands 
went there to perform their duties. But the 
monastery, situated near the French frontier, 
lighting valiantly for several years against 
tiie storm, helping great numbers of fugitive 
Catholic F'renchmen, had become an object 
of hatred in the eyes of the French Jacobins 
and had to succumb, as thousands of other 
institutions in the revolution, when, in 1798, 
the I'Vench entered Switzerland. The reli- 
gious were exiled, the monastery was plun- 
dered, and with the surrounding land and 
vineyards, sold to Jews ; whilst Beinwil, with 
twenty-one surrounding farms, was placed 
under a secular administration. A few years 
after .'Xbbot Jerome succeeded in buying 
Ijack the abbey and the church with its sur- 
rounding property. Tliere was not a whole 
window nor a door left in the entire monas- 
tery. All the property and lands situated in 
hrance were lost forever. The religious, 
scattered tliroughoul Austria, Germany, and 
in Venici', returned one l)y one, and when 
,\bbot Jerome died, in 1804, although the 
ai)bey was not yet jiabilable, the chapter mem- 
bers assembled in the old monastery of Bein- 
wil, ami elected :is abbot one of the youngest 
members, Placidus .A.ckermr:in, called "the 
.\ngel of the Swiss Abbots." During the 
thirty-seven years of his regime he put all 
tlic buildings in good repair, budt a new front 
to the church, had the .school re established, 
;ind brought the community to great develop- 
Tuent in tempr)ral as well as spiritual affairs. 

Then came again years of trial and vexa- 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



116 



tion from a radical government, heiicled by 
leaders hostile to the Clnirch. For years a 
Mr. Vigier was landamtmann, or governor, 
of the Canton of Solothurn. Vigier was the 
son of good CathoHc patents, an old Junker 
family, but, whilst his sisters, educated by 
the nuns of the Visitation, became good Catli- 
olics, the boys, placed under emigre tutors, 
I'rench abbes who were knowingly or un- 
knowingly influenced in their teaching by 
the Encyclopjedists. became infidels and dan- 
gerous enemies of the Church. They had all 
the cynicism, frivolity, and hypocrisy of (he 
French. Before the simple, good people of 
the Canton those Vigiers could speak with 
religious unction and ostentatious piety, pre- 
testing their love for the Catholic religion, 
denouncing only the prevailing abuses. 
Through their hypocritical methods they suc- 
ceeded in introducing all kinds of vexatious 
and injurious ordinances against the Catholic 
Church and its institutions. The Benedictine 
Abbey of Mariastein, with its celebrated 
shrine, visited yearly by sixty to seventy thou- 
sand pilgrims, was a thorn in their side. 
They left nothing untried to bring about the 
destruction of the "black fortress," as tliey 
called it. For about thirty years the reception 
of new members had been rendered very dif- 
ficult, almost impossible. Many of its best 
members, such as the late Father Augustine, 
for thirty years prior, and Abbot Charles, 
with many others, had to remain novices for 
seven or eight years before permission for 
their profession was granted by the govern- 
ment. Another measure, intended to bring 
about its gradual downfall, was the heavy 
taxation of the monastery. There was a law 
made permitting the government to fine any 
preacher mentioning political issues in a way 
unfavorable to the rulers. On the other 
hand, a good preacher, that is, a minister or 
priest who never blamed anything done by 
the government, but praised the rulers, could 
be legally rewarded for his loyalty by an ad- 
dition to his regular salary. Happily, there 
were few of the latter kind. Even in the 
fines imposed the humorous side was often 
not wanting. Thus it was not stated in what 
coin the fines had to be paid. The regula- 
tions said only so and so many hundred 
francs had to be paid. Thus, when the gend- 
armes came demanding the fine from the 
parish priest of Breitenbach for his so-called 
political talk in the pulpit, he pointed to a 
large pile of coppers, all five and ten centime 
pieces. The government officials protested, 
but it was of no avail. It was legal govern- 
ment money, and could not be refused. 
Therefore they had to get a wagon to haul 
it away. It was also a custom of those per- 
secuted ministers to have the official decree 
of their fine framed and hung up in their 
parlors. 

{To be continued') 



A Life of Bishop McQuaid 

The Rev. Dr. Frederick J. Zwicrleiii, 
of St. Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, 
N. Y., is engaged in the preparation of 
a full-length life of the late Bishop Mc- 
Quaid, from which he has lately pub- 
lished specimen pages both in the Dub- 
lii: Rcviczv and in the Catholic Histori- 
cal Rcviciv. These specimens show that 
Dr. Zwierlein has made a thorough 
study of his subject and is willing to 
tell the truth, no matter who may feel 
offended. Bishop jMcQuaid, though at 
the head of a comparatively unimpor- 
tant diocese, was in many respects a 
truly great, because a truth-loving and 
fearlessly courageous man, and the ac- 
tive part he took in many of the contro- 
versies of his long episcopate (1868- 
1909) make his life and correspondence 
one of great interest and value for the 
history of the American Church during 
that trying period. We will mention 
only the school question, the McGlynn 
case, the case of Father Lambert, the 
appointment of the first Apostolic Dele- 
gate to Washington, Archbishop Ire- 
land's obnoxious political activities, etc. 
All these and many other chapters of 
American ecclesiastical history still rest 
in obscurity because the position taken 
by Bishop McQuaid and Archbishop 
Corrigan, and their friends, has never 
been adequately explained. How much 
light will fall upon these chapters. from 
the very extended and f reespoken corre- 
spondence of Bishop McQuaid can be 
judged from the quotations contained 
in Dr. Zwi^rlein's paper, "The Episco- 
pal Career of Bishop :McQuaid," in the 
January number of the Catholic Histori- 
cal Review, the careful perusal of which 
we heartily recommend to every lover 
of truth and justice. 

\\t understand Dr. Zwierlein is tak- 
ing up subscriptions for his forthcoming 
life of Bishop McQuaid, which is to 
comprise two large volumes. We hope 
manv of our friends will encourage his 
noble effort by sending him their sub- 
scriptions. 

—To take the commonplace and transfigure 
it is the triumph as well as the vocation of 
the artist. 



116 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



American Catholics and Their Press 
Lovers of literature are bewailing the 
passing of the old-time bookshop, where 
a pleasant hour could be spent in the 
leisurely fingering of coveted volumes. 
The news stand has killed the book 
store as the popular magazine killed the 
thouglnful book. And the ubiquitous 
"movie" is even now killing thought it- 
self by a superhcial appeal to the 
senses. Films can be made educational 
and instructive; but the devotees of the 
screen, their day's work done, are bent 
only on amusement and relaxation. Our 
present concern, however, is with the 
reading public and its disconcerting 
predilections in literary matters. Cer- 
tain periodicals, those of the snappy 
story, the Hashy rotogravure section, 
the breezy article that skims over the 
surface of things, enjoy an immense 
vogue in every part of the country, and 
sell by the million, especially in the 
larger cities. One or two others, like the 
Literary Digest, that appeal more to the 
thoughtful reader, can boast of a very 
large circulation. Strangely enough, 
the great majority of their patrons are 
not found in large urban centers, but 
in the smaller cities and in the country 
districts. 

Catholics contribute an immense 
share of patronage to the secular publi- 
cations that deal largely in innocuous 
ineptitudes, like the Saturday livening 
Post, or are constantly skirting the 
brink of the immoral. Only a short 
while ago one of the Hearst publica- 
tions wrote: "In addition to newspa- 
pers with the biggest circulation, 
Hearst owns the only twenty-five cent 
monthly magazine with a circulation 
alx)vc a million. That is the Cosmopoli- 
tan Magazine. Its circulation is above 
1,300,000. The next highest circulation 
for a twenty-five cent magazine is 700,- 
000, for Good Housekeeping. That also 
l>elongs to flear.st. 'i he next highest 
circulation for a twenty-five cent month- 
ly magazine is 600.000. That is the cir- 
culation of Hearst's Magazine." 

It would l>c interesting to know how 
many Catholics patronize such maga- 
zines to the neglect and detriment of 
their own i>criodicals. 



The subscription lists of more than 
one Catholic publication could be ad- 
duced to prove that many names of 
those who from 'their educational ad- 
vantages might be considered the lead- 
ers, or able to become such, of Catholic 
thought and action in this country, are 
not found thereon. The lists would 
prove, besides, that in the larger cities 
(New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chi- 
cago> St. Louis, etc.), the educated 
class among Catholics is not given as 
largely as might be expected to the read- 
ing of serious Catholic reviews. 

Our press is not at fault. It has been 
and is doing its full duty, often against 
great odds. And our press is almost as 
essential to our existence and our prog- 
ress as are our churches and schools. 
Realizing this, the National Catholic 
Welfare Council, recently organized in 
Washington by the American Hier- 
archy, has appointed a special committee 
with Bishop Russell at its head, to study 
and carry out more energetic means for 
the support and development of this all- 
important branch of Catholic activity. 
A vigorous educational campaign, car- 
ried on systematically all over the land 
with the purpose of aw^akening our 
Catholic people to their duties, may, in 
course of time, bring about the estab- 
lishment of several Catholic dailies. 
Sending their message into thousands of 
homes day after day, they could not but 
exercise a powerful influence. The 
w^hole secret of the secular daily's power 
lies in the steady insistent reiteration of 
the same set views. 

For generations we have been accus- 
tomed to a purely political daily press. 
^\'e have soothed ourselves with the 
ha])py delusion that there was no room 
in this jjrosperous land for extremist 
parties; that religion and public life 
could be and should be kept apart. With 
the sudden rise to power of subversive 
and anarchistic elements it became evi- 
dent that jjolitical principles and parties 
alone cannot save the country from 
chaos. Religion must be made to bear 
more directly on the lives of the masses. 
And Catholics, above all others, believe 
and know that their faith is a healing 
balm for the wounds of nations; that 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



117 



they must bestir themselves more than 
ever to spread afar its light and its 
l)iessings. The present year may see 
the hiunching of the first Catholic daily 
in Dubuque, Iowa, by a progressive 
I>ubhsher who for years has pioneered 
in this field. By ceaseless efforts he has 
built up a strong following of readers 
and subscribers that bids fair to make 
liis daily paper successful and to prove 
th.e practicability of an enterprise that 
has given rise to much argument and to 
an equally large amount of prophecies 
whose monotonous burthen was : 
failure. 

Until the Catholic dailies have come 
into existence to support our cause, ad- 
vance our interests and spread our reli- 
gious and social teachings with the same 
vigor and success that characterize the 
secular press, we shall have to rely on 
our weekly papers. They have been a 
feature of our Catholic life from the 
early days and borne the brunt of many 
a hard battle. They may be readily di- 
vided into two classes : official and non- 
official organs. Of late years there has 
been a well-defined tendency to trans- 
form these Catholic weeklies more and 
more into official diocesan papers. There 
can be no doubt that the latter have a 
mission to fulfil. And it may be worth 
vvhile inquiring whether, at the thresh- 
old of a new era when our opportunities 
for service are being multiplied and the 
need of solid Catholic doctrine is felt 
more than ever to steady the tottering 
foundations of society, our Catholic pa- 
pers should all come under the direct 
management and control of the Ordi- 
naries. I purpose to consider this ques- 
tion in another paper. 

(Rev.) J. B. CULEMANS 

• Moline, III. 

•-^'v^-* 

Catholic Hymns from the German 
We are indebted to the Rev. John 
Rothensteiner, pastor of Holy Ghost 
Parish, St, Louis, a well-known littera- 
teur and an occasional contributor to 
the F. R., for "A Little Garland of 
Catholic Hymns, Mostly from the Ger- 
man," in the form of a neat brochure 
of 20 pages 16mo. It is made up of 



original renditions into English of a 
number of German and a few other 
hynnis. Among the former we may 
niention : O Komm, O Komm, Em- 
manuel ; Dich griissen Wir, o Jesulein; 
Ihr Kinderlein Kommet ; O du Liebes 
Jesukind ; Der am Kreuz ist Maine 
Licbe; Mein Ilerz Hrgliiht; Fest Soil 
Mein Taufbund Immer Stehn ; In 
Dieser Nacht, etc. Fr. Rothensteiner's 
l)roved poetic talent and literary expe- 
rience are sufficient guarantees that 
these renditions — unlike so many found 
in our current hymn books — are worthy 
of their originals. In a brief preface 
the author says, inter alia : 

"The German people have one great 
treasure which it would be well for us 
Americans to make our own : An in- 
exhaustible array of the most lovely 
songs, religious as well as secular, such 
as no other nation can claim. A good 
part of this noble inheritance is still 
living in the memory of the people 
wherever its members may find them- 
selves. . . . The old German religious 
songs are the children of a deep, strong 
Christian feeling, not of sickly senti- 
mentality. . . . Therefore, they enjoy 
perennial youth. We have heard them 
and sung them a thousand times, and 
we always turn to them with new in- 
terest. Heard but once, they cannot be 
forgotten. But it is not the melody 
alone that attracts us in these hymns. 
The words are its necessary comple- 
ment. The words, however, are Ger- 
man, and German is no longer the 
mother-tongue of our children and 
young people. Shall, then, the melodies 
pass away, together with the language 
that enshrines them? Many lovers of 
the old beautiful songs and hymns are 
intent upon saving them for the coming 
generations by translating the verses 
into English. It is a labor of love and 
deserves to succeed. A critical, yet lov- 
ing, selection of German Catholic 
hymns and songs, arranged for_ the 
ui^e of our German-American parishes 

would be a boon, indeed." 
* * ♦ 

Fr. Rothensteiner is the man to give 
us such a selection, and we hope he will 

do it. 



118 



THlv FORTNIGHTLY REVIHW 



April ]b 



Blasco Ibafiez and His Writings 

It may be admitted thai the economic 
condition of the peasantry in Spain has 
been deplorable, but this was the fault 
of the government. At last the Spanish 
bishops came to the assistance of the 
small peasant proprietors, who were be- 
ing mercilessly tleeced by middlemen 
and loan sharks. The establishment o^ 
rural savings I)anks by (."atholic social 
workers was the real begiiming of the 
uplift of the Spanish peasant. The 
bishops introduced courses in rural 
economics and sociology in their semi- 
naries, and these courses were of spe- 
cial advantage to students destined for 
rural parishes. But of all this tine work 
there is not even a hint in the "master- 
piece" of Ibanez. In fact, it is a fair 
question whether his hatred against the 
Church has not been increased by her 
splendid attempt to remedy the social 
and industrial condition of her children. 
The Cafholic Register of Toronto, June 
26, 1919 ( for Canada, too, has an 
Ibanez craze), takes this view of his 
novels "ix)isonously hostile to the Cath- 
olic Church": — '*His sales are swelling 
because he gives the haters of the Cath- 
olic Church just what they can relish." 

Again, while we are on the (luestion 
of Spain's backwardness, we may 
.say a word about its criminality, com- 
|)ared with that of other nations. We 
are well aware that statistics in this mat- 
ter may Ixj juggled so as to prove almost 
anything. I'ut the following assertion 
is of value because it is made by a man 
who writes from the imj)artial point of 
view nf the scientific sociologist. In his 
"SrK-ial I'athf»U»gy" ( Macmiilan. 1916), 
Professor S. ( i. Smith says: "The com- 
plexity of the problem fof crime) is 
revealefl in the cr>mparative statistics of 
some Ktiropean countries giving the 
niimlHrr of ofTenses .ig.iinst property 
which are reported in comparison with 
the |K>]>ulation. Spain seems to stand at 
the lK>ttom of the list and Scotland at 
the top, and in general the northern 
races have a worse record than the 
M»uthern. The Catholic cotmtrit s seem 
to Ik* superior to the Protestant coun- 
iries, aixl the fjuestifui at once naturally 



arises, is either climate or religion or 
are both combined the controlling rea- 
sons for the facts?" 

Now if the Toledo Cathedral had ex- 
erted such a baneful effect upon those 
dwelling in its "shadow," the crime rec- 
ord there, as well as in the other large 
cities of Si)ain. ought to be staggering, 
since Spain is a land of cathedrals. 

A word about the English of this 
loudly heralded book will not be amiss, 
'ihai the translation is not the work of 
a niiaster of English style is obvious. 
Aside from incorrect forms, as in "the 
habit of being awoke in the middle of 
the night" (p. 28), and again, on p. 85, 
"one morning he was awoke by sounds 
as of thunder," there are mistransla- 
tions due to lack of thorough under- 
standing of the original. Long, con- 
fused sentences, like the one on page 
84, "The soft voice of the Creole became 
har.sh," evidently do not convey the ex- 
act meaning of the original. 

P)Ut it is the malicious attacks upon 
everything Catholic that will prove most 
offensive. It is these onslaughts which 
have found favor with bigoted review- 
ers. The Living Age, for instance, 
speaks of "the artistic contrast between 
the superb mass of wonderful architec- 
ture reared by ]Mety and the sordid cloud 
of siti enveloi)ing it." Ibafiez merely 
imitates the style and methods of ear- 
lier scoffers who have resorted to such 
innuendoes in order to curry favor with 
the enemies of the Church. 

IbaiTez allows his hero Gabriel to de- 
liver most of these attacks upon the 
Church. On page 158 the latter speaks 
ol "the eternal life of the soul, that 
lying promise of religion." On page 
170 we learn of "the fable of Paradise." 
On page 208 the reader is told that Ga-- 
biicl. in spite of his advanced views on 
re ligion, has nevertheless resolved to • 
remain in the cathedral and to dwell 
there "like an animated corp.sc, which 
in '^oine religious orders is the supreme 
(jf human lu-rfection." Page 240 gives 
;i harangue in which the hero ])roclaims 
that "we are God ourselves, and cvery- 
Ibiiig that surrounds us." "When man 
invented God the world had existed mil- 
lions of vears." 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



IIM 



Page 244 contains a blasphemous ref- 
erence to the Blessed Sacrament. For 
"the ironical situation tickled him [Ga- 
briel] extremely, that he of all men with 
his round religious denials should be 
the one to pilot the God of Catholicism 
through the devout crowd." 

These instances suffice to show the 
plan of attack adoi)ted by the latest tra- 
ducer of Catholic Spain, the renegade 
and calumniator of his own country. 
Those who realize the bitter warfare 
which the Church of Christ must now 
wage in several lands against her ene- 
mies, will not be surprised that this cow- 
ardly procedure has heaped laurels upon 
the head of the writer. In a leaflet sent 
out by the publishers (E. P. Dutton & 
Company, New^ York) to proclaim the 
merits of Blasco Ibanez, we read on 
page two : "No less than thirty entries 
[of imprisonment] exist against our 
author's name." Again, "at the age of 
eighteen he was clapped into prison for 
a sonnet directed against the govern- 
ment." The prospective reader of the 
books of Ibanez is, of course, to regard 
this feat somewhat as the soldier re- 
gards "citation for bravery" on the field 
of battle. 

Strange perversity of human judg- 
ment ! While in our land those who 
participate in attacks "directed against 
the government" arc either sent to 
prison or promptly "deported," and this 
course is approved by the upholders of 
law and order, a similar otTense com- 
mitted by a "radical" of another coun- 
try, is extolled as a brave effort in "the 
sacred cause of humanity." But Blasco 
Ibafiez with all his works and pomp, and 
despite the "beating of tom-toms and 
the circus parading" in his honor, will 
soon be only a vague memory, while 
the Church against which he vents his 
hatred will march on to new and larger 
conquests for the glory of God and the 
uplift and consolation of earth's sor- 
rowing children. 

("Rev.) Af.nKKT MrxTscn. S..T. 



— Aflcr reading? the ReviiCw. liand it to a 
friend; pcrliaps lie will subscribe, and you 
will have done him a service and helped 
alons tlie apnstnlale of the good press. 



Changing Constitutions 

I'o the Editor: — 

I noticed in a late number of your 
JvKviEw a complimentary reference to 
an article or lecture by some professor 
in the East, wherein it was said that we 
ought to have a new Constitution for 
the United States. 1 very earnestly dis- 
sent from that view. A'new Constitu- 
tion now would embody many of the 
'agarics and fallacies of the day, and 
certainly would not be as favorable as 
the present Constitution to your read- 
ers. 

I send you by this mail a paper which 
1 read at the last meeting, in July, of 
the Kentucky State Bar Association. 
At the end of that paper you will find 
my views on changing constitutions. 
This paper has attracted the attention 
and gotten the approval of many promi- 
nent men of the country. I had a nice 
letter about it lately from Viscount 
James Brycc, who was present one day 
during the work of our Constitutional 
Convention. 

Edw.aku J. McDermott 

Loiiiszille. A' v. 

We have received the pamphlet con- 
taining Mr. McDermott's paper, and 
gladly quote a few paragraph's from it 
because the position taken by the writer 
is reasona!)le and his arguments de- 
serving of consideration. 

Mr. McDermott quotes Viscount 
Bryce, Macchiavelli, Edmund Burke, 
and Vattel on the danger of tinkering 
with constitutions, and then says: "1 
do not say that we should never change 
our national or State constitutions ; that 
we should accept all that was said, or 
hold fast to all that was bequeathed us 
bv the American patriots who, in years 
long past, set our country free and 
made it possible for us to be now the 
strongest and greatest nation of the 
earth. Far from it. All I say is : Let 
us not too rudely, nor too quickly, hurl 
from us the ladder by which we rose. 
nor forget the proven wisdom of our 
forefathers. Children unfortunately 
profit little by the sound advice of their 
elders: nations pay too little heed to 
the historv of other nations. That is 



120 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



the reason why so many nations have 
risen high and fallen low ; why the 
progress of civilization has hecn so un- 
steady and slow ; why some nations, 
since the hirth of Christ, have retro- 
graded for a century or more." 

We appreciate especially the arqu- 
nient that a new federal constitution 
might not be as favorable to Catholics 
as the old one is, and it was precisely 
for tliis reason, seeing that a change is 
almost inevitable, that we called atten- 
tion to the movement headed by Prof. 
Henry Jones Ford, of Princeton, 
which aims at discussing the matter 
thoroughly and, if j)ossible, preventing 
a radical change, which, as Mr. McDer- 
mott fears, might hurl us too rudely 
and too quickly from the ladder by 
which we rose and criminally disregard 
'"the proven wisdom of the fathers." 

The Catholic press should watch this 
movement carefully and exhort its 
readers to employ all their influence to 
prevent any change in the constitution 
that might undermine religious liberty 
or prove in any way injurious to the 
best interests of the Church and reli- 
gion. 

^♦.j,^-, 

The "Odor of Sanctity" _ 
In the February Mmith Fr. Her- 
bert Thurston examines the evidence 
for the "odor of sanctity," not the 
metaphorical odor in which we should 
all live, but "the fragrant smell" which 
is one of the i)hysical phenomena of 
mysticism. As early as the second cen- 
tury the idea obtained throughout the 
("hristian world that high virtue was 
miraculously associated with fragrance 
of the body. Father Thurston adduces, 
among others, the seemingly well- 
authenticated cases of St. Polycarj) and 
St. .Simon Stylitcs. He stresses some 
of the more striking differences between 
the "odor of sanctity" and the perfume 
of the s<^ance room, both of wlu'eli arc 
grouped by Stainton Moses and other 
Spiritists as phenomena of medium- 
ship. 

•~^^ir»-» 

— Wc arc always really to furnish such 
fjack numbers of the R R. as wc have in 
slock. 



Lord Northcliffe's Master-Stroke 

The Toronto Statesman (Vol. HI, 
N. 13), announces that the Associated 
Press has made arrangements with the 
London Times by which the A. P. is 
permitted the privilege of seeing the 
Times' proofs, and in retin-n agrees to 
send the Times' news service to its 
clients in the U. S. 

"The 'Jellies has decided to do this," 
we are told by Mr. Herbert le Ridout, 
the London editor of the Editor and 
PiiblisJier, "because its object at all 
times has been to secure in the U. S. the 
greatest measure of publicity for the 
views of the Times primarily upon 
Anglo-American relations, but generally 
upon issues affecting the peace and har- 
mony of the world." 

By this amazing deal, says the States- 
man, "Lord NorthcHiTe has secured the 
strategic control of the chief avenues 
of world news. That these relations be- 
tween Northcliffe and the Associated 
Press bode no good for democracy on 
this continent will generally be acknowl- 
edged. The Associated Press, caught 
by the glamor of a great name and his- 
toric traditions, will rely more and more 
on the Times for world news. It will 
be cheaper for the Associated Press to 
utilize the Ti)iies service than to employ 
independent news-gatherers of its own. 
The Times will ultimately affix its own 
stamp to the news pages of Canadian 
and American dailies. We shall know 
what is going on in Europe only to the 
extent permitted by Lord NortJicliffe 
and the interests, political and other- 
wise, which he represents." [Italics 
ours. — E. h'.] 

* * * * 

Our American dailies, instead of in- 
forming the public of the true state of 
affairs, are boasting (as, for instance, 
the St. Louis Clobc-Democrat), that 
they are now in the fortunate position 
of being able to supply the London 
limes service, besides that of the Asso- 
ciated Press, and thus to keep the public 
better informed than ever before of 
what is going on in the world. Poor 
deceived and hoodwinked public ! 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



121 



Horrors of the Next War 

Under this title we read in The 
Month (London, No. 669, p. 181 sq.) : 
It may stimulate the apathetic taxpayer 
to some sort of protest, not only to read 
such revelations of war's inevitable 
barbarities as Mr. Philip Gibbs de- 
scribes in his latest book, "Realities of 
War," but also to consider the degra- 
dation of current military ethics, which 
the late conflict has caused. Previously 
a moralist could write : 

"A war does not constitute all the in- 
habitants [of a country] belligerents, 
but only such as the State shall defin- 
itely enroll, and shall in some manner 
signify to the enemy to be persons em- 
powered to bear arms in the public 
cause."— (J. Rickaby, SJ., "Political 
and Moral Essays," p. 64) . 

But in the late war, by indiscriminate 
bombing, and other forms of "fright- 
fulness," this doctrine was continually 
set at nought, and the civil population 
withdrawn from the protection of the 
fifth commandment. As a consequence, 
it is now openly proclaimed that "the 
objective in al! future wars must be the 
civil population. In actual fact, the 
civil populations were the objectives in 
this war." (Article in the London Her- 
ald for ^Larch, 1919, headed, "The Real 
Lesson of the War" ; the author in- 
cludes the food-blockade amongst at- 
tacks on the civil population). And in 
an interesting book recently published, 
"Tanks in the Great War," Colonel 
Fuller, Chief General Staff Of^cer in 
the Tank Corps, who calls the first use 
of gas by the Germans "a stroke of 
genius," not, as we used to think it, a 
"method of barbarism," goes on to 
sweep away the obsolete "Laws of 
War" in the following decisive fashion: 

"Fast-moving tanks equipped with 
tons of liquid gas . . . will in the next 
war cross the frontier and obliterate 
every living thing in the fields and 
farms, the villages and cities of the 
enemy's country. Whilst life is being 
swept away around the frontier, fleets 
of aeroplanes will attack the enemy's 
great industrial and governing centers. 
All these attacks wil be made at first, 
not against the enemy's army . . . but 
against the civil population, in order to 



compel it to accept the will of the at- 
tacker." 

This, then, is the real lesson of the 
war, one learnt with such readiness that 
British aeroplanes now bomb Indian 
hill-villages as a matter of course. 
Yet there are people who deride the 
League of Nations as an impracticable 
vision and do not rather see that it is a 
stern and practical necessity if civiliza- 
tion is to recover and survive. 



■<i>^ 



The Fate of Lies 

We read in the linglish Catholic 
Times of Feb. 21st : 

"What a great number of people will 
be doing penance very soon for their 
simplicity and foolishness in believing 
the lies told about the Russian Repub- 
lic by the men whose object was to 
eftect the restoration of the Czardom 
in Russia and thus pave the way for 
the restitution of monarchism in Cen- 
tral Europe. That plot may be said now 
to have miscarried, for it is scarcely 
possible that the Poles will continue to 
pit themselves against the Russian Re- 
publicans ; neither France nor England 
will supply the Polish magnates with 
men or money to steal Russian terri- 
tory ; and we may trust the Catholic 
clergy in Poland to do their best to pro- 
tect their people from being turned into 
cannon fodder just to stave off the com- 
ing of internal reforms. Altogether, 
the chances favor the Russian Republic 
everywhere and in every Avay. Already 
the London Tiuics has begun to cease 
publication of evident lies about the 
anti-Czarists and. indeed, to admit much 
virtue among them. And from source 
after source comes testimony that the 
Russian Republic has had to meet a 
propaganda of intense mendacity. The 
victories gained over all their armies by 
the Republicans have made lying use- 
less. Everybody admits now that the 
Russian people are determined not to 
have Czardom back. And that being 
so. Churchillism is as dead as the men 
now buried at Gallipoli. It is the worst 
feature of lies that thcv cannot be kept 
alive." 



Mi 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April l^ 



The War and Music 
W hilc New York was luakiui; itself 
the laughing stock of Paris (according 
to the l::cning Post ) by conibaitinj;- 
German opera, Mr. Ernest Newman 
wrote in the Motuhcstcr Liuardiiui 
(weeklyed.. Vol. I.Xo. \9) : 

Sir Thomas Beecham, like an artist 
and a sensible man. has recognized that 
now the war is over there is no longer 
any reason to exclude any German mu- 
sic that may be worth hearing and that 
the public particularly wants to hear. 
... It is really time the country laced 
this ([uestion of German music fairly 
and squarely. That the nuisical public, 
as a whole, has no objection even to 
contemiK)rary German nuisic is evident 
to anyone who goes about with his eyes 
and ears open. The other afternoon 
Rosing >^ang a song by Strauss at his 
recital. v.\n\ not a single sixshooter 
was emjuied at him. There can be little 
doubt that before long the best of the 
modern (lerman songs will reappear in 
our progranmies, as, in our own inter- 
ests, it is advisable that they should ; 
and if (ierman songs, why not German 
o|)eras? If I am not a traitor to my 
country by listening with i)leasure to 
"Widmung" or "Traum (lurch die Dam- 
mcrung." ought I to be taken to the 
Tower and shot for wanting to hear the 
"Kosenkavalier" again? The public, I 
am sure, would take the sensible line 
over these matters if it were not now 
and then distracted by shrieks from the 
yellow press or groans from scared or 
disapfiointed grinders of axes. . . . The 
public . . . simply wants gofxl music, 
and does not care if it comes from a 
late enemy, so long as it is good ; and 
it will n«»t «-n«lure patiently bad music. 
even ihf)Ugh it come from a late or a 
present friend. Xo war can alter the 
relative basic values of art. , . . One ex- 
cellent result of the long war embargo 
on enemy music has been to compel the 
public to hear so nuich of the weaker 
Allied njtisic as to cur<- it (fTccliially of 
the notion that all the musie that comes 
from Italy and IVam ( and l\'ii^si,-i is 
the work of original g< nius< s. ;,jul all 
the nni.sic that comes from G< rmany 
the work of hidelK>tuid j»cdants. 



A Franciscan Educational Conference 
\\ bile the Catholic Educational Con- 
ference was in session in St. Louis, last 
summer, the I'ranciscan l^^athers held a 
little educational "confab" of their own, 
of which a report has just been issued 
by the Secretary, 1615 Vine Str., Cin- 
cinnati, O. This report is very neat and 
readable, and in every respect a model 
of what such a report should be. 

The Eriars, it goes without saying, 
have their own educational problems, 
and their representatives discussed 
these problems in three sections: classi- 
cal, philosophical and theological. That 
the "patres conscripti"' of the confer- 
ence were thoroughly awake to the 
n^eds of lo-day, appears from their de- 
bates on the need of specialization, of 
inculcating the "ars bene scribendi," of 
taking a deep and abiding interest in 
the great social problem, etc., etc. 

The four chief papers, by Frs. Hu- 
golinus, Ferdinand, Claude, and Thom- 
as, alone make the "report" distinctly 
worth wliile. We recommend it to all 
educationists and congratulate the Ea- 
tiiers who participated in the confer- 
ence, on the solidity of their views and 
the up-to-dateness of their suggestions 
for the training of the adolescent gen- 
eration of I'ranciscans, who are un- 
doubtedly destined to participate in a 
great reconstruction movement — intel- 
ectual, moral and political. 
^♦<^*-« 

Our Neglected Negroes and Mexicans 

7V' ///(• liilitor: — 

On page 90 of the I'. K., No. 6, are 
found the following words: "Two mil- 
lion five hundred thousand dollars 
wf)uld do wonders for our neglected 
colored people so often subjected to 
odious discrimination, exploitation, and 
race hatred." 

Would that all Catholics heard this! 
What an opportunity is ofTered to them 
to win God's best gifts! Do Catholics 
ill the North know of this opportunity? 
Twelve million .\merican Negroes and 
tliousands of poor Mexicans in the 
.Southern .States are in need of spiritual 
food, but only few respond to the cries 
rif those bumble races. Missionaries 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



12H 



are sent to foreign lands under great 
hardships; why should not the less 
heroic do their share in helping the 
Negroes and INlexicans here in our 
midst ? 

A Catholic society should be started 
with the sole object of giving a helping 
hand to the Negroes and Mexicans in 
these United States. 

(Rev.) R.WMOXD X'krximoxt 



The Coal Situation 

The President's Coal Commission 
has reported, to the complete dissatis- 
faction of all concerned. The majority 
report, signed by the representatives of 
the public and the operators, and round- 
ly denounced by the miners' deputy, 
recommends a twenty-seven per cent 
increase in wages, as against sixty per 
cent asked for by the workers ; and dis- 
regards entirely the plea for the short- 
ening of the working day and the elim- 
ination of the automatic penalty-clause 
in the contracts. 

The miners object to the report on 
the ground that it promises neither the 
wages nor the shorter and more widely 
distributed working periods for which 
they have been fighting. 

The operators are dissatisfied because 
the Commission did no^ provide for an 
increase in the mine-price of coal, 
which would absorb the full amount of 
the wage-advance. 

The public, meanwhile, as The Free- 
man observes, "gets what cold comfort 
it can out of the fact that the contro- 
versy stands now just' where it stood 
last September, with prices up and pro- 



duction down and the whole business 
moving processionally toward more con- 
ferences, more strikes, more injunc- 
tions, more presidential ])alaver, and 
more shivers next winter." 



-♦♦<^-.~ 



The German Foreign Missions 

Jhe 'J'cchny, ill.. .Mission J're^s pub- 
lishes "An Appeal to the Catholics of 
the \Vorld to Save the German Foreign 
Missions, by a Missionary on IJchalf of 
J lis Banished Brethren," with a fore- 
word by the Rt. Rev. Msgr. F. C. Kelly, 
of the Catholic Extension Society of 
Chicago, who emphasizes "the superna- 
tionality of the Gospel, which gives na- 
tionality its truest sanction and exalts 
patriotism to its highest and noblest pin- 
nacle of glory." In banishing the mis- 
sionaries of German nationality from 
the mission field, our enemies have 
struck a deadly blow at the Church, 
and, in the words of IMsgr. Kelly, "for 
their own very protection every Chris- 
tian nation should protest against this 
iniquitous measure." 

It is to be hoped that the Catholics of 
America, stirred by this appeal, will ex- 
ert all their influence to suport the ef- 
forts of the Holy See for the preserva- 
tion and restoration of the German 
Catholic missions among the heathen. 



— We cannot add to God's brightness, but 
we may act as reflectors, wbicli though tliey 
liave no hglit of their own, yet wlien the sun 
shines upon them reflect His beams. 

— Have you renewed your subscription for 
1 020? Tlie ad(h-ess label will show. Please 
aUcnd lo tlic matter if you have not yet 
I lone so. 



Havana 
Filled 



Wagners' Londres Grande 



Improved 

Sumatra 

Wrapper 



100 — $7. HO 



{Smoked in -'f2 Statex) 



,70 — $4. 00 




Sent Post Paid on Receipt of Money Order or N. Y. Draft- 
After Smoking tliree Segars, it not as represented or 
satisfactory, pack well and return by I'atcel I'ost. 
Money and Postage Refunded by return mail. 



Matt. Wagner & Son 

BUFFALO, N. Y. 



■;stal)li<)ieil Isf.fi 



124 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



NOTES AND GLEANINGS 

— Our subscribers are requested to 
sec to it that the date 1921 or beyond 
appears opposite their names on the 
yellow address label. Not a few, we 
regfret to say. are in arrears. 

— In the Journal of Koiiian Studies 
(Vol. VII. Part II)/Mr. E. G. Hardy 
re-examines tlie liistory of the con- 
spiracy of Catilina. His conclusion, 
dra\NTi from an independent study of 
the existing e\'idence. is that Caesar 
.ind Crassus were in close relations and 
had cognizance of the conspiracy, 
though after the preHniinan' taihne 
Caesar had necessarily to keep in the 
background and to play a waiting game, 
which did not bring its rewards until 
later. 

— .\ critic of Gabriele d'Annunzio's 
new novel, "Tales of My Native 
Town," in the X. Y. Evening Post Book 
Review compares the book to those pic- 
turesque little places in Italy "that look 
?o- changing as one approaches them 
from the distance, but which, on nearer 
acquaintance, assail unpleasantly at least 
three of the senses." In these tales of 
Pcscara "D'.Xnuunzio gives one so near 
an approach that one sees the fihh and 
siiualor. smells the stenches and hears 
the raucous eric.." D'.Annunzio's cult 
is the apotheosis of ugliness. This may 
attract .some readers, but for most of 
us life is too short to waste even one 
liour on such filth. 

— Germany's leading Catholic paper, 
the Cologne i'olkscrititttg (weekly ed.. 
No. 10), says there is much dissatisfac- 
tion in Catholic circles with the leaders 
of the Centre Party because they are co- 
«»f>erating with the .Socialists. This co- 
o|>eration, the Volksccitung says, be- 
came inevitable after the revolution, and 
is for the best of the i)eople. One 
might wish, a«lds our cfMitemporary. 
that it were possible to govern the coun- 
try without the Socialists, but it can- 
not 1)C rionc at fircscnt. aurj even if it 
could, the demands of the Socialists. 
which arc largely just and equitable. 
could not l>c ignored. Catholic s duj^'ht 
to l>c the last to try to subvert tlu new 
jK^pular government by reactionary 
violence. 



Bargains in Second-Hand Books 

M'i7»irr.f. IC (S.J A Kiirzgefasstos llamlbucli der 
k.ith. Religion. 5th ed., bv 1. Hontheim, S.J. 
Ratisbon, 1^>19. $1.75. 

Gol^ffit. F. A. Moralthelogie. Vol. II. 6th ed. 
]*aderborn. 1919. $1.50. [Contains the treatises 
on Charity, Justice, Moderation. Chastity, and on 
the Outies of th.e various Professions and Occu- 
pations in Life]. 

Rowc, J. G. Historic Struggles for the Faith. Lon- 
don and Kdinburgh, 1919. $1. 

Eliot, Gcoriii'. Silas Marner: The Weaver of Rave- 
loe. -Xkron, C)., 5. a. 35 cts. 

ll'illiaiiis. J. H. Inspiration. London and lulin- 
burgh, 1919. $1.25 . 

Robinson, Gertrude. In a Medieval Library. A 
Studv in I'reKeforination Religions Literature. 
London, 1919. $1.20. 

I'iiikc, II. Ueber Friedrich und Dorothea Schlegel. 
Cologne, 1918. 35 cts. (Wrapper). 

Buchanan. R. Father Anthony. [A Story of the 
.Seal of Confession]. New York, 1900. 25 cts. 
( Wrapi)er). 

O'Mahony, D. Great French Sermons from Bossuet, 
I'.onrdaUiue, and ^[assillon. 2nd Series. London 
and Edinburgh, 1919. $2.50. 

Hull, E. R. (S.J.) Man's Great Concern: The Man- 
agement of Life. Xew York, 1920. $1.00. 

Tclch. C. I'^pitome Theologiae Moralis ad Immedi- 
atuin I'sum Confessarii ct Parochi exc. e Suinnia 
Theo. Mor. If. Noldin, S.J. 4th ed., Innsbruck, 
1919. $1.25. 

Liibcck, K, Die kath. Orientmission in ihrer Ent- 
wicklung dargestellt. Cologne, 1917. 50 cts. 
(Wrapper). 

Lc Row A. Credo: .\ Short Exposition of Catholic 
Ilelief. Tr. bv E. Leahy. Ed. by G. O'Neill, S.J. 
New York, 1920. $1.20. 

Kamf'cr.';, E. Das Lichtland der Seelen und der hei- 
lige thai. Cologne, 1916. 30 cts. (Wrapper). 

Garcschc. E. E. (S.J.) The Things Immortal. Spir- 
itual Thoughts for Evervday Reading. N. Y., 
1919. 85 cts. 

Daly, T. A. Mc.\roni Ballads and Other Verses. 
l->ontispiece by Herbert Pullinger. N. Y., 1919. 
$L 

Swinbnrnc, A. C. Poetical Works. N. Y., 1884. $1. 

Lagrange, J. M. (tr. Ed. Myers). Historical Criti- 
cism and the Old Testament. 2nd ed. London, 
1906. 70 CIS. 

Cvnrov, J. P. (S.J.) Talks to Parents. New York, 
1919. $1. 

HcTcncsi, G. (S.J.) Scintillae Ignatianae, sive S. 
Ign. (lc Loyola .Sententiae ct EfTata Sacra, per 
singulos dies dislributa. Cum appendice conlinente 
.Senlentias S. Philippi Ncrii. Ratisbon, 1919. 
niibliotlieca .Ascetica.) $1. (Flexible Leather 
binding). 

Monitor, S. (O.E.M.) The Virtues of a Religious 
Superior. (Dc Sex .\lis Seraphim). Instructions 
bv the .Seraphic Doctor, St. Bonavcnturc. St. 
Louis, 1920. 50 cts. 

P»hlc-Prcuss. The Holy Eucharist. 2nd revised ed. 

St. Louis, 1917. $1..<0. 
Dclamare, llcnrictlr Eug. Whom the Lord Lovcth. 

Consoling 'I'houglits for Every Day in the -Year. 

N. Y., 1919. 85 cts. 
Flynn, Titos. (C.C.) .Sermons on the Mass, the 

Sacraments, ami the .Sacramentals. JJ. Y., 1919. 

$2. ^ ,:. 

Rohison, W. E. (S.J.). The tlndying Tragedy of 
the World. | Lenten Lectures on the Passion of 
Christ]. St. Louis. 1919. $1.25. 



(Orders must be accompanied by Cash) 



The Fortnightly Review, St. Louis, Mo. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



125 



— In "German Spies at Bay" (Lon- 
don: Hutchinson), Sydney Theodore 
Falstead gives an account of the Ger- 
man espionage system in Great Britain 
before and during the war. The book 
will disappoint those who saw a spy in 
every foreign waiter and heard whis- 
pered German conversations in every 
omnibus. The author divides spies into 
two classes, the patriotic and the hire- 
ling spy. Most of the German spies in 
England during the war, he says, were 
of the latter kind, and "the danger we 
ran from them was far less than is gen- 
erally supposed." 

— The British government has done 
its best to make the ainbassadorship at 
Washington less attractive by cutting 
dcwn the ambassador's salary to £2,500. 
The London Saturday Revieiv (No. 
3359) pities the newly appointed in- 
cumbent of the position for another 
reason. "Poor ambassador !" it says ; 
"he will have to take up his residence in 
the most relaxing climate of the U. S., 
in a town inhabited by politicians, and 
he will have to live on 'sermons and 
soda water,' sermons from ]\Ir. Wilson 
and soda water from the nearest pussy- 
foot store. Who would be ambassador 
at Washington?" 

— Sir Wm. ]\L Ramsay's paper "In 
the Roman Province of Galatia," in the 
Journal of Roman Studies (Vol. VII, 
Part II), is important for students of 
the New Testament, for the name of 
the general, Quirinius. brings up the 
questions arising out of the allusion to 
him in Luke II, 2, as governor of Syria 
before the death of King Herod. Dr. 
Ramsay says that the historical evidence 
"points to a definite conclusion, and I 
think will establish beyond reach of 
question that Quirinius was governing 
Syria for some years between 12 to 6 B. 
C. This conclusion cannot be evaded 
or disputed. It forms a definite histori- 
cal basis on which the Lukan questions 
must be treated in the future." 

— Those interested in the elevation 
of the stage — as all good Catholics 
ought to be — should join the Catholic 
Theater Movement," if onlv to obtain 
regularly its "White List Bulletin," 



with its recommendations and criti- 
cisms of current plays. The March issue 
lists as commendable Drinkwater's 
"iVbraham Lincoln," Bolton and Mid- 
dleton's "Adam and Eva," Hobart's 
"Buddies," Booth Tarkington's "Clar- 
ence," Glass and Goodman's "His 
lienor Abe Potash," Miss Butler's 
"^Mamma's Affair," Lang's "The Pur- 
ple jVIask," and Phelps' and Short's 
"Shavings." Perhaps the standard ap- 
plied is not quite high enough, but we 
feel sure the Bulletin would not recom- 
mend any really objectionable play. 
One can become a subscribing member 
by sending $2 per year to 120 W. 60th 
St., New York City. 



STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGE- 
MENT, ETC. 
required by the Act of Congress of August 24, 1912, 
of tlie Fortnightly Review, published semi-monthly 
at St. Louis, Mo., for April 1, 1920. 
City of St. Louis, \ gg_ 
State of Missouri, / 

Before me, a notary public in and for the State 
and City aforesaid, personally appeared .-ythur 
Preuss, who, having been duly sworn according to 
law, deposes and says that he is the publisher and 
editor of the Fortnightly Review and that the 
following is, to the best of his knowledge and belief, 
a true statement of the ownership, management, etc., 
of the aforesaid publication for the date shown in 
the above caption, required by the Act of August 
24, 1912, embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and 
Regulations, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, 
editor, managing editor, and business managers are: 
i'ublisher, Arthur Preuss, 

18 S". 6th Str., St. Louis, Mo. 
Editor, same. 
Business Manager, none. 

2. Names and addresses of owners or stockholders 
holding 1 per cent or more of the total amount of 
stock: 

Arthur Preuss, sole owner, 18 S'. 6th S't., St. 
Louis, Mo. 

0. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and 
other security holders owing or holding 1 per cent 
or more of total amount of bonds, mortages, or 
other securities are: 

None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving 
the names of the owners, stockholders, and security 
holders, if any, contain not only the list of stock- 
holders and security holders as they appear upon 
the books of the company but also, in cases where 
the stockholders or security holders appear upon 
the books of the company as trustee or in any 
other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or 
corporation for whom such trustee is acting, is 
given; also that the said two paragraphs contain 
statements embracing affiant's full knowledge and 
belief as to the circumstances and conditions under 
whicli stockholders and security holders who do not 
appear upon the books of the company trustees, hold 
stock and securities in a capacity other than that of 
a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no reason to 
believe that any other person, association, or cor- 
poration has any interest direct or indirect in the 
said stock, bonds, or other securities than as so 
stated by him. 

ARTHUR PREUSS, Pub. & Ed. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 22nd day 
of March, 1920. 
(Seal) EUGENE J. SARTORIUS. 

Notary Public. 
(My Commission expires Sept. 1, 1920.) 



126 



THK FORTXIGHTI.Y RRVIEW 



April 15 



The Mos( Noteworthy Coiitriltatioii to Sermon Literature of Kecent Years 



Sermons for All the Sundays 

and for the Chief Festivals of the Year 

By the Right Rev. John S. Vaughan, D. D. 

Bishop of Sebastopolis 

With an Introduction by 

Most Rev. John J. Glennon, D. D. 

Arcbbisbop of St. Louis, Mo. 

Two Volumes, octavo, about (540 pp. Per set, bouud in clotli, net $6.00 



Bi>hoj> .Vaughan, one of tlic famous six \';uighan 
l>ro(hcr> who went to the Altar, has dcvotecl himself 
icirticitlarl) t" pnlpit and missionary work, and 
while he gained distinction from the pMlilication of 
a ntiniltrr of bonks of delightful literary iiualities, 
hi* chief reiiuwii c.ime to him through his remark- 
able iMcrformances in the pulpit. 

He is regariled as one of the greatest livinij pulpit 
speakers and hence this collection of his SERMONS 
v.." '.. r..,-..,v,-.! vh the greatest interest. 



lUSnOP VAUGII.WS SKR.MONS breathe the 
very spirit of virility that characterizes their vig- 
orous author. lie treats his subjects in original, 
striking ways, and his command of elTective illustra- 
tion is exceptional. 

Abreast of the times in feeling, these SERMONS 
will be found to be full of life and spirit, and a 
treasure trove of thought and suggestion for pulpit 
teachers. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 

*J3 Barclay Hticet NEW YORK 

St. Loiii:^: B. Herder Book Co. 



— The March Ilow.Uctic Muiillily 
was iioiiored In- a paper on "The Need 
of a Study of Scripture by Priests" 
from no les.s an authority than Cardinal 
Gaxjuet. 'i'he Rev. Stanislaus Woy- 
v.c>d. CJ.F.M.. coiUributes to the .'^atne 
raunlKT an article on "The Modern 
lilack Art. a Menace to Faith and 
ffcalih." and the Rev. Charles Bruehl, 
D.I)., tells "How to Treat the Social 
Question in the Pulpit." The Ilomi- 
lilic is forging ahead rapidly, and each 
nunilKT is as full of valu.able reading 
inattrr as an egg is of meat. J he stib- 
!»crii»tion price of this excellent mag- 
azine, intenfled mainly for priests, is $4 
per annum. The publi.sher is Joseph 
V. Wagner, Inc.. 2.^ fiarclav Str., New 
^'ork. 

— The Central Pnireau of the Catholic 
Central Society in one of its latest press 
Inillctins CN'o. 40), cmiihasi/cs the ne- 
cessity of res|K^)nding to the bitter cry 
of the starving chiUlren of C'entral Ku- 
roixr. so warmly recommended tf) the 
JK-Opic of the U. S. by our Holy I'ather. 
1 wo cardinals, four archbi.shop^, seven 



bishops, and a number of organized 
Catholic charity agencies in Germany 
;ind Austria confirm the seriousness of 
the situation, and the necessity of imme- 
diate relief. Destitution and misery is 
extreme, and the Bureau's brief btit 
authentic description of the situation 
will, we are sure, sufficd to awaken 
r.mong American Catholics a still more 
generous response to the Pope's appeal. 
— The Constitution of the U. S. 
makes it possible for an invalid Presi- 
dent to delegate important functions 
of his office to his devoted wife, and to 
deadlock great movements toward the 
emancipation of the world by a despotic 
exercise of his powers. The presiden- 
tial office is described by Collier's as 
"Executive by Proxy." Mrs. Wilson, 
the .same authority states, carries on the 
business of the .State, and letters signed 
"h>lith liolling Wilson" are received 
daily by cabinet officers and heads of 
government departments. Mrs. Wilson, 
it! a word, "has not only proved herself 
a real mistress of the White House, but 
mistress of a situation uni(iuc in Ameri- 
can j)olitical life." 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



127 



Liteiaiy Briefs 

—'"A Subject Index to tlie Poems of Ed- 
nunid Spenser." compiled by Professor C. 
Huntington Wliitman. bas been published by 
]\lr. Humphrey jMilford, for the Yale Uni- 
versity Press. The work, which is the result 
(if long-continued experiment and of dis- 
cussion with other scliolars in the Spenserian 
held, contains a minute classification of all 
notable matters in the poet's text, an index to 
the names of all persons, places, etc. 

— The few English books on America's 
share in the war, as Ian Hay's "All in It," 
have been widely read over here. But we 
know very little of a group of French books 
which would seem likely to be of equal in- 
terest. Lieut. Col. de Chambrun and Capt. 
Marenchcs have collaborated on a history of 
"L'Armee Americaine dans le Conflit Euro- 
peen" ; Alfred Bourcler offers a series of im- 
pressions called "Dans I'Amerique en 
Guerre" ; and Andre Tardieu has written on 
"L'Amerique en Amies." Writing in the 
English Fortiiiglilly Review on "French Liter- 
ary Activity in the Past Year," Henry D. 
Davray states that there might also be men- 
tioned "a. host of works of a more general 
character" on the L^^nited States. We had 
rather have these books than the various 
I'lench biographies of President Wilson 
vhich, as translated for us, are more amusing 
tlian informing. 

— -'"The Catholic American"' is the title of 
a booklet in which the Rev. George T. 
Schmidt has grouped together a series of 
brief papers on the duties of American Catho- 
lics as citizens and as Catholics. We will 
quote a few of the chapter headings : The 
Catholic Press. Church Support, Catholic 
Missions, Winning America, The Problem of 
Problems (Socialism and tlie Church), The 
Spirit of the Times (worldliness). Sex Hy- 
giene or Purity. Evolution. Spiritism, Free- 
masonry. Catholic Societies and The Soul's 
Vacation (Retreats for laymen). The atti- 
tude taken by the author on tliese and other 
burning questions is soundly orthodox and 
conservative : in fact, his chapters are, for the 
most part, little more than condensations of 
standard works on the respective subjects. 
In the chapter on Spiritism we miss a ref- 
erence to the writings of Mr. J. Godfrey 
Raupert. A book dealing with so many sub- 
jects, even though small in size, should be 
provided with an index to facilitate refer- 
ence. (Benziger Bros.; $1.25 net). 

— "Historic Struggles for the Faith." by 
John Gabriel Rowe. comprises the following 
chapters: Robert Aske and the Pilgrimage 
of Grace: Humphrey Arundel of Lanherne 
and the Cornish and Devon Rising in the 
Reign of Edward VI: Robert and William 
Kett and the "Norfolk Commotion," I54Q'. 
The Ri.sing of tlie North in 1569 and the 
Martvrdoni of Bl. Thomas Percy, Earl of 



Norilunnberland ; I'atlier Luke Wadding and 
the Catholic Confederation of 1641 — 1652; 
Tlie Martyrdom of Bl. Oliver Plunket in 
1681 : and Bl. Edmund Campion, S.J., and 
tile I'.lizabethan Persecution — all on 196 
umo pages. There is also a chapter on the 
medieval "Truce of God." wherein the author 
riglitly says that the world owes it to Protes- 
tantism that there is no longer an authority 
to which ruthless despots bow, and "were the 
pope as powerful and widely beloved and 
revered to-day as he was in the Middle Ages, 
we sliould probably have seen a ccssatif)n of 
the terrible W(n-Id War that desolated lui- 
rope long before its actual culmination." 
(Sands and B. Herder Book Co.; $1.30 net). 



Books Received 

Offi.Tli-IIci- Pc'-icht ithcr tlie 63. Gcucral'-crsamwluug 
lies D. R. KatJt. Cctitral-l'crciiis von N ord-Amer- 
ika. ahgehaltcn in Chicago, III., am 14., 15. nnd 
16. Septemhci- 1919. 148 pp. 8vo. St. Louis, Mo.: 
".\mcrika" Print. 

Ladv Trent's Daughter. A Novel by Isabel C. 
Clarke. Z7i pp. 8vo. Benziger Bros. $1.75 net. 

Petriis Canisius. F.in Lebensbild von Otto Brauns- 
berger, S.J. Mit einem Bildnis des Seligen. xi & 
333 pp. 12mo. B. Herder Book Co. $1.65 net. 

.4 Matter of Life and Death. By J. Godfrey Rau- 
pert. 29 pp. 16ino. Buffalo, N. Y.: Catholic 
Union Store. (Wrapper). 

The British and Anglo-Saxon Period. History of 
England Series. By Ernest R. Hull, S.J. xiv & 
277 pp. 16mo. Bombay: Examiner I'ress; St. 
Louis, Mo.: B. Herder Book Co. (Wrapper). 

The Failure of Anglicanism as Set Forth by Fred- 
crick Joseph Kinsman, Late Protestant Bishop of 
Dela'ware. U. S. .4. 8 pp. 12mo. London: Cath- 
olic Truth Society; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder 
Book Co. (Wrapper). 

The Martvrs of Uganda. With Preface by the V. 
Rev. Francis Canon Ross. 36 pp. 12mo. C. 1. »• 
and B. Herder. (Wrapper). 



Enclose a Postage Stamp to 

Joseph Berning 

212-214 East 8th St. Cincinnati, Ohio 

For a list of Approved Plays 
for the Catholic Stage 

These iilays have been successfully produced from 
coast to coast in Catholic schools, colleges and 
academies, and have been strongly endorsed by cleriry 
and eachers for their instructive value and entertain- 
ing: features. 




^EINER^J!Slf^^S'6EC9c 




STENCIl^^Mgn.--^.-^-^ 



128 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW April 15 

44T ■ j._ IIIBl" 



Turning to HIM 

Is CicUization Caviitij In? The Entire World Is An Inferno of Bolshevism — of 

Murdrr, Stealing, Hypocrisy, Lust, Famine, Sic/cness, Pestilence, Death. 

Is an ignored God scourging the human race to remind all that He 

reigns supreme! Is Religion a liopcless failure'/ Is Christ 

again ^^asleep in the vessel of (he Church''^? 

"We await the day of revenge." "I would sacrifice ten millions of lives." "Peace is 
Hell." Quoted from sermons by prominent clergymen in New York. But contrast all 
such tongue-souled utterances with the following from THE HELIOTROPIUM : 

"Let the Universe be disturbed by tempests from every quarter, let armed battalions 
close in deadly fray, let fleets be crippled and destroyed by fleets, let the law courts ring 
with endless litigation, and still this is my chief busines in life, to conform myself entirely 
to the one and and only Will of God." 

For many years in Great Britain, the Continent and America educated Protes- 
tants, Catholics and men and women of no creed at all have turned to The 
Hcliotropium. It has comforted tliousands, so too will it solace and strengthen 
you and yours — especially in sickness, affliction and bereavement. As a tonic 
for icitl and thoug,ht even the mercenary pagan will find it worth a baker's 
do7cn of the honks that aim no higlier than the fattening of a bank account. 

The Heliotropium 

"Turning to Him" By JEREMIAS DREXELIUS, S. J. 

The only work in the history of civilizallon that deals solely and successfully 
with the DIVINE WILL and your will - that links the two. Your Wtll — God's Will. 
The God of old, of the Old Testament and the Newr, the God that men, women and 
pulpiteer politicians have tossed aside — forgotten — the God that fiction-theologians 
have destroyed, selling you in His place their own carefully copyrighted God — 
all "llnJte." but as palpable, powerlul and responsive to the human misery of the 
day an a deified London fog. 

"Creedy?" No! "Controversial?" No! —Just God and You 

TIIK HELIOTROPIIJ.M is one of my Favor- My dear — : 

itc ».<>ok» and one which I have often rccom- I have gone nearly through Tllli IIELIO- 

mcn.lc.1 to other*. It gets down to the very TKOflUM and find it a most extraordinary 

W.'ll of W ^ ^ *~ '* submission to the ^^^k. one to thank Cod for. I do not know 

In a quaint, atlraciive way, the author treats ^\^ ''""'' "", '.'•'-■ .si'.i"iu>al life more valuable. 

ihn moM MKcniial and important point from '■^^ ""*^ """' '" " '^^ "' course, a central fact 

every t>ottihle angle, and one who reads it '" ''f*^' ■'""1 .''''^ °''' I'avanan hammers at it, 

carcliiIU cannot fail to have his or her spir- hammers at it after the skilled manner of the 

itual life Heepcnrd and purified. classic rhetorician, with an amplification worthy 

kKV. J. EI.MOT KO.SS, CS.!'., Ph.D. of Cicero, until he gets it into one's soul. The 

A Mintly Te.uit of Sixleen.h .Street said: "A KuKlish. too is worthy of the original text. 

r..pv :i THk irKMOTKOPIlIM was ^iycn to . '<'••"' ','"= ''""'< y"'>"clf slowly two or three 

n- ' > a vrry young woman. I liked the work "'"^''' ■'""' " ^^'" cf'T'^ct your liver. It is worth 

• '. riirh Ihat I read it through— and use it for ^ny fifteen books of the so-called classics. 

n V inrdilation*. I urge mv i>rnlileiits and ^'ours sincerely, 

'h-r* to rr,vl TIIK HKI.IoTKOPIU.M, for it AUSTIN O'MAI.LKV, M.l)., IMi.D.. I-I..D. 
n 1 tfxdc lh.1t ri.ikr* «ainl<i." 

Delivered lo ;iny addres.s in llic world, '^2 

THE DEVIN ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 

425 Fifth Avenue New York 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXVII, NO. 9 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



Mav I, WZO 



On Plain Chant 

When we consider the priceless worth 
01 the Church's own music, is it possible 
to explain the reasons for its neglect 
among the educated and church mu- 
sicians? This neglect is as strange as it 
is unexplainable. That a choir master 
should prefer to sing Beethoven's Mass 
in C at a big church function that lately 
took place in one of our large cities, 
rather than edify the people present with 
the solemn strains of a beautiful Grego- 
rian Mass, is beyond conception. The 
only comment that can be made is that 
Gregorian chant alone can enter the 
holy of holies and assert its perfect 
right there, while all other forms of 
music must apologize for intruding into 
the sacred precincts. 

No other compositions have ever ap- 
proached the melodies of the chant in 
dignity and overpowering emotion, and 
that makes them the most perfect of art 
works. The easy natural flow of the 
words, the absence of jerks and exag- 
gerations of vowels and consonants, the 
beauty and gracefulness of the melodies 
— all combine to make the Chant the 
most sublime expression of the heavenly 
art. 

"Gregorian Chant purifies the mind. 
It transports us into a region of super- 
natural beauty and immateriality ; it 
vivifies and strengthens the life of the 
soul. No other music penetrates so 
deeplv and so intimately, or causes to 
vibrate so harmoniously the heart of 
man ; no other music carries him so 
swiftly on its wings to the mysterious 
worlds of prayer and mysticism. It is 
eyquisitely tender, full of peace and 
trustfulness ; 'it reawakens faith and 
hope ; it satisfies the heart and the intelli- 
gence ; for expression and form are 
here living in peace together. The hu- 
man element is entirely absent. There 
is no preoccupation or distraction of 
things belons^ing to material life or con- 



ditions. Those who go to drink of the 
waters of this stream come back forti- 
fied with a great spiritual ardor, with 
sincerety of mind and simplicity of 
heart. Here there is nothing conven- 
tional, nothing superfluous, nothing 
ephemeral ; through Plain Song we pass 
from the finite to the Infinite." 

(Rev.) F. Jos. Kelly 
Catholic University of America 



Conditions of Profit-Sharing 

If profit-sharing is to be a success, 
says the Rev. Dr. John A. Ryan in the 
Catholic Charities Review (IV, 3, 74), 
four conditions will have to be ob- 
served. These conditions are: 

First, profit-sharing must not be used 
to antagonize the labor union. 

Second, it must not be offered as a 
substitute or as a partial substitute for 
standard wages. 

Third, it must provide for complete 
frankness, complete publicity, between 
employer and employees concerning 
the amount of profits actually available 
for distribution, so that when the lean 
years come and there are no profits to 
divide, the workers will be assured that 
such is the case. 

Fourth, the method and basis of dis- 
tribution will have to be more favorable 
to labor than most of the i)rofit-sliaring 
schemes have been in the past. Even in 
the least unsatisfactory instances, the 
prevailing basis of apportionment has 
been the total amount of capital and 
the total of annual wages, on the as- 
sumption that these figures represent 
respectively the investments of the cap- 
italist and the laborer. A more correct 
measure of the capitalist's investment 
for the year is to be found in the nor- 
mal interest return on his capital ; for 
this represents his annual contribution 
to the industry, just as the annual wage 
represents the contribution of the 
laborer. 



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A Convert's Offering 
Hy the Rt~: Jt'hii Rothrtistcincr 
I come with a gift of ro?es 
To Thee. O Queen of the May: 
Xo wreath from thy garden-closes, 
"Tis but a wildwood spray. 

Mas I I am poor and lowly, 
My life is wasted and hare: 
I come with a heart unholy. 
To Thee, so gracious and fair. 

Thy children bring fragrant flowers. 
The brightest that earth may show. 
Flushed as the orient hours. 
Sweet as the sunset glow. 

My flowers of nature's giving 
.\long my sorrowful way, 
.Are lightless and loveless, though living, 
To praise Tliee as well as they may. 

.\nd Thou, wilt Thou take them as given, 
Poor flowers of wasted years, 
N'ot fresh with the dew of heaven, 
But stained with the rain of tears. 

Oh. deep from Thine own heart's chalice 
Sweet pity rises to bless 
The soul forespent with its malice 
And trembling in sore distress. 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. Joii.n Eugene VVeibei,, V.F. 

(Sixth Iiislalhncnt) 

Chapter IV 

THE PKRSKCI'TION 

.\fter the Vatican Council the (jcrsecution 
of the Church in Switzeland took a serious 
Uirn. Vigier and hi.s hangmen became more 
active than ever. Th.c Landamtmann declared 
he wf>uld never consent to abandon "the old 
Catholic religion" l)y assenting to "tlic new 
dogma of papal infallil)ility." Olten, Trim- 
bach, and several other conununitits also 
declared their oppo>ition, and tiieir respective 
churches I>ecame schismatic. Many who had 
not darkened the inside of a church for years 
now called themselves Catholic. Aft -r many 
a struggle, the Bishop of Basle. Ki'.4ht Rev. 
Eugene I-achat. who had voted for infalii- 
Wlity. was deposed anrl deported from the 
Canton of Solothiirn. lie took u\) his resi- 
dence as an exile in Lucerne. The "Kultur- 
kampf" in Germany had a seductive influence 
upon the radical government of .Solotlnirn. 
The chapter of the canons of SS. Urs and 
Victor was arj old institution, and its rich 
endowment mafic it a desiraldc ol)ject ff>r 
exploitation by the greedy oflTicials. Tlierc 
was an'>ther institutii>n of canons, at Schfi- 
r.enwerd, which also had a goorl dial of 
property, and there wan the Benedictine 
Abbey of >taria Stein, with its ninncrou'« 
farms, forests, and vineyards. 



.\ campaign of perfidious and cunning 
calumny was started against all these insti- 
tutions. First and above all their enemies 
deplored with crocodile tears, "the apostasy 
of Rome" and "the idolatry of the infallible 
pope" ; ihoy bewailed their inability to remain 
in tb.at communion, and pointed out how 
reactionary those institutions were, and how 
urgently they needed reorganization. Not 
once did the government speak of suppress- 
ing or secularizing the monasteries, but al- 
ways called it ''reorganization." Many pam- 
phlets were written to deceive the simple- 
minded. 

Meanwliile a connnission was sent to our 
al^liey of Marin Stein to take an inventory. 
The people of the neighborhood, greatly 
attached to the institution, were in a desper- 
ate mood, and it required the repeated and 
earnest admonitions of the abbot to prevent 
them from committing hostilities. Even here 
ridiculous incidents were not wanting. The 
ciiildren naturally shared in their parents' 
feelings. Tiiat year, 1873, mosquitos made 
their first appearance in Maria Stein. It was 
said they had been first discovered and had 
become very nunieri^ns about the battlefields 
near Belfort. after the war of 1870. In 1873, 
they reached Switzerland, and for a time l)e- 
came very numerous in that country. Their 
sting seemed to be very poisonous, and peo- 
ple often rose in the morning with their 
lieads swollen greatly. Now some boys in 
the neighborhood succeeded in gathering a 
bottle full of these pests, and going unob- 
served to the hotel apannieiits of the gentle- 
men sent by the govennnent to take the in- 
ventory of the abbey, emptied the bottles 
there. When the officials retired at night it 
was not long before the hungry "skeeters" 
began to feast on them. The men opened the 
windows, but that served only to let more 
of them in. After a sleepless night they 
declared they could not stand it longer in 
that "hellish" place. They left, but an ad- 
ministratur remained at the monastery. The 
library, the archives, and other public rooms 
were locked and the doors sealed with the 
govermnent seal. The accounts, the admin- 
istration, and the cash money on hand had 
to be handed over to the new government 
official. Months of vexation followed, but 
(hiring all that time the divine service was 
celebrated with the usual solemnity. The 
.schools were not interrupted even for an 
hour, and the religious discipline was not 
alb)wed to relax. Everything went on as 
usual. The people were gradually prepared 
by all kinds of deceptive means to change 
their mind. .Ml the i)arishes belonginu to 
the institutions named were .promised large 
slices of the property. Most of these parishes 
had been turned over to those under the 
institution's iusf^alranatiis in the tenth and 
eleventh centuries with all their capital, con- 
sisting mo'-tly of lands ;ind forests. A care- 
ful account was kept for every parish. One 
district of the Canton of Solothurn, though 
entirely Protestant, was promised, out of 



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131 



ihese funds, the money for building and 
keeping a hospital. From their standpoint 
these Protestants had all to gain and nothing 
to lose. 

Finally the people seemed to be prepared 
for the last stroke, and so, on Sunday, the 
fourth of October, 1874, the "reorganization" 
of the three institutions was voted. Wine 
and feasting had to help the government, and 
as high as twenty francs were paid for every 
favorable vote. The Protestant district men- 
tioned above had fifteen hundred votes, and 
all but one went for "reorganization". The 
•entire plurality did not come up to this num- 
ber. Thus it must be said that, in fact, the 
Protestants accomplished the ruin of these 
venerable Catholic institutions. In the district 
in which our monastery was situated, the 
vote was almost solidly against the so-called 
reorganization (in reality, expropriation) of 
the monks, in spite of the pressure brought 
lo bear upon the government employees, and 
in spite of the glorious promises of a share 
of the spoils made to the parishes. 

We found the telegram announcing the 
sad news on the bulletin board when we 
returned from compline on Sunday, October 
4th ; but as it was the time of nocturnal 
silence, I did not hear a word of comment 
that night. From that time on we knew we 
liad to go. I was still a student in theology, 
and in November three of us, Fratres Pla- 
cidus, Jerome, and myself, were ordered to 
leave the monastery, in order to continue 
our studies in the abbey at Einsiedeln. A 
great multitude of people followed our car- 
riage for quite a distance. Some other 
clerical students went to the abbey of Engel- 
berg. The rest of the monks remained at 
Mana Stein, continuing the monastic life 
in the usual way, and determined not to 
yield except to force. Thus things went on 
for several months. The government de- 
cla'"ed its readiness to pay the yearly pen- 
sions, provided the religious would leave 
\oluntarily. They refused, and though de- 
prived of administration and income, they 
suffertd no want, as the people of the neigh- 
borhood provided most generously for their 
needs. Fina'ly. on Wednesday of Holy 
Wc^-k, 1875, tiie monks returning at night 
from compline, found eacli a policeman at 
his cell, ready to lead him out of the mon- 
astery. Although the day and the time had 
not been made known, the people must have 
had some idea or fear of the event, for tlnui- 
sands of them assembled in front of the 
monastery and tried to prevent expulsion by 
force, so that it took the most urgent admo- 
nitions of the Abbot to prevent violence. Me 
pointed out how useless resistance would be. 
under the circutustances. and admonished 
them not to insult the officers and soldiers, 
as they were commanded to expel the reli- 
gious by force. A sorrowful and weeping 
multitude followed the monks to the Pilgrim 
hotel, where a lodging was found for tlie 
night Next morning tlie expelled religious 
returned to their church to celeltrate Holy 



Thursday. The abbot pontificated for the 
last time and performed the ceremony of 
the washing of the feet. On Good Friday 
the prior officiated, according to tradition, 
and after the ceremony the monks separated 
and went to different places. Several of th<i 
priests remained in the surrounding parishes 
to help out the pastors for the Easter season. 

It was a sad and sorrowful Easter for the 
Catholics of Solothurn. But four priests 
were left to attend tlie shrine of the Blessed 
Virgin, together with some aged lay broth- 
ers (one over ninety years old) who were 
given the privilege to remain and to die in 
the monastery. Likewise the old sexton, 
Hans, was left, and paid by the government 
♦^o ring the bells as of old. He did this faith- 
fully, beginning every morning at four 
o'clock, but "the children of the choir" no 
longer came to chant the sacred office. 

Still the government was more humane 
than the French Republicans had been. It 
paid the inmates of these institutions regular 
pensions, and up to this day some Fathers 
are salaried by the government to attend to 
the wants of the many pilgrims that still 
visit Maria Stein. A sexton is still employed 
and paid by the government. Nor can it be 
said that the upkeep of the buildings has 
been neglected. A whole wing of the mon- 
astery was fitted up for the remaining reli- 
gious and their guests. In another part of 
llie abbey a secondary school was established. 
an(i the teachers, with their families, live in 
a separate part of the old monastery. The 
monastery garden in the center square, with 
the fish pond, is reserved for the religious. 
On great feast-days many Fathers still come 
from the neighborhood to help out in hear- 
ing confessions. The grand old church has 
lieen beautifully renovated of late ; a conven- 
tion of all the Swiss abbots has been held, 
and frequently Catholic societies hold their 
meetings at that holy place. In Italy it would 
he called a real convent. At present, permis- 
sion having Ix'en granted to reopen the sup- 
pressed monasteries, there is some prospect 
tliat this popular abliey will be reestablished. 

While we young Fratres continued our 
studies, and the Fathers were scattered about 
hi different places, some in cliarge of parishes 
and tlie others living privately, the abliot with 
a tew others settled in the neighboring city 
of Delle, France, where they enjoyed the 
hospitality of a j\I. Droit, a lawyer. Later 
tlie alibot bought a large house with several 
acres of ground from a wine merchant. 
Ample dispensations had been given by Rome 
til all tile members of the abbey either to 
live in the world, or to join other orders or 
eomnumities. But as soon as the abbot again 
liad a house, as many as could be accom- 
modated went to join him and recommenced 
the religious life to which they were used in 
Maria Stein. A large room served as a 
chapel. Later a special building was fixed 
up for a school, and in the fall of 1875, the 
College of Saint P>enedict was opened. By 
and bv more buildings arose, so that in a fe"' 



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years the Priory of St. Rciioit, as it was 
called, presented the aspect of a respectable 
monaster)-. 

On Auariist iStli. iSt6. we tliree I-'ratrcs. 
alH>ve mentioned, wc-e ordained priests at 
Einsiedeln bv our Ordinary, the Rt. Rev. 
Eugene Lach'at. Bishop of Basle, later Arch- 
bishop of namietto. t. />. /.. and .\iiostolic 
Administrator K^i Ticino. 

I said my first Mass in my native town of 
£>chenbacli. on September _'. 1876- The 
.•ector of Hochdorf. a priest l>orn and raised 
in Eschenbach. preached the serin»Mi. The 
parish priest. Rev. Jest Suter. was deacon at 
the solemn high Mass. and tlie curate. Rev. 
Jacob Estennann, acted as sulitleacon. The 
latter had given me my first les-^ons in Latin. 
As a remarkable incident I might mention 
that both priests again assisted inc. in tlie 
same capacity, twenty-five years later, when 
I returned from America to celeliriite my 
silver jubilee in Eschenbach. Also the sexton 
of the church and the main teacher in the 
school were the same. These four had been 
working together hannoniously for forty- 
five years at the same church, when the lirst 
of them. Father Suter. died. As f^rcsbytcr 
assisti-tis or spiritual father at my tirst Mass, 
I had the Very Rev. Father Basil. O.S.B.. the 
last superior in Maria Stein, whilst the Rev. 
Abbess Cecelia, of the neighboring Cistercian 
Abbey, acted as "spiritual motluT". It is 
customary for a new priest in that country 
to have, besides, a "spiritual bride." For this 
office I had chosen a Miss Katharine Lang, 
from our next neighbor's house. She was a 
zealous worker for the Church and a special 
friend and benefactress of the orphans. The 
week l>efore I sang my first Mass she went 
to a distant town to be godmother at a bap- 
tism. On the way the horse shied and she 
was injured by juni|)ing from the carriage. 
She succeeded in reaching the neighboring 
Capuchin monastery of Schiipfheim. where 
she received the last Sacraments and died 
immediately after. The day after my first 
Mass I sang a requiem for her soul, .\bout 
forty priests were at my first Mass and they 
were entertained in the abbey, whilst about 
a humlred relatives, my spiritual father, and 
f. with other guests, were given a banquet 
at the Hotel "R».ssli." In the evening arti- 
ficial fire work*; and music closed the day. 
Nothinff was left undone to render the cele- 
bration memorable. At the orchestral high 
Mas? mo«t of the instruments were played 
by old Cistercian monks from the suppressed 
Abbey of St. Urban However, there was 
Mich an amount of complimenting that I 
could not endure the incense anrl left the 
next morning after Mass to visit sr.me 
friends, as I had Ik-cu told to take a few 
week?* vacation. 

(To he continued) 
• •<%■♦ ♦ 

— It i? itill time to keep that promise you 
made fo yourself last year to Ix Ip the Rp.- 
viKw along by sending in a new subseriber. 



Romanticism 

To frame a complete or satisfactory 
dcfiiiitioii of Romantici.sm would re- 
quire the skill of a literary genius. To 
,qrasp fully its meaning and inflitence on 
the world's literature would require in- 
tense study of the prose and poetry of 
European nations as well as of our 
own. The first half of the nineteenth 
century "records a triumph" of Ro- 
manticism and Democracy. The for- 
mer is to literature what the latter is 
to autocratic goveriuuent. They are, 
equally, the expression of liberty and 
freedom. Roiuanticism is primarily a 
revolt against classicism. It is "liberal- 
ism in literature." 

The spirit of Romanticism originated 
in part from the ballads and folk lore 
of mediaeval times and from the desire 
to express national ideals in prose and 
poetry. It sprang from a longing for 
"something better than the world could 
give." It was fostered by exercising 
the imagination upon the possibilities 
rather than upon the realities of life. 
It was a conception of ideals rather 
than the sentiments of an average man. 
"It was born of chivah-y and Christi- 
anity." 

And though Romanticism proved the 
forerunner of the licentious novel or 
the hysterical romance ; though it yield- 
ed to the rebellious spirit of youth, yet 
it proved to be the source of great good 
to humanity. It brought about social 
reform, abolition of unjust laws, the 
framing of protective ones, and a saner 
view of the Church. "It prepared the 
way for the religious Renaissance of 
the nineteenth century." It released 
the world's literature from cramping 
codes and rigid rules. It was an age of 
expansion, a portrayal of deeper feeling 
and profounder sympathy with huiuan 
nature. It was an age when Words- 
worth would say — 
"Bliss it was in that dawn to be alive, 
Rut to be young was very heaven." 

It revealed the significance of the 
common things of life, glorified hum- 
blest duties and exalted the .soul of com- 
mon man. M. ('i,otii,I)I' 



1920 



THK FORIWIGIITLY KKVIKW 



Catholic Papers — Official and 
Unofficial 

The success of a newspaper, as thai 
of any business, depends largely upon 
the quality of the reading-matter it 
offers to the public. No paper can be 
made permanently successful by com- 
mand or pressure of any kind. In not 
a few cities we have at least two Cath- 
olic weeklies, the one "ofificial," the 
other non-official. The official character 
practically seems to consist in this that 
one of the papers gets directly from 
the episcopal curia the official publica- 
tions, notices, regulations, and appoint- 
ments, whereas the other does not. 
Since all these items are intended for 
the general public, it is rather difficult 
to understand the reason for this dis- 
crimination. Each paper has its merits. 
Both are, as a rule, equally energetic 
in the defense of Catholic interests. 
They may sometimes look at the same 
question from a different standpoint. 
As long as it is a debatable question — 
in matters of faith Catholics submit to 
hierarchical authority without cavil — 
St. Augustine's motto should prevail : 
/';/ dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas. 
An official publication can be made to 
depend for its existence on episcopal 
jirotection, frequent recommendations 
froni the pulpit or parish drives. But 
only its own inherent merits can insure 
its ultimate survival. 

Some papers owe their popularity to 
the cause they champion. Others owe 
ir to the distinguished collaborators 
they can command, or to the special 
enterprise or institution with which 
they are connected. Of the latter class 
we have several examples among our 
orphan asylums and missionary societies 
whose organs enlist a surprisingly large 
number of readers. 

Our weeklies all champion the same 
cause : the cause of Catholicism. Some, 
however, enlist better writers than 
others. Moreover, the more successful 
ones have attractive side features. One, 
leaving the beaten track, secures fresh 
genuine talent and devotes considerable 
sjjace to literature or the short story. 
Another lays emphasis on frequent and 
thorough discussion of the great social 



and economic problems of the da>. 
Each has a well-defined field, and ap- 
peals to a special class of readers. 
Jf one of the non-official papers were 
to go out of existence in favor of the 
official organ, it would not necessarily 
mean that all its readers would go over 
to the latter, whose methods and tastes 
may not fall in with theirs. It seems 
fair to conclude that two Catholic 
papers in one city will do more good 
than one and reach a larger number of 
people. 

Mere success, however, is not the 
measure of a Catholic paper's worth. 
It must above all serve the cause of 
truth and freedom. These have become 
bywords in the secular newspaper field 
Not only corporations and large 
mercantile establishments, but govern- 
ments themselves have succeeded only 
too well in having the press do theit 
bidding, through bribes, intimidation 
or wilful misrepresentation of impor- 
tant issues. In our Catholic press, 
tJicrcfore, ivc slionld by all means safe^ 
guard freedom of discussion. Witl 
infallible truth as its guide, it can neve 
go far astray. In an environmen 
v.^here venality and lack of solid prin- 
ciples becloud so many issues, the un- 
hampered expression of honest convic- 
tions will make for more vigorous 
Catholic life. And free discussion is 
a right that the Church has never de- 
nied to her children. Many questions 
of great import to our present and fu- 
ture welfare may be approached from 
different sides and treated in diff'erent 
ways. Nothing is to be feared from 
such open exchange of views if kept 
within the bounds of charity. It can 
only benefit us and our cause. 

Scissors and paste play a great role 
in the make-up of most of our Catholic 
papers. Yet each makes its own con- 
tribution, however small, to the more 
thorough understanding of live topics, 
thus' securing a greater variety in the 
expression of opinions and, at the same 
time, a greater imanimity born of fuller 
enlightenment, once a decision has been 
reached and is to be carried into action. 

Again, healthy competition is in itself 
a powerful stimulant to progress. No 



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Mav 1 



editor is infallible; if he blunders, some 
one is sure to set hini right, and the 
mere existence of a rival ever on the 
lookout for more subscribers, prompts 
an all-around keenness of judgment 
and alertness to all opportunities that 
could hardly be secured in any other 
v.ay. (Rev.) J. B. Culi:mans 

( 7\> Vi' concluded) 



Duty of the Catholic Press 

The Roman Civil t a CaitoHco, in its 
Xo. 1672, discussing the difference be- 
tween the "L'nione Popolare" and the 
"Partito Popolare" in Italy, makes two 
general remarks which are worth quot- 
ing. 

The first is this : "It need not appear 
strange that a confusion of terms, fol- 
lowing upon a confusion of ideas, some- 
times arises and spreads among Catho- 
lics, nay even among ecclesiastics, wlio 
are, after all, only men of their time, 
naturally subject to the impressions of 
current opinions, which draw them in 
the direction of error." 

The second is: "Generally speaking, 
it appears to us to be a universal duty 
of the Catholic press, includini;' the dail}' 
press, which is not, and does not want 
to be, a mere business affair or political 
instrument, but a noble apostolate : to 
prevent confusion as much as possible, 
to point out in the many questions that 
arise the pure Catholic doctrine, which 
is always far removed from the ex- 
tremes of error, and to do so without 
regard to national interests or passions, 
which ol>scure the clear light of truth, — 
thus making secure the way and giving 
right guidance amid the obscurity of the 
present hour. If this was a grave duty 
during the long years of the war, it is 
none the less a grave duty in these tur- 
bulent Ix-'ginnings of an uncertain peace, 
which has satisfied nobody, either 
among the victors or among the van- 
quished." 

These significant utterances of what 
is undoubtedly the learling Catholic re- 
view of the world furnish food for 
thought especially for the Catholic edi- 
tors of America, 



Freemasonry and the League of Nations 
To the Editor: — 

In the F. K. for June 15, 1919, ap- 
peared a note translated from La 
I'ranciiiacoiincric Dciiiasqucc (Paris. 
March 10-15, 1919), in which was re- 
produced a telegram sent to President 
Wilson, then at Paris, by four Masonic 
lodges of Algiers congratulating "their 
illustrious brother" upon his "Masonic 
work for the rights and liberties of na- 
tions." The answer from the presi- 
dent's secretary is also quoted; it did 
not deny that he was an "illustrious 
brother." 

The "Masonic work" alluded to was 
the League of Nations, of which Mr. 
Wilson was and is the most conspicu- 
ous champion. The same French anti- 
Masonic journal, in its edition for Mav 
10-25, 1919, said (p. 38) : 

"Inquiries are continually made 
wh.ether the idea of a League of Na- 
tions is not of Masonic origin. It would 
be puerile to deny that it is. In a 
sketch of the 1918 convention of the 
Grand Orient at Paris, published by 
L'Etoile Flamboyantc [a Alasonic pa- 
per], of Feb., 1919, Brother Guebin, 
\\'orshii)iul Master of the Lodge 'Ac- 
tion Socialiste,' says of the League of 
Nations : 'It is a grand work, which 
was born in the bosom of the lodges, 
and to the realization of which Free- 
masonrv is cf)nsc'crating its efforts with- 
out stint." 

On Dec. 15, 1893, twenty-six high- 
degree American Masons assembled in 
London, signed a protest against the 
election of Adriano Lemmi as "Su- 
preme Dogmatic Pontiff," vice Albert 
Pike, which had taken place at Rome 
Sept. 20 of that year. This protest 
was puljlished at Paris in French and 
English, in 1894, by an ex-Mason of 
high degree, D. Margiotta, in a book on 
said Lemmi, and was never disavowed 
by the twenty-six protestants nor con- 
tested by any Masonic organ. We 
quote from it the following significant 
passage : 

"The seat of executive sovereignty 
was sufficient for the Orient of Rome. 
If the scat of the [dogmatic] Palladium 
is also transferred to Rome, and the 



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135 



same becomes detinitely the supreme 
Dogmatic Directory of Masonry, then 
the central archives and the most sacred 
things [sic!] are in danger of a sudden 
cuup amid an unexpected, conflagra,'- 
tion." 

This "sudden coitp" and "unexpected 
conflagration," predicted by DisraeH, in 
1876, at Aylesbury, England, was the 
great international war of 1914-1918, 
provoked by the JMasonic crime of 
Serajevo. as revealed by the French 
Colonel du i'aty de Clam, and prepared 
in Belgrade under the eyes of King 
Peter, who had been called to the 
Serbian throne from Switzerland, in 
1906, after the Masonic assassination 
of King Alexander and Queen Draga. 

The protest of the twenty-six Amer- 
ican Masons continues : "The transfer 
to Rome of the supremacy of the Or- 
der, and of its complicated machinery, 
could not be effected without danger, 
except in case all the various States of 
Europe would become republican and 
united by the bonds of a general peace. 
Before this political evolution | /. c, 
revolution] is accomplished, 7vhich tczV/ 
be the basis of the decisive action of 
Masonry, it would be dangerous to 
transfer the supremacy to Europe, 
above all to Italy." 

No wonder French, Canadian, and 
Spanish papers refer to the League of 
Nations as Masonic ! 

Here we have the famous Masonic 
League of Nations erected under "the 
decisive action of Masonry," after a 
war which W. G. M. Whitten of the 
District of Columbia, at a monster 
meeting held in Washington, in De- 
cember, 1917, declared to be "the war 
of iMasonry." L. Hacault 

Bru.velles, Man., Canada 

—^Sh.-.^ 

— Mr. J. G. Legge, in his "Echoes 
from the Greek Anthology" (Consta- 
ble), does considerably better than some 
of his predecessors in rendering ancient 
Greek verses into terse English. That 
despair of translators, the epitaph of 
the Spartans at Thermopylae, comes out 
under his hands tolerably w-ell when one 
remembers other recent attempts : 

"Go, Stranger, tell the Spartans, here we lie 
Who know their precepts and obedient die." 



"Corpus Catholicorum" 
In our issue of Nov. 1, 1919, we 
gave information with regard to the 
"Corpus Catholicorum," a proposed 
collection of the writings of the lead- 
ing champions of the Catholic faith 
during the Reformation period, from 
1500 to 1563. We mentioned the first 
volume of the "Corpus," edited by the 
founder, Dr. Jos. Greving, shortly be- 
fore his untimely death. It was the 
"Defensio" of John Eck against the 
attacks of Andreas Bodenstein. We 
see from the Cologne Volkszeitung 
(daily ed., No. 214) that a second 
volume of the Latin series of the 
"Corpus" is now in press. It is the 
autobiography of Eck, with the pane- 
gyric pronounced upon his death by 
\\'()lph, and a bibliography of his writ- 
ings, compiled by the Rev. J. Aletzler, 
S.J. The third volume, also in prepara- 
tion, will contain a polemic of Coch- 
laeus against Luther. 

We are glad to notice from the Vulks- 
zcitung^s article that our reference to 
this important undertaking has elicited 
the interest of several Americans, who 
have subscribed for its publications. 
We repeat that it will never be possible 
fully to understand the religious move- 
ment of the sixteenth century without 
a detailed knowledge of the theological 
treatises and the private correspondence 
of Eck, Cochlaeus, Pflug, Catharinus, 
Cardinal Cajetan, Clichtoveus, Bishop 
Fisher of Rochester, and other defend- 
ers of the anicent faith. Protestants 
have long had their "Corpus Reforma- 
torum," inaugurated by Bretschneider. 
To this we Catholics must oppose a 
"Corpus Catholicorum." and every 
Catholic who is able, should help to 
make accessible to the scholars of to- 
day the long buried writings of these 
valiant champions who defended the 
faith against Luther and the other so- 
called Reformers. 

Those who wish to inform themselves 
further about the "Corpus Catholico- 
rum" are requested to communicate 
with the Rev. Joseph Ludwig, Antwerp, 

Ohio. 

.-.kS>*-. 

— If you do not bind your Review, hand 
the copies to others after you have read tliem. 



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I 



The Truth About Spiritism 

The lesson contained in the ancient 
and well-known fable according to 
which the ostrich hides its head in the 
sand, under the impression that if it 
cannot see the luniter, the hunter can- 
not see it. has. it seems to me, very 
forcible ai)i)lication to a certain class 
of people in their attitude towards the 
Spiritistic movement. 

Many of them are becoming vaguely 
conscious that the matter cannot very 
well be dismissed with a shrug of the 
shoulders, but that it is. on the con- 
trary, one that will most probably de- 
mand their serious attention and study. 
-\nd they realize that such study in- 
volves a departure from their accus- 
tomed stereotyped mode of tbought, 
and perhaps the acceptance of conclu- 
sions with which they are not in any 
great sympathy. 

In order, therefure, to justify a pas- 
sive and non-committal attitude of 
mind, they have recourse to various 
devices. 

Some, apparently unacquainted with 
the progressive development of scien- 
t'fic thought on this subject, boldly deny 
the credibility of all the facts which the 
most i>atient and painstaking researcii 
has brought to light, and declare that 
all can he easily and naturally explained. 

For some the very security of the 
CTiurch's position is the stumbling block. 
They overcome their misgiving by re- 
minding themselves that the Church is 
built on a rock and that the gates of 
hell cannot prevail against her. Wbolly 
forgetful of the fact that, while no par- 
ticular movement of thougbt can destroy 
the Church, it is nevertheless possible 
for the Church to lose thousands of 
precious souls, who might have been 
preserved to her bad they been rigbtly 
and accurately informed, they close their 
eyes to the daily growing danger. 

A recent correspondent went so far 
as to suggest, what even the .Spiritists 
them."»elves \vi\c never yet suggested in 
my case, that persons like myself might 
conceivably, though perhaps imcon- 
sciously, be exaggerating and manipu- 
lating the available evirlcnce in order to 
accentuate their particular view ' and 
theory. 



Others, again, wholly ignoring the 
fact that our current literature is flood- 
ed with Spiritistic writings, that an 
eminent man of science is going through 
the countr}- expounding to thousands 
I be new "W eltaubchauung," incidental- 
ly destructive of all Catholic teaching, 
and that the demand for instruments 
declared to put us in touch with the 
other world, can scarcely be supplied, 
deplore the circumstance that we talk 
about the matter at all and that we 
make any defence of Catholic truth. 

Incomprehensible as all these various 
attitudes of mind are to those of us 
wbo are behind the scenes of this 
thought-movement, the one last men- 
tioned is perhaps the most incompre- 
hensive and regrettable attitude of all. 
For if it were generally adopted, it 
would most certainly lay us open to the 
charge, preferred against us in England 
some years ago, that we have no rational 
explanation to offer and that our silence 
is evidence of our helplessness. 

This attitude is, in any case, not that 
of the Roman authorities who, as we 
know, are always well informed on 
these matters and invariably move with 
caution. The present Holy Father 
writes that "these practices, if permitted 
to spread unchecked, threaten to inflict 
on countless persons the loss of body 
and soul," and he hopes that "by the 
means of sound explanation many souls 
may yet be preserved from the deadly 
contamination of these practices." 

But how this is to be accomplished, 
unless we speak and write on the sul)- 
ject, the last-mentioned objectors do 
not tell us. 

In England the Jesuit and Dominican 
I'^athers are giving public lectures, 
presided over by the respective bishops, 
in which they loudly warn against the 
daily spreading evil of Spiritism. In 
this country a steadily increasing num- 
ber of prominent and well-informed 
priests, who may be supposed to have 
fully considered the objections stated, 
arc placing before our people the in- 
formation so urgently needed at this 
hour. 

Would that we could induce all in- 
telligent Catholic men and women to 
make themselves well acquainted with 



19;i0 



'I'HE KUKTNIGliTLY REVIEW 



137 



the Church's teaching on the subject 
and with the untenableness of t)ur op- 
l)onents' reasoning, so that they could 
come to the aid, and perhaps rescue, 
of those not so well informed! It was 
the late revered Pontiff, I'ius X, who 
said to me, on one occasion, that he 
helieved that this movement of thought 
would prove to be one of the most for- 
midable enemies the Church has ever 
encoimtered throughout all the centuries 
of her history. 

Many learned ecclesiastics, in various 
parts of the country, with whom 1 have 
had opportunities of discussing the sub- 
ject, and whose counsels I have asked, 
fully share this view. They believe 
with me that the Spiritistic movement 
is not like one of those many phases 
of thought which occupy the attention 
of the world for a time, and then pass 
away in order to give place to another, 
but that it is one that has come to stay, 
and by means of which the construction 
of an entirely new philosophy of life 
will most certainly be attempted. This 
opinion is largely based upon the cir- 
cumstance that we have not to do in 
this matter with the visions and specu- 
lations of dreamers or of hysterical 
women, but with eminent men of sci- 
ence, who are desperately in earnest 
for the simple reason that they believe 
themselves to be the discoverers of 
facts and truths which they deem to 
be of the greatest nioral and spiritual 
value to shipwrecked mankind. 

It must be clear, therefore, to all 
right-minded men, who can read the 
signs of the times, and whose souls are 
not afflicted with the sleeping sickness, 
that we must be up and doing, and that 
wr must brush up our armor in order 
to be able to meet and confound the ad- 
vancing enemy. But how is this to be 
done except by the propagation of ac- 
curate information, exposing the weak 
points in our antagonists' reasoning and 
by showing what good and solid grounds 
the expert Catholic theologian has for 
' (olding the views which he has formed. 
We must be able to show that when the 
whole truth — not merely a half truth — 
i- told about the matter, and when un- 
palatal)le facts, deliberately ignored by 



the leaders of this movement, are taken 
into consideration, the inevitable infer- 
ence is one wholly in keeping with the 
lindings of those theologians and with 
the teaching of the Church. 

1 do not think that any other kind 
of warfare or method of defense can 
help us much in the end. Now many 
of the best-informed Catholic theolo- 
gians maintain that zn'hen all natural 
explanations of the pJicnomcna in ques- 
tion, such as fraud, malobscrvation, 
"nerves," the possibilities of telepathy, 
etc., have been alloived for, there are 
phenomena whicli must be ascribed to 
the action of evil spirits — fallen angels 
— masquerading as the souls of the 
dead. But this conclusion, thoroughly 
Catholic (and to my mind inevitable) 
as it is, strange to say, is not acceptable 
to some. They see in it something 
bizarre and fanatical, and imagine it 
to be a superior intellectual attitude 
to adopt some other explanation, — 
often long and patiently considered by 
experts and dismissed by them, — or to 
suspend their judgment. I cannot, of 
course, deal with this aspect of the 
matter at any length in a magazine arti- 
cle. ]\Iy present aim is to show that 
this lofty and seemingly superior intel- 
lectual attitude has no longer any solid 
foundation, but that, on the contrary, 
evidence is coming in from the Spirit- 
istic camp itself which destroys it ut- 
terly. 

There are, both here and in Europe, 
experimenters and students of the sub- 
ject wholly free from dogmatic prepos- 
sessions, but determined evidently to be 
loyal to fact and truth, who are by their 
deliberate statements and warnings 
supporting and endorsing the conclu- 
sions of Catholic theologians. These 
statements will, I think, be seen to con- 
firm the personal conviction to which 
I am continually giving expression in 
my lectures and writings, that the true 
key to the solution of the psychic prob- 
lem will most certainly be found with 
the Catholic Church, and not with 
physical science. 

It is but necessary that we should 
rigidly scrutinize the assertions and 
methods of the adversarv, and that we 



188 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



should fearlessly challenge the evidence 
produced by even the most renowned 
and trusted of the leaders of this move- 
ment. 

In any case, many of the readers of 
the Fortnightly Review will be inter- 
ested to learn that an increasing num- 
ber of scieiuific men, intimately 
acquaiiUed with the subject, are forced 
to that very conclusion which some 
Catholics think so unscientific and 
bizarre, and with which they are in no 
sort of sympathy. These authorities 
declare unhesitatingly that evil spirits 
undoubtedly exist and manifest them- 
selves in connection with Spiritistic 
practices, and that those indulging in 
these practices most certainly lay them- 
selves open to the possibility of becom- 
ing obsessed or possessed by them. 

Such admissions, it may be said inci- 
dentally, are surely in themselves all 
sufficient to destroy the absurd notion 
that, by means of these practices, a 
"New Revelation" is being given to 
mankind. 

The readers of the Fortnightly 
Review will also. 1 think, be interested 
in the subjoined letter which came into 
my hands twenty years ago and which 
bears strongly upon the point under 
consideration. The writer, the late Dr. 
Egbert Muller, was for years the leader 
of the German Spiritists. He finally 
came to the conclusions which I, loo, 
had reached and, after submitting to 
the Catholic Church, proclaimed his 
conviction before an audience of several 
thousands of Si)iritists. I put myself in 
communication with Dr. ^liiller at the 
time, and the letter here reproduced 
reached me in reply. Later tm ! met 
him |>ersonalIy in Berlin and had an 
opportunity of discussing the subject 
with him very fully. 

The other statements which 1 append 
to this article speak for themselves. 
Thoughtful readers can scarcely fail to 
icalize their significance when they 
bear in mind that the writers are far 
removed from any interest in, or sym- 
pathy with, the Catholic Church and 
her teachings. 

I am reminded in this connection of 
a remark which a very prominrnt and 



well-informed English Spiritist made to 
me some years ago, and which has al- 
wa}s rankled in my mind. "You main- 
tain," he said, "that the devil is at the 
back of these phenomena ; but it seems 
to me that your people are strangely 
remiss in the effort to defeat him, and 
that your intelligence department is 
very poorly equipped." He seemed to 
think that it was with us in England at 
that time a case of "Nero fiddling while 
Rome is burning." 

J. Godfrey Raupert 

Letter from Dr. Miillcr to J. Godfrey 
Raupert 

Berlin, N.W., 7, Scliarnhorst Strasse, 5. 
June, 1900. — Aly Highly Esteemed and Dear 
Fellow-Convert: — The contents of your 
esteemed letter gave me great joy, and I 
assent with mind and heart to every line 
thereof. 

Above all it is certain that every somul 
thinker must come to perceive the demoniac 
character of the whole of Spiritism, and un- 
doubtedly many combatants in the matter 
will soon be compelled to espouse our point 
of view and our philosophy of life. I do 
not know what the Zeitschrift fiir Spiritis- 
mus has been saying about me, as for a long 
lime I have paid no attention to the Spirit- 
istic journals, unless they come to my notice 
by accident or are sent to me. 

I have declared before a meeting of thou- 
sands of Spiritists my conviction tliat "Spir- 
itism is a grand mis-en-scenc of Satan for 
the destruction of the Church of Christ." 
The excitement which this confession created 
among the Spiritists in Germany showed me 
that each <ine of them must liave had -^nmc 
experience whicli lutcil in with my confes- 
sion : else my declaration would undoubtedly 
liave been disregarded. 

The London Psychical vSociety concentrates 
its attention solely on animaism {aitiiiiisni 
is an incorrect term) ; but this hypothesis i'- 
vitiated by the defect that it attributes to 
the human soul ad hoc, for the explanation 
of Spiritistic phenomena, qualities and facul- 
ties which it docs not possess. That we have 
to do in Spiritism with occult intelligent 
powers — and these are spirits — is an inevit- 
able inference; but Spiritism itself is unable 
to tell us what kind of spirits these arc : 
only revealed theology can give us this in- 
formation. 

I have had tlic opportunity of experiment 
iiig fully witli eleven great mediums and iiavt- 
made the acquaintance of about forty. In 
tlie light of my experiences I must apply to 
Spiritism the following passages from Tbjiy 
Scn|)turc : 

I. "For our wrestling is . . . against the 
.spirits of wickedness in the air." (V.\)h. VI. 
12). 



r 



1920 



THE rORTNIGHTI.Y REVIEW 



l;.9 



2. "The ilevil. as a roaring lion, goetli 
about seeking whom he may devour. "' (i 
Pet. V, 8). 

3. "The gates of hell shall not prevail 
against it." (Matt. XVI, 18;. 

Only a stronger and an evil being — not a 
human spirit — can render a man unconscious 
and take possession of him. 

Such declarations of the spirits speaking 
through mediums as have any value, are 
reminiscences from the Bible ; they never 
point in the direction of the Church, but 
endeavor to alienate men from her, and 
advise them to join Spiritistic circles. 

The fact of occult intelligent powers in 
Spiritism — and hence the action of spiritual 
beings — completely shatters Materialism, and 
for this reason alone, I believe, God permits 
Spiritism. 

Spiritism is connected with the movement 
of the human race away from God, and 
mediumship, ;". c, susceptibility to demoniac 
control, results from the sins of our ancestors. 
Thus the appearance of Spiritism (which 
never existed before in its present form) 
marks a stage in the evolution of the uni- 
\ crse ! Its high value consists in this that 
it reveals, and permits us to recognize, Satan- 
ology in its depths : and without a knowl- 
edge of Satanology there can be no true 
knowledge of Soteriology. It is the work of 
Satan that men have long ceased to notice 
him and refuse to believe that he exists in 
the world; . . . Dr. Egbert Mueller. [Trans- 
lation made by Arthur Preuss]. 

A Neurologist's Warning 

The dangers of Spiritism were exposed in 
a lecture at Morley Hall lately by Dr. A. T. 
Schofield, who has written largely on nervous 
disorders. Spiritism, he said, according to 
the report given by the Morning Post, Lon- 
don, was spreading like an infectious dis- 
ease; it had ceased to be a science, and had 
become, in the hands of Sir Conan Doyle, 
more or less a religion. As a science it had 
already had a long roll of martyrs, and no 
medium existed who did not suffer before 
long, either physically, mentally, or morally. 
The vast majority of professional mediums 
succumbed to vice or drink. Every spirit- 
leader, including Doyle himself, had gravely 
warned the public against Spiritism. And 
the disclosures of Sinnett suggested to his 
mind most nearly the horrors of Bolshevism. 
These dangers began with automatic writing, 
with table turning, and consisted in the 
gradual loss of protective will power, which 
was our divine guard against devil posses- 
sion. In one case of devil possession which 
had come to his own notice, the patient 
required a resident physician and two trained 
male nurses, but after a w-eek the nurses 
gave notice. They thought they had heard 
every form of impossible language, but that 
of the patient came straight from the pit, 
and nothing would induce those nurses to 
stay with him. There was no doubt that the 



end of ."spiritism was possession by an evil 
spirit. Sir Conan Doyle, in spite of these 
dangers, recommended all wlio could to be- 
come mediums; — more horrible advice was 
never given to unfortunate womanhood, and 
coming from a member of his own profes- 
sion he could only say that the profession 
as a whole would indignantly repudiate it. 
Xo one, he concluded, could touch Spiritism 
without being lowered in mental and moral 
tone. He had liimself known many cases of 
insanity from Spiritism. 

Dr. Carrington's Vicio 
Dr. H. Carrington, a well known American 
writer and authority on Spiritism, writes 
incidentally: "Those who deny the reality 
of these facts, those who treat the whole 
problem as a joke, regard planchette as a 
toy and deny the reality of powers and in- 
fluences which work unseen, should observe 
the effects of some of the Spiritistic mani- 
festations. They would no longer, I imagine, 
scoff at this investigation and be tempted 
to call all mediums frauds, but would be 
inclined to admit that there is a true terror 
of the dark and that there are principalities 
and powers with which we in our ignorance 
toy without knowing and realizing the fright- 
ful consequences which may result from this 
tampering with the unseen world." 

In another work Dr. Carrington writes: 
"I know of one case, in which the subject 
fought against the 'evil spirit' within her for 
days before giving in to its tormenting 
urgency — worn out by her resistance. Can 
we assume in such a case the advice emanates 
from a fragment of herself? . . . Until this 
question is faced fully and squarely, and the 
problem presented by such cases is fully met, 
I think that those who contend that evil spir- 
its exist and influence mortals still in the 
iTesh, have, if not right on their side, at least 
a valid argument and an array of facts which 
will have to be fully explained before science 
can assume, as it does at present, that all 
such cases represent merely the abnormal 
functioning of the mind or the activity of 
a portion of the subconscious — till then latent 
in the subject, but present and potentially 
destructive in all of us." 

Prof. Hyslop's Tcstijitony 
Dr. J. Hyslop, formerly professor at Co- 
lumbia University, and the leading scientilic 
Spiritist of this country, writes in his recent 
book on "Life After Death" : "I have asserted 
that the explanation of this case is obsession, 
spirit or demoniac possession, as it is called 
in the New Testament. Before accepting 
such a doctrine I fought against it for ten 
years after I was convinced that survival 
after death was proved. But the several 
cases referred to above forced upon me the 
consideration of the question and the pres- 
ent instance only conlirms overwhelmingly 
the hypothesis suggested by other experi- 
ences." 

And again: "The everlasting talk about 



14U 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



secondary personality, wliich is very useful 
ioT hiding one's ignorance or merely tlescrib- 
ing the facts, should no longer prevent 
investigation." 

Mrs. Traz'crs Smith on the Danger 
of Obsession 

Mrs. Traverse Smith, the wife of a dis- 
tinguished Dublin physician, and evidently 
an experienced experimenter, writes in her 
recently published book, "\oices from the 
Void": 

"This was, I presume, a clear case of at- 
tempted obsession, first of Mr. X, then of 
me. It seemed quite clear that some external 
entity of a uMst dangerous kind was present 
at these sittings ; it illustrated one of the 
greatest dangers connected with psychic work. 
1 cannot urge too much upon my readers 
that the greatest caution should be used in 
the choice of sitters, and also that unpleasant 
communications should be dismissed ; the 
dangers of obsession are hardly rea'.i/ed by 
those who have not had some experience of 

them." 

•-♦<*>♦-• 

NOTES AND GLEANINGS 

— An unusually large number of our 
subscribers are still in arrears for the 
current year. We urgently request them 
to settle their accounts as soon as pos- 
sible. 

— At the hrst Xational Immigration 
Conference, held in New York the 
other day. Gen. Du Pont declared that 
this countr>- is 4,000,000 men short as 
a result of the dwindling of immigra- 
tion since the war. "Thousands of im- 
migrants," he said, "are going back ; 
other thousands are emigrating to 
Canada, South Aiuerica, Australia, and 
other countries, which are making 
organized cfTorts to attract immigration, 
whereas the U. S. is indiscriminately 
denouncing the foreign-born and driv- 



ing them away. This foolish conduct, 
the General said, is resulting in "grow- 
ing misunderstanding between native 
and loreign-boni citizens and in a gen- 
eral deiuoralization of industrial and 
social conditions," From which it ap- 
pears that even our capitalist rulers are 
beginning to wake up. 

— Miss Helen 'I'odtl, in an appeal to 
the Interchurch ]'>deration, declares 
that there are in this country one thou- 
sand women and children left heart- 
broken, hopeless, and helpless by the 
imprisonment or deportation of alleged 
"reds" by the Department of Justice 
(Incus a lion!). The cruelty practiced 
against these poor laborers and the 
crime of leaving their women and chil- 
dren to starve, cries to God for real 
justice. The "Department of Justice" 
is making more "reds" every day than 
it could deport in a year. 

— A petition proposing an amendment 
of the State Constitution of Michigan 
for the purpose of prohibiting parochial 
schools has been filed with the Secretary 
of State at Lansing. The petition bears 
114,000 signatures, indicating the wide- 
spread anti-Catholic sentiment in that 
State. This is the third attempt that 
lias been made within four years to sub- 
mit the proposed amendment to a ref- 
erendum of the people of Michigan. 
Two years ago the number of signatures 
was held to be inadequate by the Attor- 
ney-General. In all probability, the 
question will be voted upon at the No- 
vember elections, and there is great dan- 
ger that the jjarochial schools will be 
dcrili ;i fntal blow. 



' 



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Wagners' Londres Grande 



Imported 
Sumatra 
Wrapper 



too — $7. so 



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r,o — $4. 00 



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FORTXIGUTLV REVIEW 



141 



Bargains in Second-Hand Books 

Miller, Joshua A. The Bible of Nature and the 
Bible of Grace. Boston. 1919. 75 cts. 

Rentier, F. J. (C. M.) Our Savior's Own Words. 
A Daily Thought from the Gospel on the One 
Thing Necessary. Atchison, Kas., 1920. 50 cts. 

Sihivatka, Fred. A Summer in Alaska. A Popular 
Account of the Travels of an Alaska Exploring 
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Mcnning, Cardinal. Sermons on Ecclesiastical Sub- 
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Newman, Cardinal. An Essay on the Development 
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Wetzel, F. X. The Man: A Little Book for Chris- 
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Lebreton. J. (tr. by Alban Goodier, S.J.). The En- 
cyclical and Modernist Theology. London, 1908. 
25 cts. 

Kralik, Richard von. Allgemeine Geschichte der 
neuesten Zeit, 1836 bis 1856. Graz and Vienna, 
1916. $3. 

Pohle, Jos. Lehrbuch der Dogmatik. Vol. III. 6th 
ed. Paderborn, 1916. $1.25 (unbound). [Con- 
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Baart, P. A. The Roman Court. 2nd ed. N. Y., 
1895. $1. 

Darwin, Francis. The Life and Letters of Charles 
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A Seminary Professor. Manual of Christian Doc- 
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31st ed. Phila., 1919. $1. 

ll-ilti. Chas. (tr. by F. Girardey, C.SS.R.). The 
Priest's Canonical Prayer. St. Louis, 1919. 35 cts. 

Atu'ood, Harry F. Keep God in American History. 
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Oer, Scb. von (O.S.B.). Kommet und Kostet. Ein 
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Brothers of the Christian Schools. Catechism of 
Christian Doctrine. Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4. Revised 
according to the New Code. Phila., 1918. 50 cts. 

Doyle, F. X. (S.J.). Poems. Phila., 1919. 35 cts 

Casey, P. The Theistic Social Ideal, or the Distribu- 
tive State. Milwaukee, 1919. 25 cts. (Wrap- 
per). 

Maloney, W. J. M. A. The Irish Issue. N. Y., 1918. 
25 cts. 

Kilmer, Aline. Candles that Burn. Poems of the 
Fulness of Life. N. Y., 1919. 50 cts. 

Benson, E. F. Across the Stream. N. Y. 1919. $1. 
[A novel dealing with Spiritism]. 

Bourassa, Henri. Le Pape Arbitre de la Paix. 
Montreal, 1918. 75 cts. (Wrapper). 

Cecilia, Madame. Outline Meditations. N. Y., 1918. 
$1.25. 

.■iugustine, P. C. (O.S.B.) A Commentary on the 
New Code of Canon Law. Vol. II, Clergy and 
Hierarchy. (Canons 87-486). St. Louis, 1918. $2. 

Ryan, J. A. Alleged Socialism of the Church Fa- 
thers. St. Louis, 1913. 40 cts. 

Dc Concilia, J. Catholicism and Pantheism. N. Y., 
1874. $1. 

Goldstein, D. and Avery M. M. Bolshevism: Its 
Cure. Boston, 1919. $1.10. 

Conrox, J. P. (S.J.). Out to Win. [Talks With 
Boys]. N. Y., 1919. $1. 

Lynch, Denis (S.J.). St. Joan of Arc. Life-Story 
of the Maid of Orleans. N. Y., 1919. $2.15. 



(Orders must be accompanied by Cash) 



The Fortnightly Review, St. Louis, Mo, 



— One man who was found guilty of 
having dodged conscription has been 
sentenced to live years in jail as a 
deserter. Others, who merely exercised 
their right to express an opinion, are 
serving terms of twenty years in the 
penitentiary. "Such is the 'New I'^-ee- 
dom,' " sarcastically comments our 
Pittsburgh contemporary, the Observer. 

— Count Bernstorff, the former Ger- 
man ambassador to the U. S., testified 
before the War Investigation Commis- 
sion at Berlin; April 15, that he had 
spent $1,0CX),000 for propaganda pur- 
poses in Xmerica before this country 
entered the war. How many millions, 
we wonder, did Great Britain spend 
over here for propaganda ? 

— The Catholic Times, of L.jiidon, 
[)ublishes a letter from a correspondent 
who says he has read the reports of the 
divorce bill debate in the House of 
Lords and found that only one of the 
Catholic peers, Lord Braye, protested 
against this evil measure and defended 
the Christian doctrine of marriage. "It 
is disappointing,"' the correspondent 
says, "'to find that no other Catholic 
said one word." The complaint shows 
that Catholic politicians in England are 
of the same kidney as in America ; they 
are with but few exceptions dema- 
gogues who use their religion only as 
a means of advancing their political 
aims. 

— In an instructive paper on the spirit 
and the aims of Bolshevism, in the 
Deutsche Zukunft ( No. 10), Dr. G. La- 
niay shows that Bolshevism, despite its 
pronounced Russian characteristics, is 
essentially nothing else Init radical So- 
cialism striving for expansion. Its ulti- 
mate object is the universal domination 
of the proletariat over Capitalism, to be 
attained by means of a world revolu- 
tion. Its religion, so far as it has any, 
is Marxism, though the radical Social- 
ists do not insist very strongly on its 
tenets, as they care little what religious 
convictions men hold, so they are but 
good Socialists in the economic sense. 
There is more truth and sound sense in 
Lamay's two-column article than in Da- 
vid Goldstein's book and Peter Collins' 
tirades. 



142 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



The Most Noteworthy Coiitribntiou to Seniion Literature of Recent Years 

Sermons for All the Sundays 

and for the Chief Festivals of the Year 

By the Right Rev. John S. Vaughan, D. D. 

Bishop of Sebastopolis 

With an Introduction by 

Most Rev. John J. Glennon, D. D. 

Arcbbishop of St. Louis, Mo. 

Two Volumes, octavo, about 640 pp. Per set, bouud in cloth, net $6.00 



Bishop >Vaiigb.'in. one of the famous six Vaughan 
l>r«ihers who went to the Altar, has devoted himself 
(varticularly to pulpit and missionary work, and 
while he gained distinction from the publication of 
a number of books of delightful literary qualities, • 
his chief renown c.ime to him through his remark- 
able performances in the pulpit. 

!le is' regarded as one of the greatest living pulpit 
sr>eakers and hence this collection of his SERMONS 
will l>e received with the greatest interest. 



BISHOP VAUGHAN'S SERMONS breathe the 
very spirit of virility that cliaracterizes their vig- 
orous author. He treats his subjects in original, 
striking ways, and his command of effective illustra- 
tion is exceptional. 

.\breast of the times in feeling, these SERMONS 
will be found to be full of life and spirit, and a 
treasure trove of thought and suggestion for pulpit 
teachers. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 

NEW YORK 



23 Barclay Street 

Si. Lo(//.s\- B. 



Herder Book Co. 



— We are informed by the Kcv. F. 
konibouts. of St. Francisville, La., ih.il 
the Dutch Standaard (that is the cor- 
rect spelhng). which we quoted in our 
Xo. 7, on page 107, is not a Catholic, 
but a Protestant paper, founded by 
Dr. Abraham Kuyper, the leader of the 
anti-revolutionists. We were nii'^led 
into calling it a Catholic paper by the 
London Tablet, from which we took the 
quotation. 

— .\t the first meeting held after the 
death of Andrew Carnegie, its chief 
linancial sup[)orter, the Modern Lan- 
guage .\>sf-K:iation voted to discontinue 
reformed spelling. The wonder is that 
this mfivement survived so long. Im- 
practicable from the beginning, thcr 
vnr zt'uc a substansilinl rcson lih'v it 
shud hav ben started. So language is 
.so ill a<l;ipted to violent spelling refcHiii 
as Knglish composed as it is of a 
variety of other languages and sjKikeii 
by men of wirlely fliverging nistom> 
and scattered over the civilized globe. 
The mo<lcrate changes in orthograjiln 
that may have been stimulated bv the 
simphfied .s|»elling movement were at 
Ixjttom the erosive workings of limc. 



— Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., is 
(iuoted as saying that the labor question 
could be solved by applying "the prin- 
ciples laid down by the Founder of 
Christianity." Let him bring these 
])rinciples into the directors' meetings 
of the Standard Oil Company and 
other big corporations with which he 
is connected, and tr}' to apply them to 
business, and he will soon find that, in 
the words of Father Plater, S.J.; 
"Christianity is revolutionary, not mild- 
ly, but like dynamite." 

— Columbia University, New York, 
has established two courses in As.syrian 
language and literature. The lectures 
uill be given by Dr. V. A. Vander- 
burgh. Unfortunately, as we see from 
an interview with him in the N. Y. 
Post, Dr. V. believes in the "evolution 
of Babylonian lienotheism into the mon- 
otheism of the Hebrews." Why not 
teach the reading oi cuneifonn texts 
without religious i>repossessions? It is 
sickening to hear these learned infidels 
falsely complain about the prejudices 
inculcated in Catholic institutions of 
learning, wliik; they llieniselves are 
choke-full of anti-religious bias. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



in 



Literary Briefs 

—Mr. J. Godfrey Raupert, K.S.G., has writ- 
ten another apologetical pamphlet, which the 
Catholic Union Store of Buffalo, N. Y., pub- 
lishes under the title, "A Matter of Life and 
Death." In it he answers such highly im- 
portant questions as : What is the true pur- 
pose of life? Where is the truth regarding 
life to be found? Has the Catholic Church 
effectual aids, by means of which it is possi- 
ble to save my soul? Wliat is the truth re- 
specting life after death? The little brochure 
is concisely written and will appeal to the 
bi'sy inquirer. 

— Dr. F. J. Kinsman's letter of resignation 
as P. E. Bishop of Delaware has been re- 
piinted by the English Catholic Truth So- 
ciety in pamphlet form, with a brief intro- 
ductory note, under the title, "The Failure of 
Anglicanism." Dr. Kinsman candidly states 
the reasons why he found it iinpossible to 
hold jurisdiction in a church which does not 
know her own mind, much less the mind of 
Christ. As is well known, he has since 
joined the Catholic Church, and is preparing 
for the priesthood. Longmans have just is- 
sued an Apologia, "Salve Mater," from his 
pen. 

—In a C. T. S. brochure, titled "The Mar- 
tyrs of Uganda," the V. Rev. Canon F. E. 
Ross relates the sufferings and martyrdom 
of "the twenty-two venerable servants of 
God, Charles Luanga, Mathias Mrumba, and 
their companions," who, it is expected, will be 
solemnly beatified next month. As the evan- 
geli-^ation of Uganda was undertaken by 
Cardinal Lavigerie's White Fathers, the au- 
thor takes occasion to give a brief account 
of the history of that excellent society. The 
edifying account of the martyrdom of the 
twenty-two native converts is drawn almost 
entirely from a letter written by the Supe- 
rior-General of the Society. Msgr. Livinhac, 
to the Council of the Propagation of the 
Faith at Lyons. The brochure is illustrated 
with a number of appropriate cuts. 

—French-Canada has a national league 
called "Ligue Franc-Catholique," established 
under the protection of the Sacred Heart to 
combat Freemasonry and all other forbidden 
secret societies. M. Louis Hacault, the vet- 
eran journalist, who has devoted the best 
part of his life to this cause, has supplied die- 
members of the league with a "INlanuel," in 
which he presents mucli valuable informa- 
tion concerning the machinations of interna- 
tional Freeiuasonry against the Catholic 
Church. There is an appendix containing 
the constitution and by-laws of the Ligue 
Franc-Catholique of Canada. (Quebec- Ral- 
liement C. F. .\.. 6 rue Jeanne-trArc : ^2 cts 
per copy: wrapper). 

Books Received 

The Facts aiul Fallacies of Modern Sf'ritism. By T. 
Godfrey Raui)ert, K. S. G. 14 pp. 8vo. Central 
Bureau of the Catholic Central Society, 201 Templt 
Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. (Leaflet). 10 cts. 



Gcschichte dcs dciitschen l^olkes vom dreizchnteu 
Jahrhundcrt bis zum Ausgang des Mittelalters. 
Von Emil Michael, S.J. Sethster Band: Politische 
Geschichte. Erstes Buch: Die Gegenkonige Otto 
von Braunschweig und Philipp von Schwaben. 
Kaiser Friedrich II. bis zum Tode Honorius' III, 
1227. xxii & 512 pp. 8vo. Freiburg i. Br.: B. 
Herder & Co., Ltd.; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder 
Book Co. $3.75 net. 

St. Jeanne d'Arc, the Maid of Orleans. A Historical 
Drama in Six Episodes, by Flavian Larbes, Friar 
Minor. 144 pp. 12mo. Cincinnati, O. : Fr. Pustet 
& Co. $1.50 net. 

'I'he Sacraments. A Dogmatic Treatise by the Rt. 
Rev. Msgr. Joseph Pohle, Ph.D., D.D. Adapted 
and Edited by Arthur Preuss. Vol. Ill: Penance. 
Third, Revised Edition, iv. & 270 pp. 12mo. B. 
Herder Book Co. $1.80 net. 

_]Ic'"nry Sbetrhes Bv P. J. Carroll, C.S.C. 181 pp. 
12mo. South Bend, Ind.: School Plays Pub. Co. 

$1.03. 

Reflections for Religions. Edited by Rev. F. X. 
Lasance. 591 pp. 16mo. Benziger Bros. $2 net. 

Hymnal and Prayerbook. A Collection of Hymns 
and Prayers Compiled for Congregational Use, by 
a Priest of the Diocese of Fort Wayne. 182 pp. 
32mo. B. Herder Book Co. 35 cts. net. 

Jlie Pope and Italy. By V. Rev. Nazareno Casacca, 
O.S.A., D.D. Translated from the Italian by Rev. 
J. A. Hickey, O.S.A. With a Preface by the 
Archliishop of Philadelphia, x & 62 pp. 8vo. Phila- 
delphia: John Joseph McVey 50 cts. (Wrapper). 



Position Wanted 
Immediately 

B Y 

Well Trained Young Organist 

With Some Experience and 
Much Good Will 

Address : 

N. N., care Fortnightly Review 

i8 South 6th St., St. Louis, IMo. 



CLERGYMEN, COLLEGES and ACADEMIES 

will find it to their advantage to consult 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

21'2-21-1: East Eighth Street 

CINCINN.YTI, OHIO 

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144 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



Clian literature and clean woTianhood are the Keystones of Civilization: 
this aphoristicalh defines the ideals of the Devin-Adair imprint. 



The Census Bureau jmhlished figures (Jiat prove that ^^every ninth marriage the 
coHtttrif orer tenninatct< in (b'vorce — that divorce is increasing nearly twice 
<!.< fast as marriage. '^ If t/ou^re married or if you're about to be mar- 
ried any Annalist, Actuary — or shi-eivd ''sport^^ will lay you from 
eight to ten to one that YOUR marriage will be a failure — 
that YOU will wind up in the Divorce Coxirt. 

The Devil's way is the divorce way: the ratio in the larger cities is one in seven to one in three — 
ImU enough, truly; but just as surely as '"you cannot be a little bit married — or a little bit dead," the 
thousands of thoughtless, hastv and fly-bv-night war marriages will send the average of domestic up- 
heavals to panic figures. Read GREAT WIVES AND MOTHERS, lend it to others— to your mis- 
mated friends anti neighbors — above all send it to the youth of both sexes, graduates and undergradu- 
ates of fashionable colleges who (at the most fateful of periods — the adolescent) are being rounded 
into adult life on the works of malf and female wantons — men and women who if alive would not 
be allowed within smelling dislanc*- of a cotter's cottage. The subtle hypocrisy of such impelling 
exemplars makes for cumulative far Beaching harm — harm that fairly snuggles into church. State and 
society — that inspires and supports 'the lust-lucred leading theatres wilh their bedroom art — their 
publicity barkers, fl.nuntiiig "girl from a convent" for the gaze anil thoughts of the tired shekel 
getter. GREAT WIVES AND MOTHERS will help to turn houses into homes-^-will assuredly lead 
to marriage and happiness of the kind that's worth a picayune — the kind that lasts. 

No good Woman ever married a man except for love — for life 

No real Man ever married a woman except for love — for life 

With this book the comrade of all men and women a Bachelor in lime will hr nn 

ignored novelty — and as for Spinsters there ivill be few if any in the 

u^orld old enougJi to shy at a mirror. 

Great Wives and Mothers 

By HUGH FRANCIS BLUNT 

I The Boston Editor, Writer and Poet) 

rhl« Is the age ol War — and Woman. In the War history repeated with horror- 
laden empha.sls. In Woman's dominating activities are vi e to have a rebirth of the 
Eleventh Century? There is no middle course lor Woman : her inliuence Is Inllnlte 
and eternal la results, lor she leads to Heaven or lures to Hell. 

"One after another the great wives and 
mothers pass over the pages, a noble procession 
that thrills the reader and makes him proud of 
hi» Catholic ancestry. From land to land, from 
age to age, they have handed down the torch 
of faith and piety, and the sweet odor of their 
holy lives purifies the atmosphere of any home 
which is privileged to make their acquaintance. 
The book is intended principally by its author 
to lighten the lal^ors of priests who are direct- 
ing sodalities, but it has a place in every Cath- 
olic family. Convent-schools also would be 
»>»e lo place it on their shelves. It win oe an 
inipiration to Ihcir pupils and a stimulus to 
nuuce tbeir lives sublime. 

The style is simple, careful and entertaining. 
The tfook de»<:rvrs a warm welcome." 

kEV. J. HARDING ITSHER, S.J. 



"Possessed of genuine interest for readers of 
either sex and all ages. The work is esi)ecia!ly 
timely at present, when, as the author remaiks 
in his preface, 'the world in many different ways 
is seeking to turn our women from the pursuit 
of the Christian ideal in wifehood and miUhiT- 
hood.' The ai)petizing contents of the book may 
be judged by these selections from the chapter 
headings: Margaret Ro])er, Elizabeth Scton, 
Jerusha Rarber, Mary O'Connell, Margaret 
Ilaughery, Lady Gcorgiana Fullerton, Pauline 
Craven, and 'Some Literary Wives and Moth- 
ers.'" — THE AVE MARIA. 



I^ar^f; Crown Offavo — IV)stpaid $2.50 at Bookstores or 



THE DEVIN-ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 



425 Fillh Avenue 



New York. V. S A. 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXVII, NO. 10 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



May 15, 1920 



Juvenile Delinquency a Community 
Problem? 

In the Siinry of March 20th we read 
an article by Orlando F. Lewis, entitled 
"Mobilizing the Community Against 
Juvenile Delincjuency." As a result of 
his experience in a New York war camp 
he establishes some principles, the ap- 
plication of which, he says, will min- 
imize or eliminate this vexing problem. 
Evidently the intentions of the author 
are good, and his efforts are commend- 
able. However, having paid close at- 
tention to the development of this evil 
for many years, having studied it in all 
its causes and effects, we cannot sub- 
scribe to all the suggestions Mr. Lewis 
offers. 

V\'hen he tells us, for instance, that 
the source of juvenile delinquency is 
the local community, and adds that it 
is a community, and not simply a fam- 
ily or neighborhood problem, we can- 
not accept this statement unreservedly. 
A secondary, and, therefore, contrib- 
uting cause of juvenile delinquency may 
be the community when the authorities 
fail to eliminate certain temptations and 
dangers and to create a clean environ- 
ment. But the primary and most im- 
portant cause is the wretched home, no 
matter what anyone may say to the con- 
trary. This fact is established by thou- 
sands of cases of our own experience 
as well as by the practically unanimous 
testimony of probation officers and so- 
cial workers. 

]\Ir. Lewis says that the resources of 
the community must be applied to com- 
bat and check delinquency, and that 
these resources must appeal to the child. 
A-ppeal, how? By providing more 
movies, poolrooms and games of all 
sorts ; in short, more fads ? But we now 
have a superabundance of these, and 
they have made the thing worse instead 



of better. My medicine is strict super- 
vision, not tyrannical, but firm applica- 
tion of lawful authority in the home, 
school, church and community. 

It cannot be denied that the city of 
Chicago has made great efforts to curb 
juvenile delinquency. It has estab- 
lished public playgrounds, community 
centers, parks, sports, a little army of 
boy scouts and social workers, and, in 
addition, a very good system of juvenile 
and even adult probation. Notwith- 
standing these extraordinary and very 
expensive efforts, however, we read in 
the Tribune of April 2d (p. 5), that de- 
linquency among boys increased 15% 
last year. So the community has failed 
in reforming the boys; and why? Be- 
cause the home failed to function prop- 
erly, and an evil tree cannot produce 
good fruit, unless God works a miracle. 
Juvenile delinquency originates in the 
family, and in and through the family 
the proper remedy must be applied. 
The poor delinquent children are not 
primarily responsible for their misfor- 
tune. A young offender told me in the 
Juvenile Court of X recently : "Father, 
1 was sticking in the mire ; how could I 
help becoming soiled." There was logic 
in this plaint. 

Twenty-five years ago parents were 
able and willing to train their children 
themselves, and they gave good men 
and women to Church and State. Now 
the very suggestion that the community 
should perform the duties of father and 
mother shows that something is radi- 
callv wrong. Bolshevism is not the 
greatest danger threatening the nation. 
It is the disintegration of family life. 
The great and fundamental trouble is 
that God and Christ have been expelled 
from so many homes, and the enemv of 
God and of man is filling the vacancv. 

Fr. A. B. 



146 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Mav 15 



The Witch o' Domremy 
{^Ji'ainie D'Arc) 
By Charles J. Quirk. SJ., St. Charles Col- 
lege, Grand Coteau, La. 

She who was burned amid coarse taunts and 
jeers. 
Deserted by her country and her king; 
This child whose life was intimate with 
tears. 
Ending in failure and in suftering: 
Stands now — to-day — entlironed above all 
Time. 
Freed from all blame and to God's glory 
given. 
A dauntless Maid, a warrior sublime. 
Once of our earth, now of the Courts of 
Heaven I 



-•-^>» • 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

(Seventh liistalh)tciit) 

In October, our abbey school was reopened 
in Heile. I went there as a professor and 
worked in that capacity for two years. We 
had alx>ut one hundred boarders, mostly from 
France and Swit.^erland, some from South 
America. I taught Latin and Greek to the 
advanced pupils ; arithmetic to the beginners ; 
penmanship and drawing to all. One year I 
also had large classes in geography and his- 
tory. I liked my work very well. The pupils 
were, as a rule, talented and eager to learn ; 
but after two years of teaching. I felt reluc- 
tant to take the solemn vows, whicli I liad 
never made on accotmt of the suppression 
of the monastery. I could see no future for 
a monastery in France, where we were ex- 
posed to far worse vexations under the 
Gambetta regime than we had suffered in 
Switzcrlaml. I resolved to make use of my 
dispensation and go as a missionary to 
.^merlca. There I hoped to find a suitable 
place for a monastery, of which the Fathers 
might in time avail themselves. In fact, 
after I had been in .\merica for a few years, 
.•\rchbishop Kenrick, of St. Louis, offered 
me. through his vicar-general, the late Msgr. 
Henry Muhlsiepen, Franklin County, Mo, 
with the town of Washington, fo'" our com- 
munity. I went with Monsignor Miihlsiepen 
to Dclle with this offer, in 1892, but Abbot 
Charles had fixed his hope in France and 
dcclinefl the generous offer, whilst some of 
the Fathers were eager to ffdlow me I had 
always had a lotiging for the missionary life 
kince. as a lioy. I had tried to go to America 
with Bishop Marty. On another occasion I 
had tried to go u, Kctiador with some of our 
Fathers, but their mission failed, and they 
returned to Switzerland. 

The hippiest years of my life were those 
spent in the community of Maria Stein. I 
often wondered why our Fathers in and out 



lit the monastery were such kind, friendly, 
arid hospitable men. The difficulties in join- 
ing the abbey ; the many vexations from the 
government; the strict and unreasonable gov- 
ernmental examinations in all the worldly 
sciences, as well as in philosophy and the- 
ology, prescribed before any one was allowed 
to take the final vows, kept away all except 
tliose who had a strong vocation. I suppose 
that was one reason for the happiness of 
the community. Tlien our humble and iso- 
lated position in a corner of Switzerland, 
1)etween France and Germany, without any 
inducements for the ambitious, was a protec- 
tion against spiritual malaria, that dread dis- 
ease which breeds what Msgr. Sebastian 
Pirunner used to call "inifriasis iiiflainiiui- 
ti'iia." Our buildings, except the church and 
tlie cliapels, were quite humble, and the com- 
munity reseni.bled a democratic Capuchin 
convent. Tliis humble community life created 
an atmosphere of contentment. In our rooms I 
in our haliits, everything was simple and ' 
lirimitive. the lay brothers liad everything 
like the Fathers, even if the latter were pro- 
fessors or superiors. 

In 190J, tlie P'athers had to leave their new 
home in France on account of the laws 
against religious. For a time they were 
scattered, most of them having charge of 
])arishes. Later they established a house 
near Bregenz. in Vorarlberg, on the spot 
where St. Columbanus landed with his Irish 
monks and St. Gal! remained with others 
to establish, not far away, the celebrated 
abbey called after him. The new foundation 
near Rregenz is named St. Gall. Besides at- 
tending the shrine of the Blessed Virgin in 
Maria Stein, and about eight parishes that 
liave belonged for centuries to that abbey, 
tlie monks have charge of a government 
"gymnasium" (college) at Altdorf, the capital 
of Canton Uri. Of the fifty-f:ve 'religions 
who were members of our community at the 
time of the suppression, 1874, only three are 
now living. At present the time seems favor- 
able for re-establishing the venerable old 
abbey, which, with its shrine, for centuries 
proved a haven of refuge and a source of 
untold blessings to the Catholics of the sur- 
rounding districts of France, Alsace, Baden, 
and Switzerland. 

CliAI'TRR V 

MY FIRST VOYAGE TO AMERICA 

On Octo])er 19th, 1878, after a few days 
spent in Paris, visiting the World's Fair, I 
left luirope from Havre de Grace, by the 
steamer ".Amerifiue." 

I kepi a diary in I'rench. and now rciad 
with a smile many of my former ideas. I 
will, nevertheless, (piote a few items from it. 
I was still under the impression of "la 
grande nation." but Iiad to hear a great deal 
that shf)wed the hrench in a different light. 
My first two companions from Paris were 
a Parisian M. Chivrc, and an American 
from Cuba, named Strampa. Already on the 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



147 



railroad from Paris to Havre the Parisian 
was quite noisy, and when we passed Rouen 
he kept on crying out from the car, "Down 
with the Catholics !" The very first day on 
the steamer Monsieur Chivre began to vilify 
all other nations, and among other silly 
tilings said that no language equalled the 
French in beauty, that it was especially 
adapted for singing, and that, therefore, no- 
body could sing as beautifully as the French. 
(Jean Jacques Rousseau asserted just the re- 
verse). The Cuban replied that he thought 
French might be better suited for singing 
than English, but that the Germans were 
undoubtedly far superior to both the French 
and the English in music and singing; and 
as far as beauty of language was concerned, 
Spanish and Italian were, to say the least, 
not inferior to French. The Parisian replied 
that the Germans and Italians might have 
some knowledge of instrumental music, but 
that their singing was abominable. In this 
way they kept up an argument in which a 
good many others joined, while I remained 
silent. 

This being my first trip on the ocean, it 
made a deep impression on me. If I ever 
experienced the truth of the saying ".si vis 
orare vade ad mare," it was then. I had 
never recited the canticle of Dan. Ill, 57 sqq. 
with greater feeling: "All ye works of the 
Lord, bless the Lord : Praise and exalt Him 
above all for ever. . . O ye seas and rivers, 
bless the Lord : Praise and exalt Him above 
all forever. O ye whales, and all that move 
in the waters, bless the Lord," etc. 
• I had been told that the best way to ward 
off seasickness, or to render it more tolerable 
was to eat and drink heartily. My appetite 
being good, I ate heartily, thinking that if 
Neptune should demand an offering from 
me. I would be in a condition to render him 
a full tribute. But, although almost every 
one on the steamer, even the stewards and 
employees, became seasick on account of 
the exceptionally stormy weather, I remained 
well all the time. 

On our ship were many sisters of the 
Sacred Heart. In my missionary zeal I gave 
them religious instructions daily. The third 
day of our voyage all the passengers of our 
dining-room were absent on account of sick- 
ness. Brother Stanislaus, a Franciscan, and 
I, were the only two guests who ate there for 
several days. 

In those days, in order to save coal, the 
sails were used whenever the wind was fa- 
vorable, and in consequence ships did not 
run as smoothly as they do now ; the winds 
and storms would cause violent rocking and 
thus bring about a great deal of seasickness. 
I was amused at many incidents, for in- 
stance, when a steward came in with a big 
pile of plates, and a sudden jerk of the ship 
caused them to be scattered all along the 
corridor. 



On the 21. St of October we saw a small 
steamer trying to approach our ship. It 
raised the United States flag, and our steam- 
er answered it. When within hearing, the 
captain of the boat said that they were in 
need of bread and wine. Our steamer 
stopped, and then the other vessel dispatched 
a small boat which was tossed backward and 
forward, sometimes high above and then 
-igain far below us. Ropes were thrown out 
to the eight men in the skitT, and they began 
to tell their story. They had no more bread, 
wine, water or biscuits, and for two days 
tlieir passengers had had nothing to eat. 
Tiiey had met a shipwrecked crew with 
whom they had shared their provisions, and 
were delayed by bad weather. Their destiny 
was New Foundland. They asked our cap- 
tain to take the shipwrecked crew to New 
\ork. All their demands being granted, they 
went back to their steamer and then returned 
with ten shipwrecked men. A rope ladder 
was let down and they climbed up on it ; 
two of them fell into the water, but were 
gotten out, a kind of net having been 
stretched under the ladder. Their captain 
suft'ered from a broken jaw-bone. They 
were hauling lumber when their boat sank, 
and floated about on timber when the Ameri- 
can boat picked them up. Our steamer was 
delayed about four hours through this inci- 
dent. Later we found out from the ship- 
wrecked crew that the American boat had 
waited for us several days ; that they them- 
selves had come from Ireland ; that they had 
had plenty provisions in their own boat, but 
that it had been loaded too heavily on one 
side, thus causing their misfortune. 

On the 25th I met a countryman from 
Hochdorf, Lucerne. He told me a rather 
amusing incident. A brother of his was 
porter in the Abbey of Engelberg. As he 
visited him he declared that he was tired of 
his job and asked him to replace him. The 
Father steward was satisfied with the idea, 
but remarked that the porter was also barber 
of the monastery. He asked our friend if he 
could shave. Our friend had never been a 
barber, but he courageously started to soap 
the Father's face. He put the lather on 
somewhat too thickly and spread it too far 
around so that the "Grosskellner" told him 
he should not soap the father in that way. 
However, he succeeded in shaving him nice- 
ly, whereupon the Father remarked : "That 
is all right, and I shall go to see his Lord- 
ship, the Abbot, that you may shave him 
also." That was too much for his courage. 
Immediately he fled, without letting his 
brother know of his going. 

Some of the French aboard mocked the 
passengers of other nations, and epccially 
tlie German Franciscan, who was humble 
and kind, was frequently made the butt of 
th.eir jokes. Occasionally the scoffers were 



H8 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



paid back in their own coin. One day a 
handsome Spaniard, who spoke French like a 
Frenchman, took up the gauntlet. He said 
on almost all steamers, be they Catholic or 
Protestant, there was some kind of religious 
service on Sundr.ys. With his people, the 
Spaniards, that service naturally was the 
Mass. Only on the French lines there was 
absolutely nothing to mark the religious 
character of Sunday. He adilod that France 
liked to parade as the oldest daughter of the 
Church, whilst, in fact, her citizens acted 
as if they were kin to Belzebub. He 
thought their defeat in 1870 had not been 
enough ; that their pride needed some more 
humbling. He predictetl that France would 
soon have a worse "kulturkampf" than Ger- 
many, and that churches, convents, and 
schools would again be confiscated as they 
had been in the great revolution. He related 
huw terrible had been the conduct of the 
French in Spain at the beginning of the cen- 
tury : they had respected neither priests nor 
sisters, but destroyed the most beautiful 
monuments of art. behaving worse than the 
inhdel Saracens had done ; how they had 
stolen chalices, golden vessels and costly 
vestments, which they now paraded in their 
Louvre. It became clear to me now that 
'"the grand nation" did not everywhere enjoy 
such a wonderful reputation as I had imag- 
ined. 

October 30th I landed in Castle Garden 
and was received by the Franciscan Sisters 
of Hobokeii through their house-servant. 
The next day tiiey brought me to the Bene- 
dictines in Newark, where I celebrated a 
solemn High Mass with deacons on tlie first 
of November, the Feast of All Saints. The 
Hcnedictine Fathers were extremely friendly 
and asked me all kinds of questions al)out 
Switzerlanfl and the Swiss Benedictines. At 
djpner we ha<l oyster soup. I had never 
eaten oysters before, and did not know what 
the little brown things in the soup were. 
Seeing all the others eating, I also triecl 
them, but these foreign tidbits would not 
stay in my Swiss stomach, so that I Iiad to 
leave the refectory, to the great merriment 
of the Fathers. On the streets I greatly 
wondered at the negroes and their strange 
costumes. However, the dress of the white 
men looked to me hardly less interesting. 
Not l)ecau.se the men did not wear good 
clothes, but on account of certain incongru- 
ities. One man. for instance, wore a good 
suit, but an old slouch hat; another wore a 
fme hat, but a tfirn shirt and ragged trousers. 
Also, with regard to the cleaning r)f the 
nose, I saw, for the first time in njy life, 
men j>er forming that operation by the sole 
aid of the thumb, and my diary remarks that 
"I might have saved myself the luxury of 
handkerchiefs, as they do not seem to be 
needed here; they have only a little bit of a 
silk affair which they afterwards use trr wipe 
the face with." (To br cotitimicd) 



Two of a Kind 

77; t' Freeman (N. Y., Vol. I, No. 5) 
concludes a spirited review of Lord 
Fisher's "Memories and Records" as 
follows: — 

No moral need be drawn, except per- 
Itaps the rather obvious and threadbare 
one, that the ways of governments and 
bureaucrats are quite the same the world 
over. One might, however, draw the 
attention of all those who are interested 
in a policy of preparedness to Lord 
I'isher's story of as aggressive and com- 
plete a plan as was ever devised by mili- 
tarists. They may make what compari- 
sons they please with what they know 
of the Prussian cult's full-blooded ruth- 
lessnes.s — which has surely not been un- 
derstood by the romanticists of propa- 
ganda. After Fisher, the deluge. Prus- 
sian militarists may now be estimated at 
their true worth ; really, by comparison, 
they barely hold their own. It is re- 
freshing, however, after all the hate- 
riyths, to see that the freemasonry of 
their common trade caused Fisher to 
hold some of them in affectionate ad- 
miration. Tirpitz, for example, re- 
mained all through the work of prepara- 
tion, all through the war, his "dear old 
friend." A fellow feeling makes us 
wondrous kind ; and hence, when the 
Admiral of the British fleet heard of 
the dismissal of von Tirpitz, he sent 
him the following sympathetic letter: 

Dear Old Tirps — We are botli in the same 
boat ! What a time we've been colleagues, 
old boy ! However, we did you in the eye 
over the battle cruisers and I know you've 
said you'll never forgive me for it, wlien bang 
went tlie Blijclier and von Spee and all his 
host ! 

Cheer up, old chap! Say "Resurgani"! 
You're the one German sailor who under- 
stands War! Kill your enemy without being 
killed yourself. I don't blame you for the 
submarine business. I'd have done the same 
myself, only our idiots in iCngland wouldn't 
believe if when I told 'em! Well, so long! 
Yours till hell freezes, Fisher. 

This leter is dated 29 Afarch. 1916. 
1'here will, no doubt, be numbers of 
worthy Americans who will feel sorry 
for the "idiots in England." 



- The misery of man proceeds, not from 
any single crush of overwhelming evil, but 
from small vexations continually repeated. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



149 



An International Congress of Gregoria- 
an Chant 

An event of great importance to all 
lovers of pure church music is to take 
place in New York City on the first, 
second and third of next June. It is 
the International Congress of Gregori- 
an Chant, the first of its kind to be held 
in this country. 

The prime object of this Congress, as 
its name signifies, is to make the glori- 
ous chant of the Church better known 
and better loved. It is to give a fresh 
impetus to the reform of church music 
so earnestly desired by Pope Pius X, 
of blessed memory, and promulgated by 
hjm in his famous Motu Proprio of 
Nov. 22, 1903. It is to supplement and 
bring to fruition the many praise- 
worthy attempts made on the part of 
those who realized the impropriety .of 
the music generally heard in our 
churches, and who by word, pen and 
example, have done their utmost to 
bring about the reform desired by our 
Holy Father. 

The music of the Congress at the 
solemn pontifical Masses, vespers and 
complines is to be that "which has been 
inherited from the ancient Fathers, 
which the Church has jealously guard- 
ed for centuries in her liturgical cod- 
ices, which she directly proposes to the 
people as her own, which she prescribes 
exclusively for parts of the liturgy, 
and which most recent studies have so 
happily restored to their integrity and 
jnirity" — the Gregorian. Chant. Under 
the direction of a master, in the person 
of Dom A. Mocquereau, O.S.B., of 
Solesmes, who has devoted practically 
his whole life to the study of the Chant, 
unravelling the secrets of the manu- 
scripts of past ages, that throw light on 
tliis important department of the art of 
music, the Chant at the Congress will 
be rendered in all its beauty and sub- 
linn'ty, and perhaps in a manner never 
Ijefore heard in this country. 

In spite of the efiforts so far made, 
there are, to use the words of the illus- 
trious author of the Motu Proprio, 
"many prejudices in the matter so light- 
ly introduced and so tenaciously main- 



tained even aniong responsible and 
l)ious persons." Churches in which 
Gregorian Chant is held in high repute 
are. comparatively speaking, rare. In 
how many of our churches is the proper 
of the Mass ever sung? And is it not a 
part of the liturgy of the Mass with 
the common ? The failure to restore 
Cjrcgorian Chant to its proper place in 
our churches is clearly traceable to a 
widespread belief that it is impossible 
of accomplishment. How can priest or 
choirmaster justify the gymnastics of 
the choir loft that scandalize our people 
Sunday after Sunday at High Mass? 
"It is vain to hope,'' the Holy Father 
declares, "that the blessings of Heaven 
will descend abundantly upon us, when 
our homage to the Most High, instead 
of ascending in the odor of sweetness, 
puts into the hand of the Lord the 
scourges wherewith, of old, the Divine 
Redeemer drove the unworthy pro- 
faners from His temple." 

All church musicians, clerical as well 
as lay. and especially all priests who 
have the opportunity to attend the ses- 
sions of this important Congress should 
do so. None who have the good for- 
tune to assist at this great Congress, 
planned, as it is, along practical and 
comprehensive lines, will come away 
without a profound desire for a wider 
dififusion of the knowledge of true 
church music among the people, espe- 
cially the knowledge of that misunder- 
stood institution known as the Chant. 
With full hearts they will echo the 
statement of Pius X that "an ecclesi- 
astical function loses nothing of its sol- 
emnity when it is accompanied by no 
other music but this." They will realize 
tiiat. properly taught and sung, the 
Church's traditional music shines forth 
in all its glory as the supreme form of 
collective vocal prayer, and "that no 
other music penetrates so deeply and so 
intimately or causes to vibrate so har- 
moniously the heart of man. Here 
there is nothing conventional, nothing 
ep^hemcral. nothing superfluous; 
through Plain Chant we pass from the 
finite to the Infinite." 

(Rev.) F. Jos. Kellv 



ISO 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May IB 



Catholic Papers — Official and 

Unofficial 

11 (^Conclusion) 

At iliis point there arises a serious 
dilticulty, and even a danger, namely, 
in dithering from, or in opposing, an 
tjincial organ, especially when the ofti!- 
cial character is openly emphasized. To 
argue against its policies, even in 
resjH-ctlul language, may seem to reflect 
uj)on the constituted authorities of the 
Lluirch, and to detract from that rever- 
tnce in which they should he held hy 
Lai holies. — a thing to be deplored par- 
t'cularly in our age and country, where 
authority is so often disregarded. Be- 
cause of this it comes about that the 
editor of the non-official paper is never 
entirely free in his attitude towards 
the official organ and may even feel 
compelled at times to stifle his honest 
convictions. Xor is this all. Although 
i: is perhaps a remote contingency, sup- 
l>ose, for the sake of argument, that 
all our Catholic weeklies became official 
organs. It would be next to impossible 
to secure unanimity of views about all 
imiK)rtant questions that affect us. Yet 
dissension, which is almost unavoidable, 
would scarcely present an edifying 
spectacle to the Catholic body and to 
the outside public. Such dissension 
niight ])erhaps be prevented by minute 
and stringent regulations, laying down 
\\hat topics shall be discussed and how 
and what topics must be eschewed. 
But the very suggestion is abhorrent to 
our innate sense of fair play and love 
of freedom. Such an arbitrary curtail- 
ment of our rights would defeat its ow n 
);ur|)ose. It would sfnmd the death 
Knell of vigorous intellectual life among 
Catholics and mark the beginning of 
stagnation and decay. The whole (pies- 
tion calls for generous largeness f)f 
view and uncommon tact in the hand- 
ling. The fullest measure of enthusi- 
astic cociperation will be obtained frf)in 
an ever-willing laity by showing a de- 
MTvetl amount of confidence in them 
and allotting them responsibilities com- 
n;ensurate with it. 

Should it be concluded from all this 
that it were better for the bishop not 
to have an official paper? Hy no means. 



We may well ask, why should he not 
have two, or three, or more; in fact, 
as many as there are truly Catholic 
papers in the diocese? The purpose of 
all episcopal communications is to bring 
them to the knowledge of the whole 
diocese. This end is best attained by 
publishing them at the same time in as 
many papers as possible. Why, indeed, 
confine them to one organ, which is 
read only by a portion of the flock? 

While on this subject, another solu- 
tion may be suggested. It so happens 
that practically all official documents 
printed in the official organ, are also 
sent officially to the priests of the dio- 
cese. These letters, even as they are 
now. form a kind of irregular periodical. 
Could they not be shaped into a regular 
periodical of two, four, or eight pages, 
a kind of miniature Acta Apostolicae 
Scdis? It would not be necessary to 
obtain second-class mailing privileges, 
although this wotild probably not be 
difficult in the larger dioceses. Parishes, 
religious houses, libraries, Catholic and 
probably other editors in and otit of the 
diocese, and private persons, would 
either be obliged to subscribe, or would 
do so of their own accord. The copies 
niight be sent out punched, or in some 
other way prepared to be inserted into 
a convenient holder, so as to form a 
permanent record, and many subscrib- 
ers would probably have their volumes 
bound. For the purpose of this truly 
official journal it would make no differ- 
ence whether it were printed, or multi- 
plied in some less pretentious way, 
provided the issues appeared as parts 
of a periodic publication, that is, each 
with a title, date, number of volume 
and number of issue. 

It goes without saying that these 
volumes would be of the greatest assist- 
ance in the management of the admini- 
strative headtiuarters of the diocese. 
They would prove indispensable to 
jjastors, and, last but not least, to j)rcs- 
ent and future historians. To mention 
but one point, — how many beautiful 
pastoral letters, which it is now next to 
impossible to get hold of, could be pre- 
served in this way in a defmite place, 
where one could lr>ok ff»r and fmd them 
at any time? 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



161 



It may possibly happen that in smaller 
dioceses not even a few pages can be 
lilled twenty-four or twelve times a 
}ear with official publications. In such 
cases, some other official document, 
episcopal or papal, might occasionally 
be reprinted, for instance, one on the 
liturgy or Canon Law. Care should be 
taken, however, that everything which 
appears on those pages be really of an 
official character. The paper should not 
be large, one might almost say, the 
smaller the better. If historical notices 
are incorporated, as they should be, 
they might best assume the character 
of a systematic chronicle that would 
preserve many valuable data and always 
prove a source of reliable information. 

Such an official journal, no matter 
h.ow modest in form, would readily 
settle the question of the relation be- 
tween bishop and Catholic editor. All 
editors would become "equal before the 
law''. If they want official news, let 
them subscril3e to the official organ. 
The bishop has no financial or other 
obligations towards any paper. If 
blunders are committed, he is perfectly 
free to take the steps he sees fit, with- 
out being exposed to the charge of 
partiality or selfishness. 

It should be added, in conclusion, 
that the views here set forth are not 
altogether original with the author. In 
the present paper he has embodied 
various questions that have come to 
him from dififerent quarters, clerical 
and lay, all giving unmistakable proof 
that this timely topic is of deep concern 
to Catholics. 

( Rev.) J. B. Culemans 



►^« 



The Bohemians in America 

In 1890. Peter Hronst published a vol- 
ume on "The Cech Catholic Settlements 
in America." In 1910, E. B. Balch 
("Our Slavic Fellow-Citizens") and 
John Habenicht ("History of the Cechs 
in America"), gathered vakiable histor- 
ical material on the Bohemian immi- 
grants. Nov.- Mr. Thomas Capek issues 
a book on "The Cechs (Bohemians) in 
America" (Houghton ]\Iifflin Co.), 
\\hich not only treats of the economic 
life, but also throws light upon the vari- 



ous manifestations of activity of his 
countrymen in the U. S. The Catholic 
IVorld (No. 661) says in a review of 
the book : 

"The most important sections of the 
volume are devoted to the literary and 
the religious history of the Bohemians 
in America. The religious life of Bo- 
hemians is treated in two distinct chap- 
ters. The one entitled 'Rationalism' is 
a sad picture of the decay of Bohemian 
Catholicism in America. 'It is per- 
haps not too much to say that fifty per 
cent of the Cechs in America have se- 
ceded from their old-country faith.' Our 
author is convinced that 'the strength 
of the secessionists is nearer sixty or 
seventy per cent than fifty' (p. 119). 
A shameful press, filled with sarcastic 
venom towards the Catholic faith, has 
done its utmost to mislead Catholic Bo- 
hemians into rationalism, and unfortu- 
nately succeeded. Anti-Catholic propa- 
ganda was supported by some ex- 
priests, who, led astray by nationalistic 
aims, renounced their faith. This was 
also, of course, aided by a strong Prot- 
estant proselytism. Statistics show how 
strong this proselytism grows. The Jan 
Hus Presbyterian Church alone in New 
York has a Sunday school frequented 
bv 1057 children. Hence, it follows that 
]<.ationalism and Protestantism little by 
little are choking Bohemian Catholicism. 
There is much talk about the Italian re- 
ligious problem in the American Catho- 
lic press, but no attention is paid to the 
dangers threatening the faith of Catho- 
lic Slavs. 

"The writer devotes twenty-five 
pages to the lives of the leaders of anti- 
clericalism, anti-Catholicism, and Prot- 
estantism among his countrymen, and 
('uly one to the Catholic apostolate. This 
jjartiality deprives his book of some 
highly interesting pages as to the apos- 
tolic zeal of Monsignor Joseph Hessoun, 
il-e Benedictines of Chicago, the Bo- 
hemian Catholic press. Fortiuiately, the 
n )tice of J. Sinkmayer in the Catholic 
lincxclopcdia balances this omission, 
and" shows that Catholicism produces 
everywhere the same fruits of zeal and 
holiness." 



158 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



Questions Concerning Rural Education 

'J \' the liJilor.— 

I am preparinj; a i)rolinunary study 
of the problem of rural Catholic educa- 
tion in the United States and am anx- 
ious to benefit by the observations of 
exj>erienced persons from every sec- 
lion of the country. Being assured 
that you are deeply interested in this 
subject. I enclose a list of questions on 
which I hoi)e you will be kind enough 
to give an expression of your views ; 
and if you feel the importance of the 
subject warrants it, to invite replies to 
these que-itions from your readers who 
have experience in rural work. I shall 
be glad to receive copies of all exj^res- 
sions of opinion on the subject. 

The pur{K)se of the paper which I am 
preparing will simply be to bring the 
needs of rural Catholic education to 
I>ublic attention. I shall be happy to 
acknowledge your co-operation in ac- 
complishing this purpose. 

( Rev.) Einvix V. O'H.vra 
6j A'. 16//1 Sir., Portland. Ore. 

1. Is the situation satisfactory as regards 
the religious training of Catholic cliihhcn in 
rural districti? Has the conchtion improved 
in recent years, or has it become more diffi- 
cult to n-acli tlie children in these districts? 
Why? What difficuhics do you fnid im- 
peding the rural Catholic Sunday School? 

2. The United States Census lUireaii 
classities as "rural" all towns of less than 
2500 population. .\re not towns of this size 
more properly considered "urban"? Where 
fhonid tl>e line l)e drawn i)etween ■rural" 
and "urban" p<^ipulatii)n? Why? 

3. Is it practical)lc to train lay calechists 
for the country districts in sufficiently large 
numbers to aid materially in the work of 
rural re!iKi'^>us education? How can sucli 
catecbists l>e trained to lie efficient teachers? 

4. Is it practicable to develop in .\merica 
religious communities <levoted to rural edu- 
cation, especially to the education of children 
in the open country? Could snch religious 
teachers more effectively perform tlieir i ask- 
by meeting the chiblren of a rur.d school 
district after the public school 'i> d smissed 
on week flays, rather than iiy d<j)cnding ex 
clusively on Sunrlay School? 

5. WouM it Ik* practicable for Catholics 
to do a» the Lutherans <lo in so many rural 
communities, namely, conduct religious sum- 
mer schoijl for a nionth or six weeks in the 
.summer, utilising the public school building 
for the pnr(K>»e? Cotdd not Catiiolic public 
school teachers l)e recruited for the task <>< 
c'-mlucting such summer schools? 



6. Would it be practicable for convents to 
open correspondence courses in religion for 
country children? Has the success of cor- 
respondence schools in other subjects any 
signilicance for tlie teacliing ot religion to 
country children? 

7. Is t'lere an adequate Catiiolic juven"le 
literature that will appeal to country boys 
and girls? .\re there suitable religious pa- 
pers for rural needs? Are there any prac- 
ticable means of getting sncli literature iq, 
circulation among the rural Catholic popula- 
tion ? 

8. How far must' the peculiar social prob- 
lems of the. country be considered in dealing 
with rural religious education? Can rural 
Catiiolic social life be organized around the 
rural cluu-ch ? 

g. Should tl'.e religious educational forces 
ministering to rural children be situated in 
small towns or in the open country? Should 
religious educational forces tend to keep 
country children on tlie farm or encourage 
tliem to migrate to industrial centers? 

10. What other agencies besides those 
mentioned above may be made subservient to 
rural religious education? 

11. How far can the solution of tlie prob- 
lem of rural Catholic education be left to the 
local rural parish ? How far must it rely 
on diocesan assistance? 

.^<?>-.. 



The Current Mass Psychosis 

'i'he mass p.sychology has undergone 
a vast transformation. It has lost its 
old allegiances and faith in authority, 
whether of masters or of government. 
I'"rcedom is its dominating motive ; free- 
dom to live, which iticans shorter hours 
and more leisure, and freedom to live a 
full life, which means wages enough to 
permit enjoyment of leisure. It may be 
egoism, btit it has its good side. The 
worker is hardly conscious of any 
change of mentality. He believes in his 
right to freedom and a full life just as 
iiinocenllv and tinsel f -consciously as he 
formerly accepted his relatively inferior 
human status. Nor can he understand 
any denial of this right. Such a mass 
l)sychosis is a far more formidable fact 
than the rise or fall of a Bolshevik gov- 
ernment. It is universal in Central and 
Eastern h'urope. It is spreading west- 
ward. Proletarian govenmients may 
be crushed or fall by their own weight. 
But a mass ])sychology is not so easily 
dealt with. On the contrary, it has to 
be taken into accotint if social stability 
is to be regained. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



163 



Some Catholic Editors 

Apropos of a claim made in favor of 
the Bulletin dcs Rcchcrclics Historiqncs, 
our esteemed friend, Canon, V. A. Hu- 
ard. points out, in a letter to Le Droit, 
of Ottawa, that the oldest extant Cana- 
dian periodical publication in the French 
language is the Annalcs dc la Boniic 
Saiiitc AiDic, which is in its forty-sev- 
enth year. The second place is held by 
Canon Huard's own monthly magazine, 
Lr Naturalistc Canadien, which was es- 
tablished forty-six years ago and has 
1-een edited by^ the genial Canon for a 
little over a quarter of a century. This 
makes Father Huard the doyen of 
French-Canadian editors. 

Who is the senior, in point of service, 
among the Catholic editors of the 
United States? Father Phelan is gone, 
so is Hugo Klapproth, and so is John J. 
O'Sliea. We presume Humphrey J. 
Desmond of the Catholic Citizen is near 
the top of the column now. The editor 
of the Fortnightly Review has been 
constantly engaged in Catholic journal- 
ism since June. 1890, though his earliest 
experiences in the profession date back 
six or seven years farther. He has so 
kng been called "the Benjamin of the 
Catholic Press" and "the cub editor" 
that he can hardly realize that he has 
graduallv advanced to a place among 
the greyheads of the profession. Yet it 
must be a fact, for we well remember 
Canon Huard's assumption of the di- 
rectorship of the Natiiraliste Canadien, 
which, by the way, enjoys the unique 
distinction of being the only review de- 
voted to the natural sciences in the 
French language outside of France. Be- 
fore moving to Quebec, where he has 
since become a provincial, nay, a na- 
tional celebrity. Father Huard edited a 
little monthly college paper in Chicou- 
timi, called L'Oiseau Moiiche, which we 
lued to read with pleasure, and the like 
of which we have never seen since. We 
wish the doyen of the Catholic editors 
of French Canada a heart v ad mnltos 



An International Review of Secret 
Societies 

The Reviie Internationale des So- 
cietcs Secretes, which we used to quote 
so frequently in pre-war days, has been 
resurrected. It had to suspend publica- 
tion at the beginning of the war for the 
reason that, as the editor now informs 
us, the censorship seriously interfered 
with its telling the truth. 

The Revue will appear quarterly in- 
stead of bi-monthly until further no- 
tice. Its careful perusal is essential to 
all who wish to understand the hidden 
forces incessantly at work to subvert 
Christian civilization (and who can do 
his full duty without understanding 
these sinister forces?) 

La Revue des Societes Secretes col- 
lects together all the evidences of the 
workings of secret societies and shows 
who are their chief upholders and what 
means they employ. 

The current issue (Vol. IX, No. 1) 
contains much interesting information 
on the role which Freemasonry played 
in the late war, on the close connection 
existing between Freemasonry and 
Theosophy, and a variety of other 
equally important subjects. 

The ofhce of the Revue is at 96 

Boulevard Alalesherbes, Paris XVUe, 

France. The subscription price for 

foreign countries is 25 fr. per annum. 

•-»4>-»-» 



annosi 



• a^* • 



— We are always ready to furnish such 
l;ack numbers of the F. R. as we have in 
slock. 



— Mr. J. G. Snead-Cox has resigned 
as editor of the London Tablet, He 
was an able writer but a poor editor. 
His attitude during the Great War was 
positively unchristian and disgusting. 
As the late John J. O'Shea of the Cath- 
olic Standard and Times, so Snead-Cox 
reduced the Tablet to comparative in- 
significance. It was outrun both in 
quality and circulation by the Universe 
and the Catholic Times, and had it not 
been for Father W. H. Kent's unfail- 
ingly interesting "Literary Notes." and 
an occasional letter from a scholarly 
correspondent, the Tablet, under Mr. 
Cox, would hardly have been worth 
reading. We trust the old journal will 
become rejuvenated under the direction 
of a younger and an abler man. 



IM 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



SAFE DEPOSIT VAULTS 

Safe Deposit vaults are rooms of steel, tlie walls, floors, 
ceiling and doors are all of steel backed l)y thick walls of 
masonry. They are fireproof and stormproof. Each cus- 
tomer of the Safe Deposit Department is given the use of a 
safe inside of one of these large fire and burglar proof 
vaults, and the customer only can open this safe. Valu- 
ables are subject, therefore, to the owner's control alone. 



Mercantile Trust Company 

■= Saint Louis Institution for Savings ===== 
Eighth and Locust Streets 



FESTUS J. WADE 

President 



AMEDKK V. REYBtTRN 

JMgr. Safe Deposit Dept. 



An Unfair Restriction 
To the Editor: — 

The Press Department of the Na- 
tional Catholic \Velfare Council sends 
out a letter soliciting subscriptions to 
its cable and weekly letter service. It 
states that this service is available only 
for those papers that are members of 
the Catholic Press Association, a pri- 
vate organization. "This condition is 
obligatory under the agreement by 
v, hich the Catholic Press Association 
was taken over by the National Catho- 
lic Welfare Council," states the letter. 

When this condition was proposed by 
one of the members of the Catholic 
Press Association at the convention in 
Washington last January, it became the 
subject of a hot discussion. A few 
e\en went so far as to proj)ose to rlcny 
this cable and news service to one paper 
if two Catholic papers existed in the 
si.nie locality. This idea was killed, but 
the i>ro|K>sition to restrict the cable 
MTvice to members of the ( . P. ,\. 
found some friends. Since the o]>(ii 
n'ceting could not caux- to an agree- 



ment on this matter, a committee was 
appointed, and judging from this recent 
letter, the decision was cast againist 
those that were in favor of letting the 
-i^'hole Catholic press have the benefit of 
tliis cable service. We think this con- 
dition is unfair and even unjust. Ac- 
cording to the statements of Bishoi) 
J^ussell the very purpose of forming 
this department was to spread Catholic 
news, which would not otherwise be 
given to our i)eople and the reading 
pul)Iic at large, or, if given, would ap- 
];ear in a form that would not do justice 
t - the matter concerned.' If this is the 
real aim of tlie new f)rganization, why 
limit it at tlu' very start and exclude 
publications for no other reason than 
their unwillingness to be members of 
the C. P. A.? Why should the l^isliops' 
Council identify itself with a private 
oiganization that by no means has the 
mono])oly of Catholicity as far as fmb- 
liiHtions arc concerned? 

The letter states that the fee of $5 
a week for the cable service is by no 
means sufificiciit tu cover the cost of this 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



165 



service. Who is going to pay the bal- 
ance? The Catholics of America at 
large. /\.nd to these the Catholic edi- 
tors and publishers belong who are de- 
r.ied the service for no other reason but 
that they do not belong to the C. P. A. 
Does this denial not involve an unjust 
discrimination against Catholics who 
are readers of publications whose edi- 
tors are not members of the C. P. A.? 
Being readers and endorsing the atti- 
tude of their favorite publications they 
are not to get the benefit of an institu- 
tion which they have to help maintain. 
It is true the C. P. A. insisted on this 
condition before it handed over its serv- 
ice to the C. N. W. C. But is this fair? 
Is this the spirit which should prevail 
among Catholic editors and publishers ? 
— the spirit which St. Paul had in mind 
when he wrote to the Philippians (I, 
18), "But what then? So that by all 
means, whether In' occasion or bv truth, 
Christ be preached : in this also I re- 
joice, yea, and will rejoice." The very 
same Catholic editors who insisted on 
this condition often write and protest 
against tyranny in trusts or unions, and 
here, where they have an opportunity to 
show their broadmindedness. they fail 
and display a narrowness which only 
the lack of ideals and a greedy "noth- 
ing-but-business" spirit can explain 
A Paving Member of the C. P. A. 



kSh 



Lafayette and the K. of C. 

A writer in Rccdy's Mirror having 
intimated that the Knights of Colum- 
bus, in proposing to erect a monument 



to Lafayette in Metz, were perhaps not 
aware of the fact that Lafyaette was 
a Freemason, Dr. John G. Coyle, of 
New York, whites that the Knights are 
not ignorant of this circumstance, but 
that in erecting this monument they are 
paying tribute not to Lafayette the 
Alason, but to Lafayette the friend of 
the United States. 

Which may satisfy many: but when 
the Doctor pretends to find, in the mat- 
ter of Freemasonry, a resemblance be- 
tween the case of Theodore Roosevelt 
and Lafayette, and tries to show that 
a great American Catholic organization 
may honor Lafayette, although he was 
a AJason, just as logically as it may 
honor Roosevelt, who also was a mem- 
ber of the craft, he adds nothing to the 
strength of his argument. Rather he 
weakens it, for the two cases are not 
at all similar. Roosevelt never was a 
Catholic, and therefore his joining 
J^reemasonry involved no apostasy, 
whereas Lafayette was a Catholic in 
his youth, although later, like so many 
l-'renchmen of his time, he became a 
"freethinker." 

And, by the way, in view of this, it 
is rather surprising to find the Boston 
Pilot, of April 17, referring to Lafa- 
yette as a Catholic in an editorial com- 
mending the erection of the aforesaid 
statue in .Metz. Lafayette was a Cath- 
olic in his childhood, but of his Cath- 
olicity later on the less said the better. 
To flaunt him as a Catholic hero com- 
ing to the help of our struggling colo- 
nies is absurd. Read what Hilaire 
I'elloc has to say in his book "The 
I'rench Revolution." 



Havana 
Filled 



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.700 — $7. 80 ( Smnkal i„ -!t2 Slato^) .TO — $4. 00 



Imported 
Sumatra 
Wrapper 




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After Smoking three Segars, il not as represented or 
satisfactory, pack well and return by Parcel I'ost. 
Money and PostaRC Refunded by return mail. 



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Kstablished lsf,6 

58 North Pearl St., BUFFALO, N. Y. 



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Mav 15 



The Catholic Encvclopedia. which 
siHfciaHzc"^ ill Catholics of distinction, 
is ominously silent about Lafayette. It 
lias no sketch of his life any more than 
it has a >^ketch of the life of Garibaldi. 

Catholics in this country ought to 
keep the facts straight in their minds 
about I^ifayette. and not be insisting on 
his Catholicity wlu-n he had no Cath- 
olicity to insist upon. 

That he should be honored bv a 
Ktatue may be fitting: but let us not 
think when we are honoring !;is memory 
thus that we are honoring a Catholic 
hero. ^ T. H. D. 



NOTES AND GLEANINGS 

— ihe Catholics of England are go- 
ing to hold a national congress at Liver- 
pool in the latter part of July — the first 
since the outbreak of the war. In 
America we have not had a national 
Catholic congress for ever so long. 
Why not? 

— A reader sends us a copy of the N. 
V. Staatsccitinig. of March 2. in v.'hich 
i> a news article stating that the Na- 
tional Catholic War Council, through 
Father John J. Burke, contributed $10.- 
000 for the rebuilding of the First Re- 
formed Church, of Hoboken, destroyed 
by fire last December. Is the N. C. 
\V. C. aiding in the building of sec- 
tarian churches? Surely that is not 
I'art of the Bishops' reconstruction pro- 
{jrammc ! 

— Dr. K. J. Dillon, in his new book, 
"The Inside of the Peace Conference," 
brings out the interesting information 
that the freedom of the seas was never 
a> much as mentioned at the Versailles 
conference. When Mr. Wil.son sailed 
for France, he says, a cable despatch 
was snit from his boat saying tliat the 
freedom of the seas was one of the 
things that he would insist upon at the 
fK-ace table. In response a wireless 
message was sent to him from Tendon 
to the efTect that if he wished to do 
business with Britain, he mu'-t eliminate 
that obnoxious demand from his pro- 
gramme. He did. "Without a fight or 
r< monstrance the President struck it 
f'lit," is Dr. Dillon's laconic cf)mment. 



] le adds as an afterthought : "The 
fourteen points were not discussed at 
the conference." 

—Mr. J. Godfrey Raupert, K.S.G., 
in a brochure just published by the 
Central Bureau (Temple Bldg., St. 
Louis). "The b\icts and Fallacies of 
Modern Spiritism," takes up certain 
statements, made by Sir A. Conan Doyle 
as characteristic of the "Zeitgeist" and 
shows that the evidence produced by 
L^oyle and others to prove the identity 
of the communicating spirits with those 
of deceased men and women are utter- 
ly worthless, and that the prodigious 
claim made for Spiritism as a "new 
revelation" harbors a fundamental and 
fatal fallacy, namely, that the Christian 
religion is in need of reconstruction. 
Mr. Raupert shows that Spiritism, 
Christian Science, etc., are merely em- 
bodiments of an ancient error which re- 
appears in a new form every generation 
or two. The pamphlet will repay care- 
ful reading. It is so simply written 
that even "the man in the street" can 
understand the argument. (Price 10c). 



A Jour mil of Opinion 
Puhlished Weeldy 

fHE ECHO'S editorials di.scu.ss 
important religious, political, 
economic, and industrial questions 
from a thoroughly Catholic view- 
point. 

It contains thought- provoking 
articles on "Social Reconstruction" 
by competent authorities. 

A fearless Catholic Newspaper 
that covers a distinct field. 

Sample Copies on Request 
Subscription: $2 a Year 



THE ECHO 



564 Dodge St. 



Buffalo, N. Y. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



167 



— At the formal decoration of Ad- 
miral Benson with the Grand Cross 
of the Order of St. Gregory, Cardinal 
Gibbons said that "the Holy Father, in 
bestowing this mark of his special fa- 
vor, desires to emphasize the truth that 
loyalty to one's country is a Christian 
virtvte; that an officer in command is 
the guardian of a sacred trust, that 
authority committed to him must be 
used i^n obedience to constituted author- 
ity ; that his duty is not to reason why, 
but if necessary to die." The papal 
letter read upon the occasion merely 
says that the Admiral was honored by 
the Holy See because, according to the 
testimony of the Bishop of Charleston, 
he had "set his fellow-citizens a most 
worthy example of piety and Christian 
virtue, and had defended and furthered 
the Catholic cause to the best of his 
ability." Amcrika asks : "For which of 
the reasons assigned was Mr. Benson 
really honored?" 

— Dr. Frederick Peterson, who knows 
Freud and Jung personally and ha? 
tested their method of psycho-analysis 
in practice, warns the public against it 
in the Journal of the American Medical 
Association. "The Theories of Freud 
and Jung," he says, "are to psychology 
what cubism is to art- -new, sensation- 
al, and rather interesting. If they were 
not so pernicious in their application, as 
vvell as untrue in psychology. I should 
say nothing of them, bvit let them take 
their place in our historical museum 
with all the other curiosities which the 
centuries have accumulated." Dr. Peter- 
son says that the medical treatment 
based upon these theories often leads 
to insanity, and even suicide, and should 
be strictly forbidden by law. Feudism, 
as our readers are aware, is based on 
the claim that all the arts and, in fact, 
our whole civilization, originated in the 
sublimination of sexual desire. 

— Regarding the so-called "faits de 
Lbublande," repeatedly mentioned in 
this Review, we note that the Holy Of- 
fice, under date of March 12, has issued 
a decree (A.AS., XH, 4. p. 113), in 
Vv'hich it declares, after a thorough ex- 
amination of the whole case, that "the 
pretended visions, revelations, prophe- 



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Bargains in Second-Hand Books 

Miller, Joshua A. The Bible of Nature and the 
Bible of Grace. Boston, 1919. 75 cts. 

Render, F. J. (C. M.) Our Savior's Own Words. 
A Daily Thought from the Gospel on the One 
Thing Necessary. Atchison, Kas., 1920. 50 cts. 

Schwatka, Fred. A Summer in Alaska. A Popular 
Account of the Travels of an Alaska Exploring 
Expedition along the Great Yukon River. St. 
Louis, 1894. %\. 

Manning, Cardinal. Sermons on Ecclesiastical Sub- 
jects. American Edition. Vol. I. N. Y., 1873. 75 
cts. 

Newman, Cardinal. An Essay on the Development 
of Christian Doctrine. 12th impression. London, 
1903. $1. 

Wetzel, F. X. The Man: A Little Book for Chris- 
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Lebreton, J. (tr. by Alban Goodier, S.J.). The En- 
cyclical and Modernist Theology. London, 1908. 
25 cts. 

Pohte, Jos. Lehrbuch der Dogmatik. Vol. III. 6th 
ed. Paderborn, 1916. $1.25 (unbound).^ [Con- 
tains the treatises on the Sacraments and Eschatol- 
ogy]. 

Baart, P. A. The Roman Court. 2nd ed. N. Y., 
1895. $1. 

Darwin, Francis. The Life and Letters of Charles 
Uarwin. 2 vols. N. Y., 1887. $3. 

IVilli, Chas. (tr. by F. Girardey, C.SS.R.). The 
Priest's Canonical Prayer. St. Louis, 1919. 35 cts. 

Atwood, Harrv F. Keep God in American History. 
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Oer Seb. '..on (O.S.B.). Kommet und Kostet. Ein 
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according to the New Code. Phila., 1918. 50 c's 

Doyle, F. X. (SJ.). Poems. Phila., 1919. 35 cts 



(Orders must be accomfanied by Cash) 

The Fortnightly Review, St. Louis, Mo. 



158 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



The Moat Notewortliy Coiitrihntion to Sermon Literature of Kecent Years 

Sermons for All the Sundays 

and for the Chief Festivals of the Year 

By the Right Rev. John S. Vaughan, D. D. 

Bishop of Sebastopolis 

With an Introduction by 

Most Rev. John J. Glennon, D. D. 

Archbishop of St. Louis, Mo. 

Two Voliiuies, octavo, about 040 pp. Per set, bouuil in cloth, net $6.00 



Bishop >Vaughan, one of the famous six Vaughan 
brothers who went to the Altar, has devoted himself 
particularly to pulpit and missionary work, and 
while he gained distinction from the publication of 
a number of books of delightful literary qualities, 
his chief renown came to him through liis remark- 
able i>erformances in the pulpit. 

He is regarded as one of the greatest living pulpit 
speakers and hence this collection of his SER>iONS 
will l»e received with the greatest interest. 



BISHOP VAUGHAN'S SERMONS breathe the 
very spirit of virility that characterizes their vig- 
orous author. He treats his subjects in original, 
striking ways, and his command of effective illustra- 
tion is exceptional. 

-Vbreast of the times in feeling, these SERMONS 
will be found to be full of life and spirit, and a 
treasure trove of thought and suggestion for pulpit 
teachers. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 

23 Baiol.-iy Street NEW Y(mK 

8'. Louis: B. Herder Book Co. 



cies. etc., which are conimonl\ desig- 
nated as faits dc Loiiblandc, as well as 
the writings that refer to them, cannot 
bo approved."' The decree was approved 
by His Holiness March 11. \\'e gave a 
brief account of the alleged apparitions 
of Claire Ferchaud in our edition of 
May 1. 1918. She asserted that Christ 
had appeared to her and showed her 
Hi- bleeding heart. i)roniising her Iiq 
\M>uld never abandon France. A paint- 
ing of the alleged vision was widely 
o'rculated throughout France and led to 
the consecration of the French nation 
to the Sacred Heart. After this official 
disavowal we shall probably hear no 
more of Claire Ferchaud and her "pre- 
tcnsae visioncs.'* 

— The college professor, says the 
N. Y. Post, is "a vani'^hing type." .Ml 
the meaning has gone out of the classic 
legend al>out the absent-mindcfl profes- 
sor's wife who comi)lained that her hus- 
band did not kiss her when he came 
borne. "Then whom have I been kiss- 
ing?" tradition makes the j>rofcssor say. 
That accident cannot hajjpen now. 
There arc no longer any servants in the 



house of professors to distract atten- 
tion. 'J'he learned gentleman will cease 
to put the baby into the coal bin, because 
there will be no professors' babies. In 
fact, if prices and professors' salaries 
go on as they have, there will soon be 
no professors' wives, and no professors. 

— .\t Hammond, Ind., Pedroni, an 
Italian, according to Real Democracy 
(Vol. XVII, No. 3), got into an argu- 
ment with an i\ustrian, named Petrich, 
over the Fiume question, and shot his 
oi)l>onent dead. The jury which tried 
the case was deeply impressed with 
Pedroni's "patriotism" and returned a 
verdict of acquittal in two minutes. 
"The capitalist newspapers," says our 
contemporary, "report this infamous 
outrage upon justice and decency with 
manifest approval. So low have Amer- 
ican i^eople fallen in the scales of right- 
eousness and sanity. Murder is so 
commonplace in America that anything, 
however trivial, seems to justify it. 
And to nnirder in the name of 'patriot- 
ism' is regarded as a virtue. Never- 
theless, the judgment of God awaits 
due time." 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 

Can You Talk to the Dead? 



169 



=5n 



'''■It will he of the greatest value to Confessors, Doctors, Lawyers — 

and to all men and women who prefer sanity of thought 

— and action.''^ 

Spiritism and Religion 

Can You Talk to the Dead ? 

By Baron Johan Lil jencrants, A.M., S. T. D. 

With Foreword by Dr. Maurice Francis Egan 

and 

Foreword Appreciations by Cardinal Gibbons and John A. Ryan, D. D. 
the well-known Sociologist 



No matter what our religion, our minds 
have been confronted daily with the 
awful yet wonderful and thrilling pres- 
ence of the Hereafter. No one can es- 
cape the thought of it, the fact of it ; nor 
can any one escape the relentless ques- 
tioning that it forces upon every mind 
capable of even momentary thought. 

This book on Spiritism is scholarly; 
it is scientific; it is sound in its think- 
ing. I consider it a real advance in the 
literature of Spiritism 

J. Card. Gibbons 



Spiritism and Religion is beyond 
doubt the best book on that subject in 
the English language. In its clear and 
compreliensive account of the phenom- 
ena and practices of Spiritism, its con- 
cise presentation of the opinions of 
authorities in this field, and its keen 
analysis and criticism of both phenom- 
ena and authorities, it is easily without 
a rival. It is scientific without being 
dr}', and its conclusions will not easily 
be overthrown. 

John A. Ryan, D.D., 

Professor of Sociology, 
Catholic University of America, 
Washington, D. C. 



Really as interesting as a high-class novel, it shoidd he used for 
supplementary reading in all Academies and Colleges, for it is chiefly 
the educated classes who are now wasting time, mind, money and 
character, flocking to and enriching mediums, not one of whom can 
possihly tell them or you half as much that is hoth satisfying and 
assuring as will he found in SPIRITISM AND RELIGION"^ 
CAN YOU TALK TO THE DEAD? 

Price $3.00 postpaid at Bookstores or 



THE DEVIN-ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 



425 Fifth Avenue 



New York, U. S. A. 



IfiO 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



Literary Briefs 

—"The Blessed Virgin Marv," by the Rev. 
Vigihns H. Krull. C.PP.S.. has appeared in 
a third edition. (St. Joseph's Printing Press, 
Ct^!legevill.^ Ind.. J5 cts.). 

— \"olunie X ot the Pohle-Prcuss Dog- 
matic Series, containing the treatise on "Pen- 
»"ce." has jnst appeared in a third, revised 
edition. In consequence of the adverse con- 
ditions of the printing trade the publishers 
(B. Herder Book Co.) have been compelled 
to raise the price oi tliis volume from :?i.50 
to $1.80. Tlie whole series of twelve volumes 
will continue to sell at $18 until further 
not'ce. 

— H:ins llcinricli Reclaui. wlu> died h\ 
F.eipsic March 30. was the co-founder with 
his father. Philip, in 1867. of the "Reclam- 
Bihliothek. ■ which became famous fur its 
publication oi cheap, uniform editions of the 
literary masterpieces of all nations. The 
keclam Library has published over 6000 such 
works. The priming was carefully done 
and the booklets were remarkably cheap. 
Thus Goethe's ••paust" cost twelve cents in 
Reciani. 

— Father I". X. Lasance has edited a vol- 
ume of "Reflections for Religious," consist- 
ing of thoughts, ma.xims, and counsels gatli- 
ered from the writings of many saints (.\u- 
gi^stine, Teresa. Philip Xeri, Ignatius Loyola, 
Vincent de Paul. .Mphonsus, Francis de 
Sales etc.). and some famous spiritual 
writers, including Cardinal Manning, .\rch- 
bii-hop L'llathorne, Bishop Hedley. Fatlier 
Faber. Rosmini. Hamon, de Ravignac and 
many others. The .selections make excellent 
spiritual reading. \Vc only regret that the 
b«f<k has no index. It ought really to have 
two indices — one of subjects and the other 
of writers quoted. These would greatly en- 
hance its value for religious and others. 
(Flenziger Bros.; $2 net). 

— "Our Savior's Own Words" is a collec- 
tion of thoughts from the Gospel, on the one 
thing necessary, namely, eternal salvation, 
arranged for every day in the year, by the 
Rev. F. J. Remler, CM. The texts are 
grouped unrler definite headings, which serve 
at the same time as an index. The .\rch- 
Wshop of St. Louis contributes an introduc 
tion. in which he .says that the publication i^ 
Of,fK>rtunc and can be marie useful (]) for 
fhc busy man. to whom it may serve as a 
fiook of daily meditation; (2) at the flaily 
parish mass, where the celebrant may give 
a brief series of instructif>ns with this litlle 
fxx.k as a Ruide; f.i) as a syllabus for the 
preacher in chf>osing the sui)jects for his 
Sunday sermons; ami (41 as a sort of per- 
pttnal calendar, ft wr.ulrl be supererogatory 
to add anything to such prai'-e from so emi- 
nent a source. I'r. Reinlrr'*. bof)klet is jmii- 
lished by the .\bljey Student Press, of .\tchi 
son, Ka».. anfl may he purchased through tin 



B. Herder Book Co., of St. Louis. (Price, 
in black imitation leather binding, 80 cts.', 
postpaid; in black cloth, 65 cts. Discounts 
on quantities). 



Books Received 

The Blessed riiiiiii Mary. By Rev. Vigilius Krull, 
C.PP.S. Third edition. JO pp. 12mo. Illus- 
trated. Collegeville, Iiul. : St. )oseph's Primiiie 
<'fhce. 25 cts. (Wrapper). ^ 

f'ei.al Legislation in the New Code of Canon Latv. 
(Liber V). 15y V. Rev. li. .\. Ayrinhac, S.S, 
XX & i92 pp. 8vo. Kenz'iger Bros. $3 net. 

Snminariiim Theologiae Moralis ad Recentem Codi- 
ecni luris Canonici .-iccommodatum. Auctore An- 
tonio i\[. .\rregni S.l. Ed. IVta. xx & 6S^ pp. 
Ibmo. Hilbao: Elexiniru liros. New York: P. J. 
Kenedy & Sons. $1.80, postpaid. 

Parish Manual, Containing Prayers and Hyiuns for 
Publie and Private Devotions. Collected by a 
Priest of the Archdiocese of St. Louis. i.\ & 3^5 
pp. 3Jino. B. Herder Book Co. 

.A Comtnentarv on the New Code of Canon La-v. 
By the Rev. P. Chas. Augustine, O.S.B. Vol. V: 
Marriage Law (can. 1012-1143); Matrimonial 
Trials (can. 1960-1992). Second, Revised Edition. 
X & 450 pp. 12mo. B. Herder Book Co. $2.50 
net. 



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1920 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 161 



Secure Season Seats at Once 

FO R T HE 



MUNICIPAL OPERA 



All Star Cast Large Chorus Orchestra of Fifty 

June 8 Week — "Firefly" 

June 15 Week — "Robin Hood" 

June 22 Week — "Waltz Dream" 

June 29 Week — "Mikado" 

July 6 Week — "Mascotte" 

July 13 Week — "Gondoliers" 

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162 



ii 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Turning to HIM 



June 1 



99 



la Civilization Caving Inf The Entire World Is An Inferno of Bolshevism — of 

Murder, Stealing, Hypocrisy, Lust, Famine, Sickness, Pestilence, Death. 

Is an igno7-ed God scourging the human race to remind all that He 

reigns supreme! Is Religion a hopeless failure f h Christ 

again ^Uisleep in the vessel of the Church''''? 

"We await the day of revenge." "I would sacrifice ten millions of lives." "Peace is 
Hell." Quoted from sermons by prominent clergymen in Nev^r York. But contrast all 
such tongue-souled utterances with the following from THE HELIOTROPIUM : 

"Let the Universe be disturbed by tempests from every quarter, let armed battalions 
close in deadly fray, let fleets be crippled and destroyed by fleets, let the law courts ring 
with endless litigation, and still this is my chief busines in life, to conform myself entirely 
to the one and and only Will of God." 

For many years in Great Britain, the Continent and America educated Protes- 
tants, Catholics and men and women of no creed at all have turned to The 
Hcliotropium. It has comforted thousands, so too will it solace and strengthen 
you and yours — especially in sickness, affliction and bereavement. As a tonic 
for xvitl and thought even the mercenary pagan will find it worth a baker's 
dozen of the books that aim no higher than the fattening of a bank account. 

The Heliotropium 

"Turning to Him" By JEREMIAS DREXELIUS, S. J. 

The only work In the history of civilization that deals solely and successfully 
with the DIVINE WILL and your will - that links the two. Your Wtll — God's Will. 
The God of old. of the Old Testament and the New, the God that men, women and 
pulpiteer politicians have tossed aside — forgotten — the God that fiction-theologians 
have destroyed, selling you In His place their own carefully copyrighted God — 
all "finite." but as palpable, powerlul and responsive t» the human misery of the 
day as m deified London fog. 

%reedy?" No! "Controversial?" No! —Just God and You 



THE HELIOTROPIUM is one of my Favor- 
ite books and one which I have often recom- 
mended to others. It gets down to the very 
root of spirituality — absolute submission to the 
Will of Go<l. 

In a quaint, attractive way, the author treats 
this most essential and important point from 
every nossible angle, and one who reads it 
carefulU cannot fail to have his or her spir- 
itual life deepened and purified. 

REV. J. ELLIOT ROSS, C.S.P., Ph.D. 

A saintly Jesuit of Sixteenth Street said: "A 
copy of THE HELI(;TROI'IUM was given to 
me by a very young woman. I liked the work 
so much that I read it through — and use it for 
my meditation!). I urge my pentifents and 
others to read THE HELIOTROPIUM, for it 
is a book that makes saints." 



My dear : 

I have gone nearly through THE HELIO- 
TROPIUM and find it a most extraordinary 
book, one to thank God for. I do not know 
any book on the spiritual life more valuable. 
Tlie one truth in it is, of course, a central fact 
in life, and the old Bavarian hammers at it, 
hammers at it after the skilled manner of the 
classic rhetorician, with an amplification worthy 
of Cicero, until he gets it into one's soul. The 
English, too, is worthy of the original text. 

Read the book yourself slowly two or three 
times and it will correct your liver. It'is worth 
any fifteen books of the so-called classics. 
Yours sincerely, 
AUSTIN O'MAI.LEY, M.D., Ph.D., LL.D. 



[)<'livere(l to atjy address in the world, $2 



THE OEVIN ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 



125 Fifth Avenue 



New York 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXVII, NO. II 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



June 1, 1920 



That Prize Essay Contest 
A number of our Catholic week- 
lies have been crowing over the fact 
that several Catholic parochial 
school pupils won first prize in the War 
Department's essay contest on the ben- 
efits of enlisting in the navy. Do our 
esteemed contemporaries not realize 
that this contest was nothing but an in- 
genious and dangerous method of prop- 
aganda? In some high schools of the 
West, and perhaps of the East and 
South, too, this prize essay writing was 
made compulsory for students. The 
contest was no debate, but simply an 
argument for enlistment in the navy. 
The prize winners, in addition to their 
gold and silver and bronze medals, get 
a "free" trip (at the taxpayers' ex- 
pense!) to Washington, where they will 
presumably be admitted to the august 
presence of Woodrow I, czar of Amer- 
ica. 

The Nation points out the dangers of 
this new method of propaganda in its 
own sarcastic wav as follows (No. 
2861 ) : 

"It must be said that the War De- 
partment has been rather amateurish in 
applying the method. It might have 
had the nation's school children argue 
the benefits of universal military train- 
ing or of compulsory military service. 
Then Mitchell Palmer might start a na- 
tional school essay contest on The Men- 
ace of Free Speech and the Superiority 
of Suppression, with Albert Sidney 
Burleson, Thaddeus Sweet, and Ole 
Hanson as judges ; Josephus Daniels 
might start another on America's Need 
for Incomparably the Greatest Navy in 
the World ; in fact, the method, carried 
to its logical conclusion, might include a 
compulsory prize essay contest on The 
Necessity for a Third Term. Why 
not?" 



George Tyrrell's Letters 

Miss Maud D. Petre has just issued 
a collection of the ex-Jesuit George 
Tyrrell's letters as a supplement to his 
"Autobiography and Life." (''George 
Tyrrell's Letters" ; London : Fisher 
Unwin). 

These letters show that Tyrrell swam 
in a sea of doubts to the end of his life. 
The lack of fixed principles gravely 
embarrassed him. Unlike Loisy, lie 
did not wish to cease to be a Catholic. 
"My sympathies," he tells a correspond- 
ent, "are with the historical Catholi- 
cism of the East and the Alt-Katholi- 
zismus." But he was unsteady and 
shifting. On another occasion he wrote 
that the Church of England "seems 
more likely to win the race." 

These letters give a clew to the rea- 
sons that led to his apostasy. He de- 
scribes his reception into the Catholic 
Church as a tragi-comedy — "a gauche 
and shabby youth, fierce with the hun- 
gers of religious adolescence, and his 
placid, unsuspecting Jesuit instructor, 
resolving the pupil's doubts with the 
Penny Catechism!" A catastrophe 
was to be feared from the beginning. 
The most rebellious of characters was 
taking service with the most sternly 
disciplined of churches, and he was but 
half-convinced of the truth and divinity 
of her claims. 

Tyrrell would have avoided many 
pitfalls had he clung to the simple doc- 
trine set forth in Father Alban Chris- 
tie's Penny Catechism, at which he 
poked so much fun later. 

Despite his waverings and doubts, 
however, he never lost faith in Christ 
and always, to the end. the conviction 
forced itself upon his proud and un- 
willing intellect, that "If Rome dies, 
the other churches may order their cof- 
fins." 



164 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



The Lord's Loom 

By the Rev. Henry J. Heck. 
Pontilical College Josephinuni, Columbus, O. 



Lordly Weaver of our wooves, 
Let me consume 

An hour at Thy loom, 
Thy sacrament. 

1 lay my warp, so it behooves 
Aiiiwart the beam, 

A fretting sleave; oh, deem 
Me penitent. 

Wilt Thou, a saving shuttle moves 
And weaves apace 
The wedding-garment grace. 
Blest silk is spent. 

In noble lines Thine Eye approves 
Of fleur-de-lis. 
Faith, hope, and charity — 
I am content. 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By the Rev. Jonx Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

(Sczeiith histallvicnt) 

Naturally, I also visited the Cathedral and 
other churches in New York. After leaving 
the metropolis I traveled day and night in 
the same coach and did not dare to move 
from my place. Whenever I asked the con- 
ductor anything, he appeared not to under- 
stand me. I spoke German, French, Italian, 
and Spanish, but all to no avail. Finally, I 
said to myself: What good does all my edu- 
cation and schooling do me? Here 'I am 
tagged and shipped like freight. Whenever 
we came to a station and they called for 
dinner, I understood that and followed, but 
my European manners made me too slow in 
eating. I had hardly begun to eat when ev- 
erybody else was finished, and the conductor 
called : "'.Ml aboard !" I was certainly hun- 
gry. I wondered greatly at the absence of 
wine. Taking a meal looked to me like a 
regular battle. Everybody would rusli nito 
the diiu'ng-room ; after a couple of minutes 
you would not hear a word, notiiing but the 
noise of the knives and forks and spoons, 
and, oh, how quickly everything was de- 
voured I No wonder dyspepsia is such a 
general complaint in America. Arriving 
finally at Vinccnnes, Ind., I knew I had sev- 
eral hours to wait for a train to Kvansville. 
Thereffirc, taking dinner at the railroarj sta- 
tion with the other passf-ngers, when the 
call came "All aboard I" and the negroes 
tried to hurry me out, I kept on eating, 
knowing I had plenty of time. It was my 
first srjuarc meal since I bad left New York. 
Late that evening I arrived in Evansvillc, 
Ind. 



I took an omnibus to go to Rev. F. Du- 
denhausen, pastor of the Church of the 
Holy Trinity. I had to sit with the driver 
on the box. The coach had very high 
wheels, as was necessary for vehicles in those 
days on account of stumps and other im- 
pediments. It seemed to be built very lightly, 
and swayed on the rough cobble stones 
worse than our steamer had done upon the 
ocean. I got really scared, whilst I had 
never had any fear on the water. Father 
Didenhausen received me royally and tried 
to persuade me to remain with him until 
spring. That night a tire alarm was given. 
I heard the fire engines roaring and the peo- 
ple passing by. So I got up, too, but Fr. Du- 
denhausen called to me and told me to go 
back to bed; adding that here in America 
people did not rise for a fire until the walls of 
their own rooms began to be hot ; that fires 
were of daily occurrence and only the fire 
department paid any attention to them. In 
the few days I was with him, he told me 
many things calculated to excite the won- 
derment of a "greenhorn." He told me I 
should not try to go on to Troy, because to 
travel on a river steamer was the most un- 
certain thing in the world ; that the Ohio 
River was full of sand bars; tkat the steam- 
er was liable at any time to strike such a 
bar and to be laid up there for months, even 
until spring, when the high waters would set 
it free. Therefore, he added, it would be 
better for me to remain witli him till spring,. 

Nevertheless I went and landed happily in 
Troy, where I took the stage for Ferdinand. 
Hearing of the mail coach, I irnagined I 
would find something like the stately, gilded 
state coaches of Europe, l)ut in reality that 
coach resembled rather the canvas-covered 
wagons used in the old country for carrying 
pigs. The queer-looking vehicles made an 
unfavorable impression upon me. But for 
the rough roads these canvas-covered 
wagons, lightly built and high-wheeled, were 
the only practical conveyances. They found 
their way through mud, knee deep, where a 
regular mail coach would have floundered. 
The driver spoke German, but used so many 
F.nglish words with it that I could hardly 
understand him. For quite a while he spoke 
about the bad roads. The road we were 
traveling on could not even be seen on ac- 
count of the fallen leaves. At first I did 
not know what he meant by bad roads, but 
v'hen, later in the day, we lost our way, and 
the driver got off and took an ax to chop 
down some trees to make a road for us, I 
understood what it meant. 

Passing througli St. Meinrad's, Ind., I 
saw the monastery in the distance. I entered 
the parish cliurcli while the driver delivered 
the mail. The church, a frame ])uilding, was 
very pretty inside, but the outside greatly 
surprised me, as it was the first church I 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



165 



had seen built on liigh stilts. In Ferdinand, 
Father Eberhard, O.S.B., whom I had known 
i'X Switzerland, received me with joy and 
hospitality. The church in Ferdinand was 
quite an imposing stone edifice, and the 
school, convent and graveyard were in har- 
mony with it. 

After a few days Father Eberhard accom- 
panied me to St. Meinrad's. Abbot Martin 
Marty had just returned from his Indian 
missions in Dakota and received me with the 
greatest kindness. On the Feast of the Im- 
maculate Conception he celebrated pontifi- 
cal High Mass, and I acted as presbyter as- 
sisfcns. I regretted very much that the Ab- 
bot could not remain at home more than 
four weeks. I admired his zeal, his learning, 
and his piety, and when he was made bishop 
later, no one rejoiced more than I. Gladly 
would I have followed his invitation to be- 
come a missionary in Dakota, but I was 
afraid of the cold climate. I always suf- 
fered from the cold in winter, and my ideal 
missionary field therefore, lay in the South. 
For the same reason I had once volunteered 
to go as a missionary to South America. 

I remained at St. Mt-inrad's Abbey for 
several months, teaching the fratrcs and 
novices. Father Fintan, later Abbot, was 
then prior. He was a holy religious, of 
insignificant stature, but in a short time won 
the admiration and esteem of every visitor 
by his phenomenal knowledge and indefatig- 
able activity. Of course, he enjoyed the re- 
spect of the community and his exemplary 
management of the abbey made the frequent 
absence of Abbot Martin Marty, during sev- 
eral years, possible without visible dv;triment 
to the community. The religious of the 
monastery wer.e extremely kind to me. How- 
ever, the difference between our old-country 
abbeys and St. Meinrad's was at that time 
too great as not to strike a stranger forcibly. 
I missed the wonted uniformity and punctual 
order. Sometimes the monks went about in 
their habits and then again in civilian 
clothes ; some wore cowls, others had none. 
The divine service was celebrated regularly, 
but always and everywhere with only plain 
chant, whilst we had in our monasteries at 
least one high Mass daily in polyphonic mu- 
sic, accomnanied on Sundays and holydays 
with a full orchestra. Again our students 
in Switzerland all dressed alike, whereas 
those at St. Meinrad looked to me like a 
hrrde of independent American boys, let 
loose to do as they pleased. The table used 
to look so empty that many a time I would 
,nsk myself upon entering the refectory: 
"Don't they know how to serve?" Of 
course the beautiful wine bottles, red and 
yellow, placed with every plate in Europe, 
made a far more pleasing view. T did not 
say anything, but thought that some day 
some religious from Maria Stein might start 



a house in America, and we would be more 
conservative in adiiering to the old tradi- 
tions. For quite a while I found the meat 
altogether unpalatable, but 1 relished what 
ir.ost Europeans do not like at first, that is, 
cornbread and molasses, which was served 
often and invariably at supper, I almost 
lived on that diet for quite a while. As 
we always had table reading, I could not ask 
what it was, and during recreation I would 
forget about it. Therefore, I wrote to our 
Fathers in Delle tliat 1 was living almost ex- 
clusively on cakes and honey, like an Egyp- 
tian Apis, thougli the cakes were somewhat 
coarser than those we had in Europe, and 
that I liked the snow-white butter and the 
American honey (molasses) just as well as. 
if not better than, the butter and honey in 
Switzerland. 

The Fathers at St. Meinrad's often spoke 
of their mission in Logan County, Arkansas, 
which had just been started by Father Wolf- 
gang. This mission, being in a warmer cli- 
mate, and a very hard and new country, at- 
tracted me. I knew Father Wolfgang's 
brother quite well. He was a secular priest 
in the neighborhood of Maria Stein. I re- 
solved to go to the new field of work. The 
rector of the seminary, the Very Rev. Benno 
Gerber, O.S.B., had the seminarians give me 
a splendid farewell. I celebrated high Mass 
and for the Feast of St. Scholastica preached 
the sermon at the Benedictine Convent in 
Ferdinand. On February I2th I left St. 
Meinrad to go to St. Benedict's, Arkansas, 
now New Subiaco Abbey. About / o'clock 
P. M. I arrived at Troy, Ind., the guest of 
Father Conrad Ackermann, a schoolmate of 
mine from Einsiedeln. We entertained our- 
selves for a long time talking about our 
happy days at home. When I asked him 
about the steamer for Memphis he said he 
could not tell me anything definite about it, 
as its schedule was very uncertain. He added 
that Europeans had to learn a great many 
things here. He named a former professor 
of his, who lost his valuable trunks in Paris. 
Having heard something about checks, he 
thought that trunks which were checked 
would follow their owner automatically. 
Thus, after buying his tickets in Paris, he 
did not pay any further attention to his lug- 
gage. In New York the same learned gentle- 
man asked for the direction to Troy, and 
naturally was sent to Troy, New York. Not 
finding Father Ackermann there, he was sent 
to Troy. Ohio, where he was told that a 
Benedictine from St. Meinrad's .\bbey was 
pastor of a Catholic Church in Troy, Indiana. 
He sent a telegram to Father Conrad, ap- 
prising him of his coming, but when he ar- 
rived, no one was at the depot to receive 
him. A bus brought him to the rectory, 
where he quite indignantly let Father Conrad 
know he had expected more consideration 
from a former pupil, and the least he could 
have done would have been to meet hrni. 



Ifi6 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



F"ather Conrad replioil. '"How could 1 know 
you were coming?" Tlie Professor explained 
that he had sent him a telegram. '"Well, 1 
did not receive ;; telegram ; they do not de- 
liver them around here in the country, this 
being such a small place." "Where may my 
telegram be?" asked the Professor. "Pos- 
sibly it is hanging on a tree .«;ome\vhere," re- 
plied Father Conrad, laughing. 

Father Conrad admonished me not to say 
Mass the following morning, and to take iny 
breakfast early, as the steamer fnini Cincin- 
nati might ar- 
rive at any time, 
and that, as a 
rule, it made a 
very short stop 
at Troy. Indeed, 
as I was eating 
breakfast, the 
whistle blew, 
and I left im- 
mediately to go 
down to the 
steamer. Some- 
times people sat 
up all night 
waiting at a 
landing for the 
steamer. 1 once 
asked the cap- 
tain of a steam- 
er at what time 
his l)oat would 
leave. "Upon 
the honor of a 
captain. I tell 
you it will leave 
at 3 o'clock," he 
said, "but upon 
the honor of a 
gentleman," he 
added. "I must 
confess I don't 
know the time 
at all." The 
f>eauty of the 
fine Mississippi 
steamer greatly 
surprised m e . 
E V e rything 
seemed so 
grand. When I 
got shaved on 
the steamer, the 





Kcv. I', li'olf^inifi, O.S.H. 



l»arl>er gave me a face ma'^sage and a shani- 
jKo. my shoes were shincd. and I tliouglit f 
would never get through. L'p to that time 
I had never known or seen all tluse lux- 
uries, not even in Pariv. liut the price 
charged was an equal surprise to me, for in 
F.urope F could have paid a whole year for 
my simple shaving with that amount. }|ow- 
ever, F received relativ<ly more for my money 
than F had received in the various depot din- 
ing-rooni"- during my jonrncy, wliere. when 
I had hardly begun to «at. the call "All 
aboard" wfnild chase me bacit to my coach. 



We had left Wednesday and arrived the 
ne.\t Monday, about 2 o'clock A. M., in 
Memphis, Tenn., where I went to St. Mary's 
Convent of the Franciscan Fathers. For 
two years Memphis had been ravaged by a 
terrible epidemic of yellow fever. When I 
arose tiie next morning, 1 felt very sick and 
had a spell of vomiting, such as I had never 
experienced before. The superior wanted 
to give me quinine, l)ul not being accus- 
tomed to medicine, I refused to take it. I 
asked for a bottle of good Bordeaux, my 

usual medicine 
in Europe, and 
soon felt some- 
what better, so 
that I could visit 
the city and the 
school. Thirteen 
of the teaching 
sisters had died 
of the yell o w 
fever, and the 
Monastery also 
had lost several 
Fathers. In the 
parish school at 
St. Mary's were 
tlien teaching a 
lay brother and a 
sister. The school 
at that time had 
only aI)out thir- 
ty pupils left 
out of one hun- 
dred or more, 
the rest having 
(lied of yellow 
fever. It was 
indeed a sad 
siglit when the 
brother pointed 
out the children 
and said, for in- 
stance. "T h i s 
one lost father 
and mother in 
t h e epidemic ; 
tliat one lost 
tlirec brothers; 
tliat one is the 
only one left of 
a family of 
eight," etc. Sure- 
ly the city had 



been sorely tried. It is said about 25,000 vic- 
tnns are buried in Calvary Cemetery, where a 
nionnd around a large cross contains tlie 
rmiains of a mnnl)er of priests who died of 
I lie i)lague. When everybody, including al- 
most all the ]>iiysirians and ministers of the 
gos|)el, bad fled in a panic, the priests and 
sisters remained at their posts to attend to 
the sick and dying. Whenever a priest or a 
Sister died, others from outside volunteered 
t.) take their fjlace. The i)eoplc of tiie vSouth 
liavc not forgotten the heroic conduct of the 
Catholic clergy and sisterhoods during those 
sad <Iays. (To he continued) 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



167 



Lafayette, Hilaire Belloc, and the Duel 

In view of the discussion concerning 
the CathoHcity of Lafayette, the fol- 
lowing, reproduced from Vol. XIII, 
No. 4 (Feb. 15, 1905) of the Fort- 
nightly Review, will prove of inter- 
est: "It is still the fashion with some 
to claim Lafayette as a Catholic. But 
as Mr. Griffin points out in his \ Cath- 
olic Historical] Researches (new Series, 
I, i), there is no basis for this claim. 
Lafayette never gave any signs of the 
faith while in America ; he attended 
religious services in an Episcopalian 
Church and fraternized with Freema- 
sons." 

Hilaire Belloc says of Lafayette in 
his book, "The French Revolution," 
London, 1911, p. 66: "In religion the 
man was anodyne. Catholic, of course, 
by baptism, but distinctly Protestant in 
morals and in general tone, in dogma 
(until the end of his life), freethink- 
ing, of course, like all his contempo- 
raries." 

This passage calls for a word of inci- 
dental comment. "Anodyne" is de- 
fined by the dictionaries as "having 
power to allay pain, soothing to the 
mind or feelings." What Air. Belloc 
probably means is that Lafayette had 
no use for religion except as a means 
to soothe the feelings of distressed per- 
sons, mainly women and children. This 
was quite a common view among the 
infidels and Masons of his day. 

By saying that Lafayette was free- 
thinking in dogma "until the end of his 
life," we suppose Mr. Belloc wishes to 
insinuate that he died a Catholic. The 
late Martin I. J. Griffin, whom we have 
quoted above, in his Historical Re- 
searches for 1910, New Series, Vol. 
VI, No. 4, p. 400, established the fact 
that Lafayette "had a religious funeral 
at the Assumption Church, Paris, and 
was buried in a consecrated cemetery ;" 
but in view of the conditions then ex- 
isting in France, this affords no certain 
evidence that he died in the faith. His 
fellow-Masons did not think so, for they 
glorified him in their obituary resolu- 
tions. 

What sort of a Catholic Mr. Belloc 
himself is mav be concluded from the 



sentence which immediately follows 
the one quoted above in his book on 
"The French Revolution." It reads 
thus: "He (Lafayette) was person- 
ally courageous, but foolishly despised 
the duel." If Lafayette really despised 
the duel, it shows that he had at least 
some Catholic principle left in him, de- 
spite his apostasy from the faith and 
his affiliation with Freemasonry. Mr. 
Belloc, in referring to this trait of the 
Marquis as "foolish," shows that he is 
not familiar with the teaching of Cath- 
olic moralists. 

"It is never lawful to fight a duel by 
private authority, for it obviously ex- 
poses the parties jto grave risk of killing 
or wounding, or of being killed, or 
wounded, and this is never lawful by 
private authority except under the con- 
ditions which justify killing in self- 
defense, and these are not verified in 
the duel. The Coimcil of Trent ( Ses^. 
XXV, c. 19, de Ref.), very emphati- 
cally condemned dueling as a detest- 
able practice and excommtmicated the 
guilty parties, their seconds and abet- 
tors, as well as emperors, kings and 
princes who permit it in their terri- 
tories. This excommunication is re- 
newed in the Constitution Apostolicae 
Scdis of Pius IX." (Thos. Slater, S.J,, 
A Manual of Moral Theology, Vol. I, 
pp. 316, sq.). 

•-»^»-a 

— Catholic Book Notes (May) rec- 
ommends to students a scholarly paper 
by W. E. Barnes on "The Testimony of 
Josephus to Jesus Christ," which has 
been published in pamphlet form by the 
Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge. Mr. Barnes examines the 
celebrated passage in Josephus minutely 
and critically, and throws a new light 
upon its meaning and genuineness. He 
sums up his conclusion in these terms : 
"The Testimony' is Josephus' own, but 
its contents are not what they are usu- 
ally represented to be. The words 
traverse carefully the Christian view of 
Jesus, and exclude the Christian affirm- 
ation concerning Him. Moreover, they 
suggest that tlie Christian sect, though 
'not yet' extinct, is on its way towards a 
natural death." 



168 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Juue 1 



Saving Beautiful Hymn Melodies for 
Our Children 

A noteworthy article on "Catholic 
Hvnms from the German" appeared in 
the F. R. of April 15, 1920. The ob- 
servations of the writer voice a most 
sympathetic appeal. It would in truth 
be deplorable it. with the abandonment 
of the German tongue, our young peo- 
ple were to suffer the loss also of the 
beautiful German hymn melodies — 
those church melodies which the Rev. 
J. Rotliensteiner justly calls "a great 
treasure, such as no other nation can 
claim — songs that are the children of a 
deep, strong Christian feeling, not of 
sickly sentimentality, and that enjoy, 
therefore, perennial youth."' 

We hail with joy the efforts of all 
who, like the Rev. J. Rothensteiner, 
are striving earnestly to save and pre- 
serve the rich treasure of German 
hymns. Fortunately, several hymn 
bt)oks have recently appeared whose 
authors have had this in mind. . Fore- 
most among them, perhaps, is the Rev. 
Ludwig Bonvin's 'Hosanna," a Cath- 
olic hymn book published by the B. 
Herder Book Co. Tliis work contains, 
besides its 28 modern church hymns, 
no less than 138 sterling ancient Ger- 
man melodies with English texts hap- 
pily adapted to melody and rythm, part- 
ly translations and partly adaptations, 
in language which is admitted to be not 
only idiomatic, but in the majority of 
pieces decidedly and genuinely poetical. 

The enduring charm of many of the 
melodies is evident to anyone familiar 
with them. Age will not mar their 
original beauty. To call attention to a 
few, there are the hymns for Advent : 
"Tauet, Himmel, den Gerechtcn" ; "O 
komm, O komm, I'lmmaruel" ; for 
Christmas: "Im siissen Freuden- 
schall" (the ancient "In dulci jubilo") ; 
"In Bethlehem geborcn ist uns ein Kin- 
delein"; in honor of Jesus: "Schonster 
Herr Jesu" ; "Ich will dich lieben, 
meine Starke" ; the Lenten hymns : 
"Sci, heiliges Kreuz, gegrussct" ; "O 
Traurigkeit, O Hcrzeleid" ; "O Ilaupt 
voll Blut und Wunden" ; the Easter 
hymns: "Das Grab ist leer"; "Freu 
dich. erlostc Christenbcit" ; for Pente- 



cost : "Komm, Heiliger Geist" ; in 
honor of the Holy Eucharist : "O 
Christ, hie merk" ; "O heilige Seelen- 
speise" ; the hymns in honor of the 
Blessed Virgin : "Ave Maria zart, du 
edler Rosengart"; "O Konigin voll 
Herrlichkeit" ; "Es ist ein Reis ent- 
sprungen" ; "Christi Mutter stand in 
Schmerzen" ; "Freu dich, du Himmels- 
konigin," etc. 

Upon hearing some of the insipid 
namby-pamby melodies, so current in 
our days, we positively long for the de- 
vout and soundly ecclesiastical music 
that characterizes the hymns I have 
mentioned. 

(Rev.) Peter W. Leonard, S.J. 

Buffalo, X. y. 

-^KgH.-. 

What Are We Coming To? 

The corpse of the late James B. 
Duffy, of Brooklyn, according to the 
N. Y. American (April 16), was taken 
to a Catholic Church after funeral 
services had been conducted over it by 
the B. P. O. Elks. Which leads a 
Catholic layman to write to us : 

"Could you get some of your clerical 
contributors to tell us lay-folk it' it is 
in accordance with the spirit of the 
Church to allow a non-Catholic secret 
organization to hold funeral services 
over the remains of a deceased Cath- 
olic? I was under the impression that 
the Church reserved to herself all cere- 
monies over the former 'temples of 
Christ.' However, when we find a dis- 
tinguished dignitary backing up the 
plan of a Jewish Palestine (just before 
the Holy Father said it was 'heart- 
rending' to think that anyone should 
plan to hand over the Holy Land to 
non-Christians) ; when we find a promi- 
nent cleric advocating a drive for Sal- 
vation Army funds, to be used for the 
Army's own jirivate purposes — there- 
fore, for supporting heresy — and when 
we are told (N. Y. Staatszcitunq, 
March 2) that the National Catholic 
War Council contributed $10,000 to the 
reconstruction of a Protestant church 
— it is hard to say what we are coming 
to." 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



169 



Christian Solidarism 

Father Joseph Wentker, of St. Louis, 
in an excellent and timely address de- 
livered at this year's convention of the 
Catholic Union of Missouri, said: 

"We Catholics believe that a satis- 
factory adjustment of the difficulties 
between capital and labor and the con- 
sequent elimination of Socialism can 
be brought about only by a return to 
our Christian ethical standards and by 
reforms based upon these standards. 
The system we advocate has been called 
Solidarism. It is no less opposed to 
the liberalistic economic system now 
in force than to the tenets of Socialism. 
It demands reforms not only in the 
methods of production and distribu- 
tion, but also a reform in the standards 
of living of all classes. In short, it 
aims at a moral regeneration of the 
world in all social relations on the basis 
of the Christian moral law. That is 
what Pope Pius X meant when he 
spoke of renewing all things in Christ. 
If the peoples of the world are willing 
to return to Christ, we believe that the 
dangers which threaten our civilization 
can be removed. On the other hand, 
we believe that merely repressive meas- 
ures such as the curtailment of the 
freedom of the press and of the free- 
dom of speech, and the creation of po- 
litical disabilities will serve no good 
end. If we adopt Czaristic methods, 
we have every reason to expect Rus- 
sian results." 



►^Hi 



Masonry and the League of Nations 

To the Editor: — 

With all due deference to L. Ha- 
cault. LL.D., of Bruxelles, Man., 
Canada, his attempt to prove that the 
League of Nations is Masonic in its 
concept is not very convincing to me. 
The proofs he gives are as tenuous as 
those which I find in A. P. A. journals 
to show conclusively (?) that the recent 
war was planned by the Jesuits. Are 
we not in danger of making ourselves 
just as ridiculous in the eyes of sensi- 
ble people, as the A. P. A. organs ap- 
pear, when we pin the name Masonry 
on world movements that are far greater 



than any organization ? I have no doubt 
many Masons are in favor of the 
League, and I have no doubt that 
should the League ever come into suc- 
cessful being the Masonic order or 
certain of its mouthpieces will claim it 
as a Masonic work, since that is their 
custom about every big thing in the 
world; but the opposition to the League 
which has manifested itself in this 
country has been voiced by Masons as 
well as by non-Masons. 

Of course I do not pretend to know 
the inside workings of Masonry. But 
if it is as secret as it is said to be, I 
accept with a grain of salt the revela- 
tions as to its means and methods which 
I see occasionally. And papers like La 
FrancmaQonncrie Demasqucc (whose 
name suggests its raison d'etre) do not 
appeal to me as being the very best of 
authoritv. Denis A. McCarthy 



Public Distrust of the Newspapers 

Commenting on the way in winch the 
railroad strikers treated the press (they 
called reporters "skunks" and refused 
to give them any information, prefer- 
ring that the public should remain in 
ignorance rather than that the news- 
papers should totally misrepresent their 
real aims), the N. Y. Nation says that 
"whatever the trade statistics may show 
as to increasing circulations and the 
present unprecedented volume of ad- 
vertising, the truth is that the news- 
paper more and more forfeits public 
respect." The reason is, because "the 
press of the country sold its prestige 
and degraded its conscience in yielding 
to government propaganda, in abandon- 
ing throughout the war its critical fac- 
ulty, in freely taking part in the delib- 
erate deception of the American public. 
Not even the press," adds our highly 
esteemed contemporary (No. 2862, p. 
610), "can transgress the moral laws 
without paying a price for it. It may 
ignore if it pleases the action of the 
railroad strikers and call them wild 
radicals, outlaws, and any other name. 
Their action, none the less, represents 
a solemn vote of a large body of honest 
American workingmen." 



170 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



Against Freemasonry 

Two important connnunications on 
the subject of Freemasonry reached us 
almost siniuhaneously the other dav. 
The first is from Father Hermann Gru- 
ber, S.J.. one of the leading anti-Ma- 
sonic writers of Europe and author of 
a number of important books, as well 
as of the article on Freemasonry in the 
Catholic liiicyclof'cdia. Fr. Gruber 
writes m the course of a letter dated 
Baexem, Holland. April 25 : 

"An international anti-Masonic or- 
ganization on a thoroughly common- 
sense basis, conducted with scrupulous 
regard to truth and ascertained facts, 
carefully avoiding the usual exaggera- 
tions and mistakes, would, in my opin- 
ion, be of great help to the Catholic 
cause. The efforts made everywhere 
to reconstruct all things, including the 
ecclesiastical measures for the repul- 
sion of Masonic and kindred anti-Cath- 
olic and anti-social plots and undertak- 
ing's, make the present time ajjpear 
particularly opi)ortune for attempting 
the establishment of an anti-Masonic 
international league or entente in some 
workable form." 

The second communication came 
from our venerable friend. Dr. L. Ha- 
cauit. the Belgian journalist and anti- 
Masonic writer, who has been living 
on a farm near Hruxelles, Manitoba. 
for the past ten or fifteen years, after 
.sacrificing the better part of his life to 
the service of the Catholic, press in his 
native land. He writes: — 

In its issue of May 1. the /". A^ 
informed its readers that French Can- 
ada has a national "Ligue Franc-Cath- 
clique." e>tablished under the patrcju 
.-ige of the Sacred Heart to combat 
Freemasonry and all other forbidden 
secret societies. This IJguc has re- 
ceived the approbation r>f Cardinal i'e- 
gin and five Canadian bishops. It has 
a counterpart in France and will no 
doubt so*»n spread to I'clgium, Spain, 
Italy, and perhaps also to Germany, 
Poland. Portugal, .Switzerland, and 
other parts of the British Empire. Why 
not among the Catholic peoj^lc ,oC 
.^merica? It is thirty-six years since 
I^eo XIII declared in one of his great 



encyclical letters: 'In the course of a 
century and a half the Masonic sect 
has made incredible progress. By the 
help of both audacity and craftiness it 
has invaded all ranks of the social and 
political hierarchy and is beginning to 
exercise a power almost equivalent to 
sovereignty in the bosom of modern 
States." Addressing himself to the 
hierarchy and clergy, the Pontiff said : 
"We ask. nay, we conjure you to unite 
your efforts with ours and to employ all 
your zeal for the purpose of extirpat- 
ing the contagious poison that is circu- 
lating in the veins of society and totally 
vitiating it." To the Christian peoples 
one and all he said : "Such violent at- 
tcicks must be met by an energetic de- 
fence. All good people should unite 
(against Freemasonry) in a great co- 
alition of prayer and effort which will 
make them invincible against the as- 
saults of the sect." (Encyclical of 
April 20, 1884). 

These exhortations were repeated by 
the saintly Pontiff in 1894, and again in 
1902. His successor, Pius X, while 
yet Archbishop of Venice, said pub- 
licly on Aug. 30, 1896: "Pray and 
struggle incessantly against Freema- 
sonry. Unmask the infamous sect. . . 
1 used to think that the accusations 
against it were exaggerated. But in 
niy ejjiscopal ministry I have had occa- 
sion to touch the wounds Masonry has 
inflicted, and am now convinced that 
the whole truth concerning that infer- 
nal association has not yet been told." 

On April 11, 1879, the great Belgian 
Cardinal Dechanips, a Redemptorist 
theologian, wrote to me: "Masonry is 
the parody of the Church. It is anti- 
Christianism. It is Satanism." The 
l>elgians were at that tiiue up in arms 
against the sovereignty of the sect, 
v-'hich they shook off in 1884, under the 
eyes of Leo XI 1 1. 

The Catholics of h'rench Canada 
have at last awakened to the danger 
and are determined to do their duty 
and obey the jKjntifical injunctions. 
Will the Catholics of the U. S. follow 
their example? ll may be news to 
many of them — though not, of course, 
to the careful readers of the /•". R., who 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



171 



are kept so well informed on all im- 
portant movements — that as far back 
as 1868, sixteen years before the en- 
cyclical of Leo XIll, a number of be- 
lieving and wide-awake Protestant 
pastors and laymen organized against 
the secret anti-Christian revolutionary 
sects and founded the "National Chris- 
tian Association,'' which has its head- 
quarters in Chicago and is still active 
through its monthly magazine, the 
Christian Cynosure, so frequently 
quoted in the F. R., and a constant 
stream of books and pamphlets. I doff 
my hat to this organization, for it is 
courageously struggling, against heavy 
odds, to save souls, country, and free- 
dom from the autocracy of the occult, 
infamous, infernal sect. 

The Lutheran Synod of Missouri, 
Ohio, and other States, whose head- 
quarters are in St. Louis, is also vigor- 
ously fighting the good fight against 
sfccretism. Will not the Catholics of 
America, knowmg the ^Masonic origin 
of the world war and the immense 
power wielded by the Craft throughout 
this continent, join hands with their 
Canadian brethren and organize a pan- 
American League against pan-Ameri- 
can Masonrv? 



A Catholic Daily Press 
To the Editor: — 

With great interest I read the com- 
munication in your April 15th issue by 
the Rev. Dr. J. B. Culemans on "Amer- 
ican Catholics and their Press." 

He is right when he states : "Catho- 
lics, as a rule, do not sufficiently pa- 
tronize the Catholic press," and w4ien 
he further states that "it is not the fault 
of the Catholic press." In my opinion, 
neither is it entirely the fault of the 
Catholic people. 

Twenty million American Catholics 
have no dailies and are compelled to pa- 
tronize and read the secular press. I 
believe it is not an overestimate when 
I claim that one-fifth of all secular 
publications are read and paid for by 
Catholics ; and what do we get for it ? 
With very few exceptions, our present 
secular press does not give the Catholic 



news. No comment is ever made on 
rascalities and outrages committed 
against our Church and its members. 
W hen, under the guise of law and or- 
der, the best friends of tlie people, in- 
cluding the members of religious or- 
ders of both sexes, with their priests 
and bishops were driven out of their 
homes and their possessions confis- 
cated, in France and Portugal, our daily 
press was silent. It was silent also 
when, a little over a year ago, in Alsace 
and Lorraine Catholic institutions, in- 
cluding schools and convents, were con- 
fiscated. Xor did it say a word when 
our Catholic brethren were brutally 
persecuted in Mexico. 

As a rule, the average American is 
fair ; he wants to do the right thing, 
and does not approve of wrong. But 
here is where the fault lies — our press 
does not give the facts when there is 
persecution ; and yet this is not the 
worst. Under present conditions, hav- 
ing no Catholic dailies, we are com- 
pelled to take the secular dailies into 
our homes, even though they contain 
much that is not fit for decent people 
to read. \'ice, crime, divorce proceed- 
ing, etc.. are given prominence, and 
higher aims and ideals are thereby 
slowly crushed. 

Another reason wh}- our Catholic 
press is not sufficiently patronized is 
that a good many of our best publica- 
tions are printed in foreign languages, 
which are not read or understood by 
our young men and women. 

All this proves that we must have 
Catholic dailies, or at least dailies con- 
trolled by Catholics and in the .-\meri- 
can language. In my opinion, it is not 
absolutely necessary to have dailies 
with crosses on their faces, or with 
large type on the front page saying 
"This is a Catholic newspaper." No. I 
believe it would be better not to use the 
name "Catholic" at all. but the news 
should be served up impartially and ed- 
ited intelligently, and the Catholic 
Church given due credit when she de- 
serves it. 

In my opinion, the time has never 
been more favorable than it is now for 
establishing Catholic dailies. Many 



172 



•THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Jutre'l 



non-Catholics realize and admit that 
the daily press is very much to blame 
for the present rotten and unsatisfac- 
tory condition of affairs. 

Every city with forty to fifty thou- 
sand inhabitants should and can have a 
clean Catholic daily controlled by Cath- 
olics, if Catholics can only be made to 
realize the importance of the press. 
1 wo things are necessary to have a 
Catholic press: (^1) To start it and (2) 
to maintain it. Both can be done with 
the projjer agitation and support, and 
without any hardship or additional ex- 
pense to Catholics. It is only necessary 
to take the money we spend for the 
secular press and use it for the support 
of our own. 

Here is my plan : To have Catholic 
laymen start dailies, they must be as- 
sured of the support of the clergy. 
We remember from Roman history 
how old Cato was the immediate cause 
of the destruction cif Carthage. Every 
speech he made before the Senate he 
closed by saying: "In conclusion, let me 
tell you, Carthage must be destroyed," 
and it teas destroyed. If all our clergy 
were ordered by the bishops for a pe- 
riod of one year to close every sermon 
as follows : "'In conclusion, let me tell 
you, it is your duty to read and support 
the Catholic press." we should have 
Catholic dailies within a short .time. 

This would not rerjuire much time 
or study, but it would work wonders. 
The importance of the Catholic press is 
not understood, but if our clergy- 
would call attention to it at the end of 
every Sunday sermon, laymen and 
women would soon wake up. 

F. \V. 



A Catholic English Daily 
W'c are pleased lo learn that the 
Catholic Tribune, of Dubuque, la., 
which has of late appeared three times 
a week, will come out daily on or about 
July 1, as The Daily American Tribune. 
It is prudent not to jKirade the Cath- 
olic name at the head of a daily pai)er. 
Mr. Gonner and his colaborcrs have 
great courage and are evidently willing 
to sacrifice themselves and all they have 
for the good of the cause. This is true 



Christian heroism. We trust they will 
find cordial and adequate support. The 
Fortnightly Review begs to be en- 
rolled among the original subscribers 
of the first Catholic American daily in 
the English language, and requests its 
readers to follow its example. The 
subscription price is $8 a year. Over 
4000 subscribers have already enrolled, 
but it will take at least 20,000 more to 
make the new paper really successful. 



Sir William Barrett's Problem 

At a Spiritistic stance held in Lon- 
don not so very long ago a "spirit" 
made the assertion that it was contrary 
to their aims to disclose to the scien- 
tific psychical experimenters the fact 
that demoniac spirits exist. "These 
men," it declared, "might draw certain 
inevitable inferences and become Chris- 
tians, thus defeating our aims." 

Does this explain the vague answers 
to questions, the tricks and contradic- 
tions which cause the scientific experi- 
menter so much perplexity and which 
led so prominent a Spiritist as Sir Wil- 
liam Barrett to write in his little work 
published in the Home University Li- 
rary of Modern Knowledge : 

"Certainly, for our part, we believe 
there is some active intelligence at work, 
and behind and apart from, the auto- 
malist — an intelligence which is more 
like the deceased person it professes to 
be than any other we can imagine. And 
though this intelligence is provokingly 
irritating in the way it evades simple 
direct replies to questions, yet it is diffi- 
cult to attempt any other solution to the 
problem of these scripts and cross-cor- 
res])ondence than that there is an at- 
tempt at intelligent co-operation be- 
tween certain disembodied minds and 
our own." 

"If we had no other evidence than 
automatic writing, we might conclude 
that the manufacture of puzzles and 
enigmas is the sole faculty and employ- 
ment of discarnate spirits." 

Does not the teaching of the Catholic 
Church resjjecting the nature and aim 
of that intelligence provide us with the 
only true and .'idc(|uate solution of Sir 
Wm. Barrett's problem? J. G. R. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



173 



KOTES AND GLEANINGS 

— Heaping coals" of fire oh your'en- 
emy's head sometimes results in burn- 
ing your fingers. 

— A bit of a twist to the British lion's 
tail by Mr. Wilson is quite human — in 
a campaign year. 

— We see that a large dairy firm has 
given $5 to a small girl for a prize coup- 
let that rhymed "cream" with "lean." 
This is one of the things that drive 
poets into vers librc. 

— The "straw votes"' taken up by dif- 
ferent newspapers and magazines are 
v.'orthless for the reason that the plain 
people, who do the heaviest voting at 
the polls, never engage in straw voting. 

— The Fathers of the Society of the 
Divine Word announce that the usual 
retreats for laymen and women will be 
held at Techny, 111., this season; for 
men at St, Mary's Mission House, July 
22 to 25, and Aug. 5 to 8 ; for women at 
St. Ann's Home, Julv 8 to 11, July 15 
to 18, July 29 to Aug. 1, Aug. 5 to 8, 
Aug. 26 to 29. There will also be re- 
treats in German and Pglish. 

— The late Anglican Archbishop 
Benson (according to the London 
Morning Post), once had to face crit- 
icism of the clergy as a body. It was 
urged that the bishops ought to see that 
better candidates w^ere brought to them 
for ordination. Dr. Benson, with great 
good humor, replied : "Well, you see, 
v.'e bishops find ourselves in a difiiicult 
position, as we have only the laity to 
choose from." 



— A pupil who was inclined to indo- 
lence, although a real humorist, failed 
to furnish an epigram w'hen epigrams 
were asked for by the Latin professor. 
The professor reproached him with his 
"pigritia," and told him to make an epi- 
gram on that. Here it is, as solemnly 
produced the next day : 

De Pigritia 

piger. 

— Prof. J. J. Keegan, of the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska has made a detailed 
examination of three Indian brains, two 
of them Apache and one Sioux, and ar- 
rived at the conclusion, which he sets 
forth at length in the American Journal 
of Physical Anthropology, that there is 
no discernible difference between these 
brains and the average brain of the 
white race. 

— Prof. W. M. Calder contributes to 
the fourth number of Discovery, a 
monthly journal of knowledge, pub- 
lished by John Murray, London, an ar- 
ticle, in which he says that in his opin- 
ion the birth of Christ must be dated 
earlier than 6 B. C. and that several 
convergent lines of argument point to 
9—7 and probably 8 B. C. The Patris- 
tic tradition places the birth of Christ 
in the year 751 after the founding of 
Rome. Perhaps the best recent treat- 
ment of the problem is to be found in 
Dr. K. A. H. Kellner's "Jesus von Na- 
zareth und seine Apostel im Rahmen der 
Zeitgeschichte" (Pustet), a book that is 
not sufficiently appreciated among Cath- 
olics. 



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Money and Postage Refunded by return mail. 



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174 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



— The Holy Father, writing to the 
Archbishop of Ravenna on the ap- 
proaching Dante jubilee, says : "Dante is 
one of ours. He has gone to the most 
profound depths of the Catholic faith 
and has sung in a jMDeni almost divine 
of the mysteries of our august religion."' 
Vet how little we Catholics appreciate 
him ! Are we really going to let Prot- 
estants take the lead in honoring our 
greatest poet ? 

— L. Maclean Watt, in a recently 
published book on "Douglas' Aeneid." 
recalls the medieval belief that 'X'irgil 
was almost, if that could have been, a 
Christian — a sentiment to which the 
Latin hymn that records the supposed 
visit of St. Paul to the poet's tomb, 
bears moving witness : 

Ad Maronis mausoleum 
Ductus, fudit super eum 

Piar rorem lacrynn; 
Quom te, inquit, reddidissem 
Si tc vivum invenisseiti, 

Poetarum maximel 

— In a recent number of the Cath- 
olic Caccttc (London), Miss D. Bren- 
nell studies Reade's famous novel, "The 
Cloister and the Hearth." showing both 
its strength and its weakness. Some 
months ago John Ayscough did the 
same for George Eliot's writings in 
The Month. It is to be hoped that these 
two essays will inaugurate a series of 
Catholic appreciations of our non-Cath- 
olic English classics which would make 
them not only harmless, but also in- 
structive. 

— Britain, too, has her Dreyfus case. 
The English Dreyfus is Major W. A. 
Adam, who has just described his ex- 
j/eriences in a book titled "Whither?" 
He tells how the .\rmy Council ruined 
him by |>er«istent infraction of the 
"King's Regulations." To this day he 
has never seen the reptjrt upon which 
his condemnation was based. Driven 
from jjillar to j)Ost, the Army Council 
finally torjk refuge in its ])ower of arbi- 
trary dismissal. "It is high time," says 
the I^ndon Ohscrrcr in a notice of Ma- 
jor .Xdam's bf)ok. "that a Court of Ap- 
|K-al were establi>hefl to protect officers 
from injustice and persecution." Mili- 
tarism is essentially the same every- 
where. 



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4)ostulants ami novices receive their training 
for their future work. Ask for our "Vocation 
F.eaflets and Hooklcts" representing scenes from 
the life of a Mission Sister. Any number will 
lie sent upon re(|uest, free of charge. .Address 
Mother Provincial, Holy Ghost Institute, 
Techny, III. 



— Only Christians can be optimists in the 
true sense. "Sursum corda" — "Lift up your 
hearts"— that we lii-ar each vSunday, is a 
KJoriftus expr^sion. How many of us fully 
realize its meaning? 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



176 



— Father C. Latty, SJ., in a letter to 
the Tablet (No. 4172), comments on 
the announced publication of supple- 
mentary volumes to the eleventh edition 
of the Encyclopedia Britannica. He 
says Catholics ought to see to it that a 
larger measure of truth and justice is 
meted out to them in these volumes 
than in the ones already published. He 
lefers especially to the articles on "Sac- 
rament" and "Sacrifice," and that on 
Margaret Mary Alacoque. It will be 
hard for the Britannica publishers to 
deal fairly with Catholic matters be- 
cause their policy from the beginning 
has been one of religious intolerance. 

— x-\n English correspondent writes to 
a contributor of The Freeman : "The 
beauty of old England still lingers in 
some of the villages and in a few of the 
by-streets of the great cities. But the 
beamed houses are crumbling, and some 
of the old churches are to be razed. 
Woodland life is dying; many species 
of birds are now seldom to be seen. 
The wild ponies of the New Forest are 
often wounded and left to die by speed- 
ing motor cars. The tanks of civiliza- 
tion are bearing down on any fugitive 
remnant of loveliness." In making all 
things new, will the present generation 
leave anything at all of its glorious in- 
heritance? 



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Bargains in Second-Hand Books 

Carroll, P. J. (C.S.C.) Memory Sketches. (Irish 
Stories). South Bend, Ind. $1. 

Knill, y. H. (C.PP.S.). The Hlesse.l Virgin 
Mary. 3d ed. Collegeville, Ind. 20 cts. (Wrap- 
per). 

Lasance, F, X. Reflections for Religious. N. Y. 
1920. $1.50. 

Pohle-Preuss. Dogmatic Theolog^y. The Sacra- 
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Hclliiiiihaus, O. Leopold Graf zu Stolberg; Ehses, 
Stephan, Neues zu Sarpi's (ieschichte iles Kon- 
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AuQustine, Fr. Clias. (O.S.B.) Commentary on 
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marriage la.v and matrimonial trials). St. Louis, 

1919. $2.10. 

Axrinhac. H. A. (S.S.). Penal Legislation in the 
New Code of Canon Law (Liber V). N. Y., 

1920. $2.50. 

Gareschc, Edzv. F. (S.J.). Your Own Heart; Some 
Helps to Understand It. N. Y., 1920. $1. 

McClorcv, J. A. (S.J.). The Brazen Serpent. (Len- 
ten SeVmons). St. Louis, 1920. $1.30. 

Young, John Russell. Around . the World vvith 
General Grant. \ Narrative of the Visit of Gen. 
U. S. Grant, ex-President of the U. S., to Vari- 
ous Countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa, in 
1877, 1878, 1879. To which are added certain 
conversations with Gen. Grant on questions con- 
nected with .American politics and history. 2 
quarto vols, with 800 illustrations. N. Y., 1879. 
$5.00. 

Schmidt, Geo. T. The American Priest. N. Y., 
1919. $1. 

Waggaman, Mary T. The Finding of Tony. (A 
novel). N. Y., 1919. 80 cts. 

Pohle-Prenss. God the Author of Nature and the 
Supernatural ( De Deo Creante et Elevante). 2nd 
ed. St. Louis, 1916. $1.50. 

I'illicn A. Histoire des Commandements de 
I'Eglise. Paris, 1909. $1.30. 

De Smet, Canon. Betrothment and Marriage. A 
Canonical and Theological Treatise with Notices 
on History and Civil Law. Tr. by W. Dobell. 2 
large vols. Bruges and St. Louis, Mo., 1912 and 
1913. $3. 

Pohle-Preuss. Soteriology. 2nd ed. St. Louis, 1916. 

SO cts. (Title page somewhat disfigured). 
Hinkson, Kath. Tynan. The Story of Cecilia. N. Y., 

1911. SO cts. 
Coffev. P. The Science of Logic. 2 vols. London, 

19l"2. $4. 
Woyu-od, S. (O.F.M.) The New Canon Law. A 

Commentary and Summary of the New Code. 

N. Y.. 1918. $2.50. 
Leitner. M. Lehrbuch des kath. Eherechts. 2nd ed. 

Paderborn, 1912. $1.25. 
Lemiiis, J. B. (tr. J. Fitzpatrick). Catechism on 

Modernism, according to the Encyclical "Pascendi." 

etc., London, 1908. 25 cts. (Wrapper). 
Finke, H. P.riefe an Friedrich Schlegel. Cologne, 

1917. 30 cts. (Wrapper). 
Sheehan, Cation. Parerga. A Companion Volume to 

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MacMeill P.oin. Phases of Irish History. Dublin, 

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The Fortnightly Review, St. Louis, Mo. 



176 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



Literary Briefs 

— "Tractate Shanliedrin, Mishnah and To- 
sefta," translated by Herbert Danby 
(S.P.C.K.), gives the judicial procedure of 
the Jews as codified towards the end of the 
second century of our era. The subject is 
deeply interesting to Christian apologists as 
bearing, first, on tlie question of the legality 
of the trial of Jesus before the Sanhedrin, 
and, secondly, on the historical character of 
the Gospels. Incidentally, too, it throws light 
on what amount of authority the Jews ex- 
pected to exercise over their nationals under 
the Rornan Empire. The whole procedure 
of the Sanhedrin may have altered in the 
century and a half wliich elapsed from The 
Crucifixion to the codification of the Mish- 
nah, and we entirely agree with the editor in 
recognizing the marked element of unreality 
in the whole code. 

—The Rev. P. J. Carroll. C.S.C, has added 
to his previously published tales of Irish life, 
which have been so well received, another 
kindred volume titled, "Memory Sketches." 
It contains twenty- four charming stories, in 
which quiet, genial, clever people come and 
go over white roads and growing fields. 
Father John, the old Irish parisli priest, who 
fonns the central figure, is a lovable cliarac- 
ter, with "the mind of a poet and tlie heart 
of a soggarth."' The author fully deserves 
the praise that has been given to him by 
America, and other leading journals and he 
wields such a clever pen that we cannot but 
share the hope expressed by the Ave Maria 
that he will concentrate his powers upon the 
more ambitious form of the novel. (South 
Bend. Ind. : School Plays Pub. Co.; $1.35). 

— Xo new volume had been published of 
the "Leonine Edition"' of tlie works of St. 
Thomas Aquinas for twelve years. Now 
comes volume XIII, containing the first two 
books of the "Summa contra Gentiles." The 
text is based upon the autographic original 
and accompanied by the classic commentary 
of Francis Sylvestris of Ferrara. The edi- 
tors are PP. Peter Makay and P. C. Suer- 
mondt, O.P. Dr. M. Grabmann, than whom 
there is no better authority in these matters, 
declares in a lengthy notice of the volume in 
the Thcolonische Kevue (Vol. XIX, Xo. %. 
pp. 42 sqq.), that, unlike its early predeces- 
sors, this volume of the "Opera Omnia" of 
the -Angelic Doctor gives no occasion for un- 
favorable criticism, but 'is exemplary from 
every point of view. The method adopted by 
the editors make it possible to study the 
growth of this great work under the hands 
of its author, and thus t^ penetrate, as it 
were, info the development <>i his mind. It 
appears that St. Thomas was a jiainstakiiig 
writer, who rearl and reread his manuscript 
with f>€n in hand and pruned, corrected, and 
polished with infinite pati<-nce until it was as 
perfect as he could make it. In the opinion 
of the editors the "Summa contra Ckntihs" 



was begun in Paris, about 1256 or 1257, and 
finished in lt:.ly about 1264. It was intended 
as a theological handbook for young mission- 
aries of the Dominican Order. 



Books Received 

Prasimatism Refuted. A Brief Exposition and Ref- 
utation of Some Inconsistencies of Pragmatism, 
in Particular a Refutation of the Assertion of 
Professor James of Harvard, that the Meta- 
physical Attributes of God Have no Practical or 
Moral Value or Significance. By the Rev. John 
H. Stromberg, D.D., Ph.D. iv. & 78 pp. 8vo. 
Wausau, Wis., 1919. For sale by Benziger Bros., 
Chicago, and the Diederich-Schaefer Co., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 80 cts., postpaid. 

y<ur Own Heart. Some Helps to Understand It. 
By the Rev. Edward F. Garesche, S.J. 160 pp. 
12mo. Benziger Bros. $1.25 net. 

Zii Fiissen des .'\[cistc)s. .Kurze Betrachtungen fijr 
vielbeschaftigte Priester von Anton Iluonder, 
S.J. Neunte und zehnte Auflage. xxiii & 405 
pp. 16mo. Freiburg i. B. : B. Herder. 1917. 

The Sacrifice of the Mass, an Inexhaustible Fonn- 
lain of Grace. A Short Treatise by Rev. John 
Henry, C.SS.R. 62 pp. 16mo. B. Herder Book 
Co. is cts. (Wrapper). 

The Brazen Scrf^ent. By Rev. John A. McClorey, 
S.T. vii & 182 pp. 12mo. B. Plerder Book Co. 
$1.50 net. 



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1920 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 177 



The 1920 Season of 



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All Star Cast Large Chorus Orchestra of Fifty 

June 15 Week — "Robin Hood" 

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July 13 Week — "Gondoliers" 

July 20 Week — "Babes in Toyland" 



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St. Louis has the distinction of being the only city in the world to have a season 
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Seats at Baldwin's, 1111 Olive Street 
Theatre After Seven 



178 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Juue J6 



Clean literature and clean womanhood are the Keystones of Civilization: 
— this apborlstlcslly defines the Ideals of the Devin-Adair Imprint. 



The Census Bureau jiublished figures that proi''e that ^^every ninth marriage the 

countrif over tei-miiiatcs in divorce — that divorce is increasing nearly twice 

as fast as marriage.^' If you^re inarried or if you re about to be mw- 

7'ied any Annalist, Actuary — or shrewd ^^sport^^ will lay you from 

eight to ten to one that YOUR marriage will be a failure — 

that YOU will wind up in the Divorce Court. 

The Devil's way is the divorce way; the ratio in the larger cities is one in seven to one in three — 
bad enough, truly, but just as surely as "you cannot be a little bit married — or a little bit dead," the 
thousands of thoughtless, hastv and fly-bv-night war marriages will send the average of domestic up- 
heavals to panic figures. Read GREAT WIVES AND MOTHERS, lend it to others— to your mis- 
mated friends and neighbors — ibove all send it to the youth of both sexes, graduates and undergradu- 
ates of fashionable colleges who (at the most fateful of periods — the adolescent) are being rounded 
into adult life on the works of male and female wantons — men and women who if alive would not 
be allowed within smelling distance of a cotter's cottage. The subtle hypocrisy of such impelling 
e.xemplars makes for cumulative far »?aching harm — harm that fairly snuggles into church, State and 
society — that inspires and supports "the lust-lucred leading theatres with their bedroom art — their 
publicity barkers, flaunting "girl from a convent" for the gaze and thoughts of the tired shekel 
getter. GREAT WIVES AND MOTFIERS will help to turn houses into homes— will assuredly lead 
to marriage and happiness of the kind that's worth a picayune — the kind that lasts. 

No good IVoman ever married a man except for love — for life 

No real Man evei married a woman except for love — for life 

With this book the comrade of all men and women a Bachelor in time will be an 

ignored novelty — and as for Spinsters there will be feiv if any in the 

world old enough to shy at a mirror. 

Great Wives and Mothers 

By HUGH FRANCIS BLUNT 

iThe Boston Editor, Writer and Poet) 

This Is the age ol War — and Woman. In the War history repeated with horror- 
laden emphasis. In Woman's dominating activities are we to have a rebirth of the 
Eleventh Century? There Is no middle course forW^oman; her Influence is infinite 
and eternal 1q results, for she leads to Heaven or lures to Hell. 



"One after another the great wives and 
mothers nass over the pages, a noble procession 
that thrills the reader and makes him proud of 
his Catholic ancestry. From land to land, from 
age to age, they have handed down the torch 
of faith and piety, a:id the sweet odor of their 
holy lives purifies the atmosphere of any home 
which is privileged to make their acquaintance. 
The book is intended principally by its author 
to lighten the labors of priests who are direct- 
il)g sodalities, but it has a place in every Cath- 
olic family. Convent-schools also would be 
wise to place it on their shelves, it wni De an 
inspiration to their pupils and a stimulus to 
make their lives sublime. 

The style is simple, careful and entertaining. 
The book deserves ri warm welcome." 

REV. J. H.\KDING FISHER, S.J. 



"Possessed of genuine interest for readers of 
either sex and all ages. The work is especially 
timely at present, when, as the author remaiks 
in his preface, 'the world in many different ways 
is seeking to turn our women from the pursuit 
of the Christian ideal in wifehood and mother- 
hood.' The apiietizing contents of the book may 
be jud^'cd by these selections from the chapter 
headings: Margaret Roper, Elizabeth Seton, 
Jerusha Parber, Mary O'Connell, Margaret 
Flaughery, Lady Georgiana Fullerton, Pauline 
Craven, and 'Some Literary Wives and Moth- 
ers.' " — THE AVE MARIA. 



Large Crown Oct.'ivo — Postpaid $2.50 at Bookstores or 



THE DEVIN ADAIR COMPANY, Publisliers 



125 Filth Avenue 



New York 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXVII, NO. 12 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



June 15, 1920 



"In Necessariis Unitas, . . . . " 

The Rev. Wendelin Gillen, of Oak- 
dale, 111., in a letter to the F. R., pro- 
tests against the ascription to St. Au- 
gustine oFthe phrase : "In necessariis 
unitas, in dubiis Uhertas, in omnibus 
antevn caritas," which the Catholic Tel- 
egraph carries at the top of its front 
page in this form : "In essentials, 
unity ; in non-essentials, liberty ; in all 
things, charity." Father Gillen says 
that this phrase, though attributed to 
St. Augustine in the "Dictionary of 
Classical Quotations" and other refer- 
ence works, is not traceable in the 
Saint's writings, and quotes Father 
Denifle, O.P., who condemns it as un- 
Catholic in the following terms : 

"It cannot be ascertained who first 
employed this sentence," says Denifle 
in his "Luther und Luthertum," Vol. I, 
Part 3, p. 423. "Some think it was 
Melanchthon (Wood, 'Dictionary of 
Quotations,' 188, 25), others, Gregory 
Frank, or the problematic Rup. Mel- 
denius. The phrase certainly did not 
become proverbial before 1630. It 
seems to have been invented for the 
purpose of rendering acceptably the 
fatal theory of the 'fundamental ar- 
ticles of religion,' which formed the 
starting-point of indifferentism and lat- 
itudinarianism." 

"If thi.G is so," concludes Father Gil- 
len, "we Catholics ought to avoid this 
<lubious phrase." 

The question as to the meaning and 
probable origin of the phrase mentioned 
was dealt with at some length in 
the F. R., for Dec. 1, 1906 (Vol. XIII, 
No. 23, pp. 748 sq.). There the pas- 
sage from Denifle's book contained in 
a note added to the text by his editor, 
Fr. A. M Weiss, O.P., was quoted in 
full, and it was pointed out that the 
pseudo-Augustinian phrase, though 
perhaps heretical in its original conno- 



tations, admits of an orthodox con- 
struction and may convey a much- 
needed and sometimes neglected lesson, 
to wit, that doubtful opinions should 
never be mistaken for necessary doc- 
trines. We Catholics know that the 
Church, while requiring unitas in neces- 
sariis, freely concedes libertas in dubiis; 
that there are many schools of opinion 
within her pale; that great latitude is 
permitted in the authoritative expres- 
sion of devotional sentiment, and that 
almost any amount of bad taste is tol- 
erated ; in a word, that the Church does 
not aim at creating a dead and soulless 
level of uniformity, but tolerates great 
liberty of opinion in matters of opinion, 
provided her children accept her as the 
niother and mistress of Divine Truth 
and are ready at any time to submit, 
should she, through her legitimate 
mouthpiece, see fit to pronounce a 
judgment. 

-^4^^.^.^ 

Freemasonry and the League of 
Nations 

Das Neuc Reich, a weekly Catholic 
review published under the editorial di- 
rection of Dr. Joseph Fberle, at Vien- 
na, in its No. 32, calls attention to a 
remarkable brochure on the League of 
Nations, written by the well-known 
French Jesuit, Fr. Yves de la Briere 
and published by Gabriel Beauchesne 
of Paris. In this brochure it is asserted 
that the Freemasons of France, on June 
28, 1917, two years before the Peace of 
Versailles, held a meeting at Paris, in 
which M. Corneau, President of the 
Grand Orient ; General Peigne, Grand 
Master of the Grand Lodge ; Andrd 
Lebey, a Socialist member of the 
Chamber of Deputies, and others, dis- 
cussed the plan of a League of Nations 
and adoped a constitution for the 
same. It would be interesting to know 
how much of this Masonic programme 
was adopted into Mr. Wilson's. 



180 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 15 



Al Fresco 

By Eugene M. Bkck, S.J.. 

St. Louis University. 

On l>anks of tliynie and violet 
Let nie forget, let me forget ! 

Far from the uncongenial throng 
I'll seek the hidden wells of song. 
Here in a sanctuary remote 
ril vie the blackbird's fluted note; 
Here shall my solitary hours 
Computed be by sun and flowers. 
In bowercd sacristies I'll lie 
Watching the ritual of tlic sky, 
Until the leafy arclies fade 
Into a spell of murnnirous shade. 

Let no irreverent foot intrude 
Upon my cloistered solitude; 
Hut tiny feet and tiny eyes 
Shall my companionship comprise. 
Here where a huncliing sumach tree 
Punctures the bright monotony, 
I'll bid my soul put care aside 
.-\nd into green oblivion glide; 
Here in the wildwood's charmed zone 
I'll dream my starry dreams alone. 
In many aisles of swelling sod 
I'll walk the secret ways of God. 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. Joh.n Eugene Weibel, V.F. 
(Xiiilh Installment) 

Laughable incidents occurred even in the 
saddest circumstances. It was said that a 
man "tanked up" with whiskey would never 
catch the fever. The undertaker, Mr. Walsh, 
was then a very busy man. He used to go 
from house to house, gather up the dead, 
and take them out to the cemetery. At the 
height of the epidemic there were not coffins 
and graves enough, and the dead had to be 
buried in large trenches, about twenty-five to 
a grave. One day Mr. Walsh picked up a 
man for dead who was only drunk and laid 
him in the trench. Whilst the fellow was ly- 
ing in the trench he sobered up and crawled 
out lx;fore another b(afl had arrived. It is 
said he never got the yellow fever. I have 
the following from .Mr. P'ugene P»adinelli, 
now a resident of Wynne, .Arkansas: I'.adi- 
nelli and a friend of his remained in' Mem- 
phis during the epidemic and were living in 
a large house, which previously had aliout 
400 In^arders. All were gone except our two 
men. Finally, when there were only about 
5000 i>eop!e remaining in the city, the rest 
having either did or fled, the two fricn<ls 
promised to stick together, and if one got 
sick the other wonbl wait on him. They 
carried on fairly well, drinking whiskey mod- 
erately. Finally, the papers reportefl that the 
epidemic was dying out. and the two men 



began to let up on drinking. Unfortunately, 
Badinelli's friend caught the yellow fever, 
and Hadinelli waited on him day and night. 
When the sick man died Badinelli says that 
he was so exhausted that he could not do 
anything. An evening paper was thrown into 
their room. He scanned it, and then lay 
down with the dead man, covering his head 
with the newspaper, anil slept until morning. 
He never took the fever. 

PART II 

IN THE COUNTRY MISSIONS OF 

ARKANSAS 

Mv -Arrival in Arkans.\s 

Chapter VI 

I left Meinphis on the evening train over 
the old Memphis and Little Rock Railroad. 
It was at that time "the slow train" in Arkan- 
sas, and was made famous by Father Quinn 
in his book on the "Heroes and Heroines of 
]\Iemphis." I arrived in Little Rock about 2 
o'clock the ne.xt morning. At the depot there 
stood a carriage with the inscription "German 
Hotel." This proved "bad luck" to me. Not 
being able to speak English, I said to myself, 
"That is your hotel," and I went there. It 
was a brick house on the river front. I was 
given a room upstairs, without windows. 
The bed seemed rather unclean, so I did not 
venture to lie down. Ii was a chilly morning, 
and I paced up and down my room, glad to 
have my overcoat, until 6 o'clock A. M., when 
I went down to the office. There was no 
water in my room with which to wash, and I 
was obliged to make use of a kind of public 
trough. I had never before been in such a 
hotel. At the office I wanted to settle my 
bill, and inquired for the Cathedral, where I 
wished to say Mass. A number of men were 
standing about the counter. The hotelkeeper 
pointed out to me a man who desired to see 
my papers. I replied I did not have to show 
my papers to everyone. Mine host said the 
man was a policeman and had the right to 
ask for such information. The policeman 
was dressed like a civilian and looked to me 
more like a tramp tlian an officer. Well, I 
decided I wanted no delay and handed him 
the first pai)cr I found in my satchel. It was 
the Latin diploma of my reception into the 
Sodality of the Blessed Virgin Mary. He 
looked at the docmnent and said it was all 
right, but he wf)uld anyway accompany me 
to the IJishop's house. At this he took iny 
satchel and walked off. I had read in stories 
of the "wild and wooly West," that they 
wdtild take away your belongings in broad 
daylight. 1 did not trust tiiat fellow, so I 
followed him. On the way to the Bishop's 
house some people asked him who I was. He 
said that I was a priest and had no business 
to stay in the house he found me in; that 
the liisbop had given him orders to bring 
him any j)riest he foimd in a wrong place. I 
(•f<uld understand tliat much, but I could not 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



181 



talk', antl didn't know anything better to do 
than to follow him. 

When we arrived at the Bishop's house the 
Bishop and the Vicar General, Rev. F. ] kn- 
neniann, O.S.B., showed great surprise. I 
did not seem to he a welcome guest. The 
policeman spoke to the Bishop, whilst I hand- 
ed His Lordship my letter of recommenda- 
tion. They had expected me, and both the 
Bishop and Father Hennemann laughed 
heartily and told the man I was "all right." 
I still see that policeman turning around once 
more and asking, "Ls he all right?" Then 1 
found out that the man was really a police- 
man and that I had been brought to my new 
Bishop by the police. I resented this keenly. 
I could not even pronounce the word fiolicc- 
Vioii properly, but spoke of him as the }>olish- 
inan. In after years Father Tom O'Reily, as- 
sistant priest at the Cathedral used to ask me 
every time he met me, "Have you seen the 
polishman again? " 

After the policeman had left, the Bishop 
asked me if I wanted to say Mass. I an- 
swered yes. Thereupon he himself went to 
ring the church bell, led me to the sacristy 
and came out with me to serve my Mass. A 
big cat sat in the Bishop's throne, and the 
candles and flowers on the altar were ar- 
ranged without symmetry, almost as vege- 
tables in a garden. The old sexton, Pat 
Donahue, later made section boss, and whom 
I afterwards learned to esteem as a good, 
sincere Catholic, had not much taste, and was 
certainly better qualified for a railroad man 
than for a church sexton. 

The Bishop and the priests at the Cathe- 
dral were very kind to me. Notwithstasding 
that fact, I lost a great deal of my enthusiasm 
for the missions. I wrote to Bishop Lachat, 
of Basle, that I would stay about six months, 
learn some English, and get acquainted with 
the country; then I would return home. He 
had let me go to the missions reluctantly. I 
was not ordained for the diocese, but on a 
private title. He thought I could do just as 
much good at home as in the missions. Pre- 
suming I might return, he gave me a recom- 
mendation and permission to travel and to 
study as professor of rhetoric. I had left my 
trunks in Newark, anc^ in fact, left them 
there for a whole year, undecided whether to 
stay or not. It was through a rather strange 
incident that I decided not to return. After 
my arrival at St. Benedict's, Arkansas, Rev. 
Father Wolfgang soon sent me to St. Scho- 
lagtica to finish tlie church and convent there 
and to attend that mission. My mail had been 
ordered to Paris. Arkansas. For months I 
did not receive any letters from Europe, and 
presently began to think if they did not care 
more for me there I might as well quit writ- 
ing. Later, a Mr. Kleba told me one Sunday 
that my name had been continually in the 
county paper for months in the list of ad- 
dressees of unclaimed letters. When I wrote 
to the Dead Letter Oflfice in Washington, I 
received a stack of letters, but the answers 



from Bishop Lachat and Abbot Charles were 
not among them. They must have been 
burned up liefore I applied. In Europe, when 
no more news was received from me the 
rumor spread that 1 had gone to Mexico. 

In any case, the longer I remained, the bet- 
ter I liked missionary work. From Little 
Rock I went to Spadra, the transfer point for 
St. Benedict's and a station on the Little Rock 
& Fort Sniitli Railroad, a«d here I had to 
lodge in a small one-story house called a 
hotel. I told them where 1 wanted to go, Init 
tliey could not or would not understand me. 
1 remained there a couple of days, almost 
ready to take tlie next train, no matter whicli 
way it would go, when a young gentleman, 
Dominic Helmich, the son of the land agent, 
came to Spadra. He spoke German, and as 
he left on the next train for St. Louis, he 
lent me his big white horse, and gave me in- 
structions how to reach St. Scholastica 
and St. Benedict. This was a trip of more 
than twenty miles. I had never been on a 
horse before except to drive one to water at 
home. Though it was the first time, I got 
along nicely, driving the strong animal in a 
steady gallop, as I had often seen it represent- 
ed in illustrations. Thus I got to St. Bene- 
dict about dusk. Father Wolgang, the prior, 
was not at home when I arrived, but Father 
Boniface Luebbermann, O.S.B., later profes- 
sor of theology at the seminary in Cincinnati, 
received me with great cordiality. Looking 
at the building I said to him, "I have to con- 
gratulate you on Jipur success; this is quite a 
nice barn for a new monastery." "E.xcuse 
me," he replied, "this is our monastery and 
church." Well, the appearance was deceitful ; 
the whole building was a lengthy one-story 
affair, built of rough planks, neither painted 
nor whitewashed, and looking exactly like a 
barn. 

After this he took me inside. It was ar- 
ranged that evening that I shouli sing high 
Mass the following day. Ash Wednes- 
day. Father Boniface showed me the Lenten 
regulations. What a difference between our 
lengthy Lenten pastorals in the old country 
and this little sheet. He went through it 
with me. When I said we could not very 
well speak in. German of nursing women, and 
instead, I would say mothers with small chil- 
dren, he replied that this would not do ; that 
his motlier was still young, but she would 
always have little children, as he did not think 
he would grow any more. Father Boniface 
was a very short man. At High Mass, seeing 
Father Boniface, who presided at the organ 
in front of me. looking at me. wondering 
what I would say. I skipped that passage al- 
together, but it started me laughing, so that 
I had to stop preaching. I had had laughing 
spells before, at most inopportune times, but 
this was the worst one I had ever experi- 
enced. I imagined the people saying. "Be- 
hold, there is another European fool let loose 
on lis." I wondered what the prior would 
say. i put before my eyes death and judg- 



182 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Juue 15 



num ami everything serious, but the more 1 
tried to control my laugliing, the worse it 
became. Happily, nobody mentioned it after- 
wards, but I am sure that everyone had no- 
ticed it. 

As a young student 1 had to assist at the 
funeral of a relative. Something in the 
chMrch looked \ ery comical and started me 
laughing. Knowing how unbecommg this 
was. when almost e\erybody else cried, I hid 
my face in my handkerchief, so that 1 miglu 
seem to be weeping. Several years after, con- 
versing with the daughter of the departed rel- 
ative, I remarked about my having laugliing 
fits at most unbecoming times." "Yes." she 
said, "I noticed it at the funeral of my 
mother."' 

{To be continued). 



• • c*^ » • 



The International Gregorian Congress 

The lirst days of this month wit- 
nessed an event of more than passing 
importance to the Church in this coun- 
try. The International Gregorian Con- 
gress, the tirst of its kind to be held in 
the New World, convened in New York 
City, under the auspices of the Society 
of St. Gregory and the Pontifical In^li- 
tute of Sacred Music. Three days were 
given over to a feast of Gregorian ii'.cl- 
ody. Solemn High ]\Iass was celebrated 
each morning at St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
and the solemn services of vespers aitd 
compline took place each evening. At 
all the services the sublime Chant of 
the Church was sung by a choir of hun- 
dreds of voices under the masterly di- 
rection of Dom A. Mocquereau, the 
greatest living authority on the Chant 
to-day. Every one v/ho was fortunate 
enough to be present was so ca'^ried 
away by the mulchless rendition of the 
Chant by the great chorus that all, with 
or.c accord, i)ronounced it music :r.- 
spired from abo\e. The Chant mel- 
odies for the different days revealed a 
mystic l)cauty that was a revelation even 
to the cultured church musician. 

The proceedings of the congress have 
been closely followed all over the coun- 
try by church musicians and by priests 
who have the beauty of divine worship 
at heart. The success of this great 
meeting has excecfled the fondest hojjcs 
of its most ardent supporters. It has 
brought the beautiful old Chant of the 
ages once more into the limelight. It 



has proved, at least to all who were pres- 
ent, that it is the most sublime expres- 
sion of the art of music, and as such is 
best titted for the praise of Almighty 
God in our churches. It has demon- 
strated to all that it is the only music 
proper to the liturgy, that it forms one 
with the liturgy, and that it expresses 
liturgical meaning as no other music 
could. 

It is the earnest hope of all that this 
congress has given a fresh impetus to 
the general introduction of this treasure 
of the ages of faith into our churches, 
at least into our cathedrals and large 
city churches. No matter what the 
effects of the congress may be, it has 
at least been the means of making the 
Gregorian Chant better known and 
worthy of investigation. Priests and 
church mivsicians throughout the coun- 
try will feel themselves urged to ex- 
amine its character and fitness for our 
holy services, which, when adequately 
grasped and understood, will compel 
them to introduce it into their churches 
and choirs sooner or later. 

The want of encouragement which 
has for many years past been experi- 
enced by that species of music which 
called forth the best efforts and dis- 
l)laycd the genius of the greatest mas- 
ters, and the neglect into which it had 
fallen, have long been sources of regret 
to the educated church musician — a re- 
gret which, though it has hitherto 
proved unavailing, has not extinguished 
the hope that persevering exertions may 
yet restore to the Church those compo- 
sitions of the ages of faith, the Grego- 
rian melodies, which have excited so 
niuch religious fervor and rekindle in 
the mind of the faithful that taste for 
excellence in church music which has so 
long remained lalenl. It was the object 
of the International Gregorian Congress 
to effect just this desirriblc purpose, 
namely, to promote the performance in 
the most perfect manner posible of Gre- 
gorian master])ieces and thus raise the 
sl.'indard of ai)preciation on the part of 
the faithful to a higher level, 

( IvF.v.) F. Jos. Kklly 
Catholic rniTcr.sity of America 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



183 



Presidential Candidates Who Are 
Masons 

According to the Nc^c Era, an ofticial 
organ of the Council of the 33d Degree 
of the A. and A. Scottish Rite, S.J., 
U. S. A., for May, 1920, page 235 sq., 
the following candidates for the presi- 
dency are Freemasons : 

On the Democratic side : Vice Presi- 
dent ]\Iarshall, 33° ; Senator Oscar Un- 
derwood, 33° (honorary) ; ex-Speaker 
Champ Clark, 32°; Ambassador lohn 
W. Davis, 32° ; Wm. G. iMcAdoo, '14° ; 
Senator Hoke Smith ; Wm. J. Bryan. 

On the Republican side : Gov. Frank 
O. Lowden, 33° ; Gen. Leonard Wood, 
32°; Gen. John J. Pershing, Knight 
Templar, 32° ; Senator Hiram Johnson, 
Senator Howard Sutherland. 

Senator Harding is reported as hav- 
ing been an entered apprentice, but to 
have later dropped out of his lodge. 

Nicholas Alurray Butler's Masonic 
status is undetermined. So also is that 
of Gov. Cox of Ohio. 

Herbert Hoover and A. Mitchell 
Palmer are )iot ]\Iasons. 



-^>^- 



A Correction 

We are officially informed that "the 
National Catholic War Council did )iot 
contribute $10,000 to the rebuilding of 
the First Reformed Church of Ho- 
l^oken, N. J. The council maintained at 
Floboken the Admiral Benson Club — a 
service club for soldiers and sailors. 
This club was destroyed by fire, which 
began in the club building itself; as a 
result, much adjacent property and a 
number of lives were lost. The fire 
caused considerable comment in Ho • 
hoken. and a committee was appointed 
fi om the community itself to pass upon 
all claims in co-operation with the War 
Department, under whose jurisdiction 
the funds are administered. Under the 
ruling from the War Department, we 
vvere given permission to distribute the 
money received from insurance we held 
on this building and its contents among 
all those who suffered loss as a result of 
the fire. The First Reformed Church, 
which adjoined the club, was burned to 
the ground, and the local committee, in 



passing judgment on all claims submit- 
ted to them, adjusted the claim of the 
First Reformed Church in the amount 
of $10,000, and this sum was paid, like 
all other claims, out of the insurance 
money." 



►<s>« 



The Bastille 

Blanc and Michelet in France, and 
Dickens and Carlyle in England, have 
taught us to believe that the Bastille 
was a grewsome subterranean dungeon, 
the resort of toads, lizards, rats, and 
spiders. Mrs. Arthur Webster, in her 
lately published volume, "The French 
Revolution" (j^utton), gives a different 
story. According to her the Bastille at 
the tinie of the Revolution was a model 
prison in comparison with those of 
England and Germany. The rooms were 
all provided with windows, stoves or 
fire-places, good beds and other furni- 
ture, and the prisoners were given al- 
most complete freedom. The food was 
excellent. Many of the menus were such 
as to gratify the palate of an epicure, 
even in the days of Louis XV. De Ren- 
neville, in a pamphlet written after his 
release, with the object of denouncing 
the Bastille, admitted that "certain peo- 
ple iiad themselves imprisoned there in 
order to enjoy good cheer without ex- 
pense." 

»^,^S>^^ 

— In discussing Epstein's statue of 
Christ, R. C. Gleaner (in the Catholic 
Columbian, Vol. XLV, No. 14), once 
again cites the alleged description of 
Our Lord attributed to Publius Len- 
tulus. the manuscript of whose report 
to the Roman Senate, he says, still 
exists. Gleaner could gain fame by 
l)roducing the original of this much- 
discussed letter. Meanwhile we shall 
stick to to consentient opinion of schol- 
ars that the Lentulus letter is a forgery ; 
lirst, because both the office and the 
name of its alleged author are grossly 
unhistorical, and, second, because no 
ancient writer alludes to this produc- 
tion, which was most likely composed 
in the Middle Ages for the purpose of 
authenticating a pretended portrait of 
Jesus. (See Cath.. Encyclopedia, Vol. 
J. p. 610 b). 



184 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 15 



Franciscan Problems 
A Dutch Franciscan, Fr. Fidentius 
\'an den Home, has published in the 
"X'erortentlichungen aus deni Kirchen- 
historischen Seminar ^liinchen"' (IVth 
Series, Xo. 6; Munich: J. J. Lentner, 
1917), a concise introduction to the 
maze of modern Franciscan Hterature. 
He begins by ihawing a distinction 
between the source problems and the 
real problems connected with the biog- 
raphy of St. Francis of Assisi. He 
gives an account of the work of Fr. 
Luke Wadding, who was probably the 
first scholar to familiarize himself with 
a considerable portion of the source 
materials, and of the Bollandists Stilt- 
ir.g and Suyskens. who courageously 
attacked the problems presented by the 
StJurces. These learned writers agreed 
that Thomas of Celano's life of St. 
Francis was the first, and was followed 
by the "Legenda Trium Sociorum" 
and the biographical sketch composed 
by St. Bonavcnture. In consequence 
of the publication of new source mate- 
rial, c. g., the "\'ita Secunda" of 
Thomas of Celano and the memoirs 
Jordanus a Giano. and because of 
the writings of K. Hase, E. Renan, 
and H. Thode. Protestants, too, be- 
came deeply interested in the life of 
the "Poverello," and the "Vie de S. 
Francois" by .Sabatier had an enor- 
mous vogue. .Sabatier emphasized the 
\alue of St. Francis' own writings and 
the "Legenda Trium Sociorum." and 
surprised the world by the publication 
of a hitherto unknown ".Speculum Per- 
fectior.is." which he assigned to the 
year 1227. 

Shortly afterward, the RoUandist, i*". 
van Ortroy, sought to guide the stream 
of Franciscan research into new chan- 
nels. He contended that the "Legenda 
Trium Sociorum" was absolutely in- 
comiiatible with the undoubtedly genuine 
ktter addressed by the three .Socii to 
the Minister (ieneral. and rejected it as 
a clever forgery — a compilation made 
at the end of the thirteenth century 
from the two vitx of Thomas of Cela- 
no and that written by St. P.onaven- 
turc. The "Vita Sectnula" of TlK)mas 
of Celano he regarded as the result of a 



collaboration on the part of Thomas 
and the Socii. 

After van Ortroy Fr. L. Lemmens 
edited the minor writings of Brother 
Leo and certain fragments w^hich he 
believed to represent the earliest redac- 
tion of the "Speculum." W. Gotz, H. 
Tilemann and other scholars took part 
in the discussion, without, however, be- 
ir.g able to establish a definite conclu- 
sion. 

Fr. \'an den Borne is reserved in his 
criticism of Fr. Van Ortroy's hypothe- 
sis, but Fr. F. Pelster, S.J., in a review 
of \'an den Borne's book in the Sthn- 
mcii dcr Zc'it (Vol. 98, No. 6), boldly 
declares that Van Ortroy's hypothesis 
is unfounded and ought to be definitive- 
ly discarded. In this Jesuit critic's opin- 
ion, the "Legenda Trium Sociorum" 
stands unshaken and the alleged con- 
tradiction between it and the letter of 
the Socii to the Minister General, upon 
closer investigation, resolves itself into 
the fact that the letter refers to a sec- 
ond part of the "Legenda," which was, 
in Fr. Pelster's opinion, contained in the 
"Speculum Perfectionis" discovered by 
Sabatier. but wrongly dated by him. 

Besides a critical account of the 
sources of Franciscan literature, Fr. 
Van den Borne ofifers a historical intro- 
duction to the real problems connected 
with the life of St. Francis, as, for in- 
stance, (1) "Was his institute intended 
from the start to be a religious order, 
in the strict sense of the term, or 
rathi'r a lay confraternity?" (2) "What 
attitude did the founder take towards 
the ministers and towards the changes 
thev introduced into the organization 
about 1219?" (3) "What were his rela- 
tions to the ecclesiastical authorities?" 
(^4) "How did the Third Order orig- 
inate?" (5) "What were the relations, 
if any, between St. Francis and the 
Waldensian communities of his time?*' 
(6) "Can .St. I'Vancis be regarded as 
the precursor of the 'new man' of the 
Renaissance?" All these questions, 
nntl several others, are discused, or at 
least touched upon, by Fr. Van den 
Borne, and we .share the hope ex- 
pressed by l'>. Pelster, that the learned 
author will develop his brochure ( 106 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



185 



pages) into a comprehensive introduc- 
tion to the history and Hterature of 
Franciscan origins. 

•-•^^♦-» 

New Methods of Curing Scrupulosity 

In the current Irish Theological 
Quarterly (No. 58), Professor Garrett 
Pierse has an interesting review of a 
recent ItaHan book on scrupulousness 
(Natal Turco, "II Trattaniento 'Mo- 
rale'' dello Scrupulo e dell' Ossessione 
Morbosa" ; 2 vols. ; Torino, Italy : P. 
Marietti). 

Scrupulosity, he says, is a manifes- 
tation of psychasthenia. Turco, "a 
layman who is also a theologian," 
shows how it can be treated by building 
up opposite habits. After examining" 
habit from the standpoint of biology, 
physiology, and psychology, he shows 
how it can be "starved" by drawing off 
its energy in another direction. 

The underlying principle of the new 
method, says Dr. Pierse, "is the law of 
dispensation ; it means that the increase 
of energy in any one line is at the ex- 
pense of energy in other lines ; and it is 
owing to the fact that man's energy is 
a very limited quantity. The principle 
is fecund in applications ; the abnormal 
growth of memory is at the expense of 
the inventive intellect. The Scholastics 
observed the fact when they said : 'U}ia 
operatio, cum fuerif intcnsa, impcdit 
ah cram: One may, then, cure a vicious 
habit or a morbid obsession like scru- 
pulosity, by assuming the opposite habit 
and acting as if it were present. Owing 
to the sympathetic action of life and 
mind new energies will group them- 
selves gradually around the new nu- 



cleus. One remembers the story of the 
good hypocrite who, from assuming a 
habit of sanctitv, came eventually to 
like it." 

Besides tliis method of gradually 
building up a habit of broad-minded- 
ness instead of a narrow scrupulosity, 
Signor Turco recommends that the pa- 
tient become absorbed with a passion 
for the ideal, especially the Christian 
ideal, which he paints in the most at- 
tractive colors. This, too, will divert 
the mind from the obsession of self and 
will make life worth living. 

Dr. Pierse regrets that Signor Turco 
has not given his readers the benefit of 
a criticism of the method — it might be 
called the direct method in opposition 
tc his own — of a modern school which 
relies on the teaching of Freud, and of 
whose work we have heard a great deal 
lately in connection with cases of shell- 
shock. This school endeavors, by 
means of hypnosis and other agencies, 
to find the disturbing cause and bring 
it into the full light, so that the patient 
himself can see it and despite it. In 
the case of shell-shock there is the har- 
rowing experiment by which the pa- 
tient is made to recall all the circum- 
stances of the shock, so that it cannot 
any longer remain a noxious germ in 
the subconsciousness. 



►<SH 



— The first annual meeting of the 
American Catholic Historical Associa- 
tion will be held at Washington, D. C, 
Dec. 27 to 30, 1920. There will be sep- 
arate conferences on ancient, medieval, 
and modern church history, and papers 
v.'ill l)e read on a variety of topics. 



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186 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June IB 



Boy Scouts or Catholic Young Men's 
and Boys' Societies? 

The Xational Catholic War Council 
has reconimended the Boy Scouts, not, 
however, unconditionally, as we inider- 
stand. but with the proviso that exclu- 
sively Catholic troops bo organized for 
Catholics, under responsible Catholic 
control. But wiiat about communities 
where Catholics constitute the minority, 
\vhere the scouts exist, thanks to the 
efforts of non-Catholic clergymen, and 
Catholic troops are invited to join inter- 
ilenominational troops ? 

In this town, for instance, the Metho- 
dist minister was the originator of the 
fad. for pastime, perhaps, or for the 
betterment of conditions, and probablv 
also to extend his influence. That min- 
ister moved to another State, and an ex- 
soldier succeeded him as scoutmaster. 
This good young man interrogated me 
why I would not permit Catholic bo\s 
to affiliate. Of many reasons he heard 
only one, and he quite agreed with me 
when told that, if fathers and mothers 
would make it their business to attend 
properly to their children, whose di- 
vinely appointed guardians they are, wo 
s!;ould not need scouts and scoutmas- 
ters: that reform must begin from 
within : that the remedy must be applied 
in the proi)er place to produce results, 
and that the thing to do is to bind the 
chilflren more firmly to the home, in- 
stead of weaning thom from home life. 

But. he persisted, some Catholic bish- 
ops and i>riests are recommending the 
scout system. My answer was that in 
this matter they are not infallible, and 
that, therefore, I was free to disagree. 



The last argument was the Superin- 
tendent of the Public Schools had en- 
dorsed the scouts. 1 very frankly re- 
plied that as pastor of my flock I knew 
better than the Superintendent what 
was good for them and that I would not 
allow my boys to join. 

Perhaps other priests have had a 
similar experience. How much bettor 
it would be for the individual, and for 
society in general, if, instead of all this 
ncnsense, there were established in 
every parish a local, in every diocese a 
diocesan, and in every country a na- 
tional young men's and boys' society 
with religion as the paramount is- 
sue. That's what our boys need, and 
that is what the majority of them de- 
sire. We have become too sentimental, 
have made and are making too many 
concessions to Liberalism, are too ready 
to meet the unreasonable demands of 
secularism, and to agree to compro- 
mises in which true religion must finally 
be the loser. Truly, to quote the 
prophet, we are digging cisterns that 
cannot hold water. Fr. A. B. 



Kitchener's Death 

Sir George Arthur has just published 
an interesting "Life of Lord Kitchen- 
er," in three volumes (Macmillan). He 
sheds no light on the manner of Kitch- 
ener's death, and the one sentence he 
gives to us is quite cryptic. He writes : 

"By an imhappy error of judgment 
an unswept channel was chosen for the 
passage of the cruiser; and Kitchener 
— the secret of whose journey had been 
betrayed — was to fall into the machina- 



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1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



187 



tions of England's enemies, and to die 
swiftly at their hands." 

This is the first definite, and, we 
presume, authentic statement to the ef- 
fect that Kitchener was killed by the 
Germans and that the catastrophe is 
ascribed to criminal negligence on the 
part of the British naval authorities. 
The sentence suggests at least three ex- 
planations and leaves the reader to de- 
cide between them. That the cruiser 
carr3-ing the Commander-in-Chief of 
the British army should have been de- 
spatched by a channel sown with enemy 
mines was more than "an unhappy 
error of judgment." 

•-•-^H^-, 

Masonic Secrecy 

The Masonic New Age Magazine 
(Washington, D. C), in its May issue 
(p. 202), gives space to an article by 
John C. Vivian, 32°, in which com- 
plaint is made of the carelessness with 
which some Blue Lodges publish the 
names of their initiates and other infor- 
mation pertaining to their work. These 
incautious Masons, Mr. Vivian says, 
forget that the words "silence and cir- 
cumspection" are in the dictionary of 
Freemasonry, and "lose sight of the fact 
that the Tiler's sword reminds us of 
certain principles and maxims in Ma- 
sonry." 

Mr. Vivian sets up the Grand Lodge 
of Colorado as an example to the 
brethren. This lodge has "discontinued 
publishing even the names of the sub- 
ordinate lodges throughout its jurisdic- 
tion" and "guards very carefully every- 
thing that is sent out from the office of 
the Grand Secretary." 

The writer concludes by saying that, 
while publicity may be "a virtue of so- 
ciety," it is not a virtue of Masonry, 
but on the contrary, the outside public 
should be kept "entirely profane with 
reference to anything Masonic" (italics 
Mr. Vivian's). 

Secrecy is indeed of the very essence 
of Freemasonry (see "A Study of 
American Freemasonry," edited by Ar- 
thur Preuss, B. Herder Book Co.. 
passim), and it is only "Knife and Fork 
Masons" that disregard it in the flagrant 
way complained of by Mr. Vivian. 



The English National Character 

Dr. J. S. Mackenzie, in his book, 
"Arrows of Desire," just published by 
Allen &, Unwin, seems to tell some un- 
pleasant truths about the English, for 
the London Times says in a notice of 
the volume in its Literary Supplement 
(xNo. 950): 

"Dr. Mackenzie, though a Scot, is not 
altogether free from a habit which 
might plausibly for once be classed un- 
der the heading of typically English — 
to wit, the depreciation of all or most 
things English. It is with a shock of 
surprise that we find cruelty among the 
twenty-seven English characteristics — a 
charge that is supported by the author- 
ity of Mr. Robert Sherard's account of 
his 'unhappy friendship' with Oscar 
Wilde ; but surprise is changed to in- 
dignation when we find our country- 
men taxed with inhumanity in their 
treatment of prisoners. . ." 
•-»^g>-»-« 

— The crosses which we make for our- 
selves by a restless anxiety as to the future 
are not crosses which come from God. 

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THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 15 



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True Americanism 

The Rev. Joseph Wentker, of St. 
Louis, in h thousht-provokin<^ address 
delivered at the recent annual meeting 
of the Catholic Union of Missouri, at 
Si. Charles, said, among other things : 

"Tj"ue Americanism demands that 
we acquaint ourselves thoroughly with 
the fundamental principles that under- 
lie our political >ystem. that we cherish 
f)ur national ideals and national asi)ira- 
tions. and the national traditions that 
have been hanrled down to us from 
former generations. And, finally, true 
Americanism demands that we en- 
<lcavor to solve all national problems 
on the basis of these princii)lcs and 
ideals. This. I think, is an American- 
ism to which we can all subscribe as 
American citizens and as Catholics as 
well. There is no antagonism between 
the Catholic moral law and the prin- 
ciples of democracy. The more con- 
scientiously we fulfill our religions du- 
ties the iK'tter shall we Ik- fitted for the 
ftilfillment of the duties of American 
citizenship. I flo not, however, mean to 



say that the founders of our govern- 
ment or the great men who guided the 
ship of state in critical times during 
our short but eventful history, were in- 
fallible. Nothing human is perfect. 
Changes in the constitution and in our 
traditional policies may becotne neces- 
sary. Let such changes be made with 
careful deliberation and only when ne- 
cessity demands them. Above all, let 
them not be made at the invitation and 
solicitation of a foreign country seek- 
ing to use the power of the United 
States for the furtherance of its own 
selfish ends." 

.".^S^^-.^ 

How Spiritistai Destroys Materialism 

The late Dr. Rgbcrt Miiller s opinion 
(<\n()icd by Mr. Kaupert in our No. 9, 
p. LW) that (iod permits Spiriti.sm in 
order to shatter Materialism, derives 
probability from such utterances as this 
of Sir Oliver Lodge, one of the leading 
prophets of Spiritism, reported by the 
Wiiniipeg (Man.) Free Press, of April 
26: 

"Whereas thirty or forty years ago I 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



189 



was inclined to be agnostic, and to think 
that many things asserted by rehgious 
people were impossible, now I think dif- 
ferently. 1 find that the whole essence 
of Christianity, as I understand it, is 
confirmed by the facts being explained 
by science. Many of the miracles, for 
instance, and the appearances after 
death, are quite consistent with what 
we know of fact. Moreover, I think 
that the basis of all religion must be the 
existence of a spiritual world, and that 
idea can be established by science as the 
foundation upon which religious peo- 
ple can build their more detailed edi- 
fice." 

It is to be hoped that men will be 
more receptive to religious influences 
after they have the mania of Material- 
ism knocked out of them and their eyes 
opened to the fallacy of Spiritism. 

.-.K*^*-. 

— The London Times, in its Literary 
Supplement (No. 950), devotes more 
than a column to a review of "Die 
Wundmale," a two-volume novel by 
Friedrich von Gagern (Leipsic: L. 
Staackmann). The reviewer says that 
while the author had no intention of 
writing a Tcndcnzschrift, he "associates 
himself earnestly with the modern 
movement for the abolition of the Ro- 
man discipline of ecclesiastical cel- 
ibacy.'' "Rome," von Gagern does not 
scruple to say, "points her servants to 
rape and adultery." \Vonder what the 
Times critic w'ould call a Tendcnz- 
schrift? He says Herr von Gagern is 
a Catholic of the liberal type ; quite evi- 
dently he is 'liberal," or, more likely 
still, an apostate. 



Editorial Dishonesty 

"Editorials nowadays carry little 
weight with newspaper readers general- 
1\', because the writers have no real con- 
victions and no passionate beliefs. The 
great body of editors manifest in their 
editorials the (jpi)ortunism and compro- 
mise of the politician on the hustings 
before a general election. They are 
ready at a moment's notice to change 
their dress to match the color of the 
day. Their policy is determined more 
by the expediency of the moment than 
by honesty of purpose ; utility and ex- 
trinsic worth form the basis of editorial 
morality. Should it, therefore, happen 
that the cause of truth, liberty and right 
appear a losing issue from a monetary 
standpoint, it can count no champions 
among editors. Their influence is al- 
ways thrown on the side of the heavy 
artillery. . . . Editors are but the mock- 
ing-birds of the managers. They advo- 
cate only what is to the interest of their 
owners. With them it is not so much 
a question of discovering facts or estab- 
lishing the truth, as it is of running their 
metal into the moulds already prepared 
for it. Their editorials do not reflect 
what they know as much as what is re- 
quired of them to write." 

The above lines are from the Toronto 
Statesman (Vol. Ill, No. 13). They 
were written of Canadian editors, but 
apply to their American confreres with 
equal force, though here, as there, of 
course, there are a few honorable excep- 
tions — mostly editors who ow^n and con- 
trol the journals for which they write. 

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190 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June Iff 



XOTES AND GLEANINGS 

— The current number of the .Lta .l\i- 
stoliiat Srdis (XII, 5), contains a decree of 
the S. Congr. of Rites, in which Our Lrdy 
of Loreto is. by Apostohc autliority. appoint- 
ed the principal patroness of all aeronauts. 
To this decree is added a Latin fornnda for 
the blessing of aeroplanes. 

—The -V.-c .li:c (XXVIII, 5, p. jjq), notes 
that those members of the (!)rder of the 
Knights of Columbus wiio favored tiie erec- 
tion of a monument to Lafayette at Metz 
"were evidently unaware of Lafayette's Ma- 
sonic membersliip." Our Masonic contem- 
pt.rary says that these blind entinisiasts are 
being enlightened by the Catholic press, and 
that, in consinpience. "grave doubts are enter- 
tained in various quarters" whether the pro- 
jected monument will ever be erected. 

— Father V. F. O'Daniel, O.P., in a paper 
on the history of the early Dominican mis- 
sionaries in Kentucky (Catholic Historical 
/?<TiVii'. Vol. \'I, Xo. I. p. 15), completely 
shatters the reputation of the late Bishop C. 
1\ Maes as a historian by proving that Msgr. 
Maes, in his "Life of Rev. Charles Xerinck.x," 
doctored the documents and that this book 
is. therefore, unreliable. The new school of 
C;itholic church historians grouped around 
Dr. Guilday at the Catholic University is do- 
ing thorough work. 

— Dr. Guilday. in tlie editorial notes of the 
current Catholic Hisunical Rci'icn' (VI, l), 
points out the value of biography as a part 
of hi>tory and gives some practical rules for 
writing truthful and reliable biographies. He 
says every bishop's life ought to be written 
and published after his death, but adds that 
the episcopal biographies we possess "must be 
subjected to rigid critical tests before they 
can be accepted by the historian as materials. 
. . . Certainly no episcopal biography yet 
written seems to be deserving of a permanent 
place in .\merican literature." Dr. (aiilday 
opportunely recalls Leo XIH's remark to 
Manning: "If the evangelists did not con- 
ceal the fall of Piter, why should we hide 
the sins of bishops?" 

— We gladly welcome Iiack to our exchange 
table the Ilistorisch-politischc BKiltcr, of 
Munich, one of the olde'^t and most useful 
Catholic periodicals published i;i Germany, 
which wc njisscd sorely during the war. The 
ctirrcnt (eighth) fascicle has a remarkable 
paper entitled "Crisis upon Crisis." in which 
the coalition government of the German Re- 
public is bitterly arraigned for its incompe- 
tency, particularly in handling the recent dif- 
ficulty with France. Other interesting ar- 
tiiles are: "The Legend of St. Maximilian," 
"IntcllcrttJal Ijberty and Its Extinguish- 
ment." "The Theory of the Scpar-ation of 
State and Church in Germany up to the Rev- 
olution." The .suftscription price of the Bliil- 
tcr, which appear sctni-monthly. is 20 marks 
per annum. 



Catholic Educational 
Institutions 

ti The Catliolic Press does not reach the entire 
Catholic population of any given community. 

'■ There is always a religiously indifferent and 
mentally slothful element that it does not 
reach. 

•■ However, a Catliolic paper like THK KCHO 
goes to Catholic families that are mentally 
alert and loyal to their faith. 

n It is ou such families that Catholic Higher 
Education depends for its development and 
extension. 

"■ It is the sons and daughters in such families 
that are prospective pupils of our Catholic 
educational institutions. 

T To reach them and their parents, use the col- 
umns of THK ECHO, whose circulation is 
second to that of no other Catholic paper in the 
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FOREIGN MISSIONS 

The Missionary Sisters, Servants of the Holy 
Ghost are a Congregation working primarily in 
the foreign missions. The Mother House is the 
Holy Ghost Institute at Techny, HI. Here the 
I)Ostulants and novices receive their training 
for their future work. Ask for our "Vocation 
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the life of a Mission Sister. Any number will 
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outside the clasB-rooms. School, l)egrns Sept. 1, 1920. 
AddicH.s, JESUIT FATHKKS, 

St. Ignatius, Montana 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



191 



— Tlie Apostolic Delegate, in a letter to Mr. 
Conner of the Catholic Tribune, blesses his 
plan of a Catholic daily and "gladly recom- 
mends the Daily .liiicrican Tribune to tiie 
Catholics of the country." 

—That the S. C. of the Holy Office has as- 
sumed the functions of the former Congr. 
of the Index appears from a decree published 
in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis of May ist, in 
which "all the writings of the author com- 
monly called Guido da Verona are com- 
manded to be inscribed in the Index of For- 
Ijidden Books." We have never heard of this 
ar.tiior and can find nothing about him in tin- 
reference works at our command. 

— The Masonic Nezc Age Magazine an- 
nounces (May issue, page 233) that Gen. 
John Joseph Pershing received the 4th to 33d 
degrees of Scottish Rite Masonry on April 
gth, at Wheeling, W. Va. The General, we 
are told, "expressed himself as greatly de- 
lighted at the opportunity afforded him of 
receiving the degrees, which he had greatly 
desired for a long time." This ought to put 
an end to the contention that Pershing, like 
George Washington, "is but an indifferent 
Mason." 

— The N. Y. Evening Post, in its "Book 
Review" supplement for May 29, concludes a 
notice of Sir George Arthur's "Life of Kitch- 
ener," as follows: "With him [Lord 
Kitchener] passed away the old order of 
U'cdipeval and ruthless militarism of which he 
was a more brilliant and lustrous example 
than the Kaiser. Then over the seas envelop- 
ing him came the representative of the new- 
order and the new era, but who can doubt 
that Mr. Wilson would have been fortunate 
as Kitchener was if he, too, had died at the 
moment of his highest achievement? Then 
he, too, would be with the ages." 

— Many readers have wondered at the sen- 
sationalism introduced into the Catholic press 
by the National Catholic Welfare Council's 
News Service. They will no longer wonder 
when they learn that this service is being man- 
aged by two former Hearst men : Justin 
McGrath and Michael Williams. But how 
does the N. C. W. C. come to employ repre- 
sentatives of "yellow journalism'.' in its at- 



tempt to uplift the Catiiolic press? Surely 
tile bishops wlio constitute that body cannot 
believe that the salvation of our press lies in 
imitating tiie "yellow" journals. Our papers 
should be first and foremost in upholding the 
traditional ideals handed down to us by 
Brownson and McMaster. 

— Joseph F'ortier, of Ste. Scholastique, P. 
Q., Canada, has sued the Order of the 
Knights of Columbus for alleged maltreat- 
ment in conferring the various degrees upon 
him. "His action in divulging what happened 
to him," says the Cleveland Catholic Bulletin 
(Vol. IX, No. 46). "has 'queered' matters for 
the order in that section of Canada." Our 
contemporary chides Mr. Fortier for his "lack 
of sportsmanship and sense of humor." Per- 
haps it was something else he lacked. When 
a man joins a secret society he runs a grave 
risk, and has only himself to blame if the 
goat he is made to ride bucks too lustily. 

— We have repeatedly expressed our disap- 
probation of baseball as at present conducted 
because of its being mainly an occasion of 
gambling. According to an Associated Press 
dispatch of May 24, Chicago made its first 
move to stamp out gambling at the baseball 
parks when the police arrested forty-seven 
l)leacher spectators alleged to be making bets. 
It is said that the National League and Amer- 
ican League authorities have joined forces in 
a move to stop gambling at the parks. What 
good will tliat do while gambling on the result 
01 games is carried on openly in nearly every 
saloon, bucket shop, billiard room, hotel, etc.? 

—From a copy (Vol. 53, No. 4) of the 
Korrespondens des Priestergehetsvereines, 
published at Innsbruck, for which we are in- 
debted to our friend, the Rev. C. H. Schle- 
fers. of Maxville, Mo., we see that Father H. 
Noldin, S.J.. the eminent theologian, who was 
reported dead about two years ago, was still 
alive last July and has since published a treat- 
ise, "De lure Matrimoniali iuxta Codicem 
luris Canonici" (Linz a. D. : Kath. Vereins- 
druckerei). Vol. 51, No. 3 of the same jour- 
nal contains a biographical sketch of Father 
Emil Michael, S.J.. the historian, together 
with an account of his last illness and his 
death, which occurred March 12, 1917. R. L P. 



Franciscans and the Protestant Revolution 

in Engiand 

By FRANCIS BORQIA STECK, O. F. M. 

y^ GRAPHIC STORY of the Anglican schism and the trials and triumphs 
of the English Franciscan Friars. The author has succeeded admirah- 
Iv in presenting the leading actors and incidents in this great tragedy with 
compelling realism and vigor. 

Illustrated, Cloth, 250 pages, $2.50 postpaid 

FRANCISCAN HERALD PRESS Chicago, Illinois 



192 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Juue 15 



Literary Briefs 

— Fr. Antonio M. Arregiii, S.J., has coin- 
piletl the most concise "Sumniarium Theo- 
logiac Morahs" extant. His Httle hook of 
053 idnio. pages, printed on tliin India paper, 
is a marvel of condensation, 'botli as to con- 
tents and ontward make-up. Its usefuhiess 
and popularity may be deduced from the 
f::ct that, from July. 1918, when tlie "Sum- 
anarium" first appeared, to Dec, 1919, when 
tile present (fourth) edition went to press, 
JI.600 copies iiad been disposed of. Anyone 
who wants a complete, though succinct, coni- 
pciuliuni of moral theolojry in pocket form, 
for study, repetition, or casual consultation, 
will make no mistake in getting Arregui's 
"Sumniarium." (P. J. Kenedy & Sons; $1.80 
postpaid). 

— It seems to be becoming the style for 
every parish to have its own prayer-book and 
hymnal. The latest production of tliis sort 
that lias come to our notice is Father F. G. 
Holweck's "Parish Manual Containing Pray- 
ers and Hymns for Public and Private Devo- 
tions." published by the H. Herder Book Co. 
It includes besides tlie usual daily prayers, 
methods of hearing holy Mass, prayers for 
confession and holy communion, etc., a 
series of special devotions in vogue in the 
parish of St. Francis de Sales. St. Louis, c. g.. 
ill honor of the Holy Cliildhood. for Xcw 
Year's eve. to the Precious Blood, in honor of 
the Resurrection, to tlie Holy Family, the 
Little Office of the S. Heart, etc. A little 
over one-third of the entire volume is de- 
voted to hymns, of which there are a hundred 
and ten. most of them jiopular witii the orig- 
inal German founders of the congregation as 
the German titles: "O du liebes Jesukind." 
etc., show. The te.xt is entirely in English. 
I-ike Dr. Schlarman's "Magnificat." recitui- 
mended some time since in this magazine, Fa- 
ther Holweck's "Parish Manual" is primarily 
adapted for the use of German-.\merican par- 
ishes in the transition stage, and we think it 
w-ill recommend if^elt to other parislies be- 
sides Father H.jlweck's own. 
^—Father John Henry (Schagemann), 
C.SS.R.. has written a siiort treatise on "The 
Sacrifice of the .Mass." in wliich he explains 
the meaning of .sacrifice and shows tliat the 
Afass is "an inexhaustible fountain of grace." 
The brochure is written in popular language 
and will appeal to Catliolics as well as to non- 
Catholic inquirers seeking information in re- 
Kard to what has l>een fittingly called the 
heart of the Catholic religion. (!J. Herder 
Book Co.; 15 cts.; wrapper). 

Books Received 

^ CfHfral Hulury i.j the Chrittian lira. In Tw.. 
V'olumr*. Vol. I: From the UcKinniiiK l« the .So 
Calle.l kcformalif.n M — 1517|. A TcxtlJ..ok for 
lliRh .SchooU ami Collrgcii. Hy Nirholan A. \V< 
tr«f, S.,Vf. AvA/K-iatc J'rofcimor of lliHlory at tin- 
Taibolic l."nivrr»ity of .America, xxxiii & .143 \>\>., 
illu*iratc<l. Wakhinirton, D. C: The C:atholi< 
K^iucalinn l're»%. IV IV. $2.20 net. 



Leaves on the Wind. [Poems] by Rev. D. A. Casey 
[editor of the Canadian Freeman]. With a 
Preface by Rev. .1. 15. Dollanl, Litt. D. 91 pp. 
IJmo. Toronto. Canada: McClelland & Stewart. 
$1.25. 

A batch of penny i^amiihlets froin the English Cath- 
olic Truth Society, 69 Sontinvark Rridge Road, 
S.E. 1, London, as follows: (1) "The Catholic 
Church a«d the Principle of Private Property," by 
llilaire Belloc; (2) "A Romance of Assisi," by 
Ethel Mawson; (3) "The Wheat of St. Wences- 
laiis," by Kmily Hickey; (4) "A Guest of One 
Day," by Kmily Hickey; (5) "Nina's Patron," a 
Tale of St. Antony; (6) "A Guide to High Mass," 
with Notes bv A. F. Wedd; (7) "The Epic of the 
'Dark Continent,' " by M. A. Vialls; (8) "A Tale 
of Two Abbeys," by Cecilia Oldmeadow; (9) 
"Brother Donatus," by Marian Nesbitt. 

Franciscans and the Protestant Rceolution in Eng- 
land. l?y Francis Horgia Steck, O.F.M. viii & 344 
pp. 8vo. Chicago. 111.: Franciscan Herald Press. 
Chicago, TI!. $2.50 postpaid. 

.-{n Introductory Course in Experimental Psychology. 
A Text-Rook and Laboratory Manual for the Use 
of Colleges and for Private Study, by Hubert 
Gruender, S.J., Professor of Psychology in St. 
Louis University. \'ol. I. vi & 295 pp. 8vo. Chi- 
cago: Loyola University Press. $1.50 net. 

The Credentials of Christianity. By Martin I. 
Scott, S.J. xii & 257 pp. 12mo. New' York: P. J. 

Kenedy & Sons. $1.60, postpaid. 



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For a List of Approved Plays 
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These plays have been successfully produced from 
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-^&T.L0UI&.^ 



1920 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW ^ 193 

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194 



' THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 

Can You Talk to the Dead? 



July 1 



=^v 



"If irill he of the (greatest rahie to Confessors, Doctors, Lawyers — 

nnd to all me}i and women who prefer sanitff of thought 

— and action.'''' 

Spiritism and Religion 

Can You Talk to the Dead ? 

By Baron Johan Lil jencrants, A. M., S. T. D. 
With Foreword by Dr. Maurice Francis Egan 

and 

Foreword Appreciations by Cardinal Gil?bons and John A. Ryan, D. D. 
the well-known Sociologist 



No matter what our religion, our minds 
have been confronted daily with the 
awful yet wonderful and thrilling pres- 
ence of the Hereafter. No one can es- 
cape the thought of it, the fact of it ; nor 
can any one escape the relentless ques- 
tioning that it forces upon everj' mind 
capable of even momentary thought. 

This book on Spiritism is scholarly; 
it is scientific; it is sound in its think- 
ing. I consider it a real advance in the 
literature of Spiritism 

J. Card. Gibbo.vs 



Spiritism and Religion is beyond 
doubt the best book on that subject in 
the Knglish language. In its clear and 
comprehensive account of the phenom- 
ena and practices of Spiritism, its con- 
cise presentation of the opinions of 
authorities in this field, and 'its keen 
analysis and criticism of both phenom- 
ena and authorities, it is easily without 
a rival. It is scientific without being 
dry, and its conclusions will not easily 
be overthrown. 

John A, Ryan, D.D., 

Professor of Sociology, 
Cjitholic University of America, 
■Washington, I). C. 



Beallif as interestinff as a hif/h-class novel, it .should he used Jor 
supplementary readiny in all Academies and Colleges, Jor it is chiefly 
the educated classes who are now wasting time, mind, money and 
character, ftorking to and enriching mediums, not one oj whom, can 
possihly tell them or you half as much that is hoth satisfying and 
assuring as will hr found in SPIRITISM AND RELIGION — 
CAN YOU TALK TO THE DEAD? 

I*ii(M' jfo.oo postpaid at Bookstores or 



THE DEVIN-ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 



425 Filth Avenue 



New York. U. S. A. 



^5= 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXVII, NO. 13 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



July 1, 1920 



Another Prevaricator Shown Up in 
His True Colors 

Msgr. Stephen Ehses, who has for a 
number of years been engaged on the 
study of the history of the Tridentine 
Council, some time ago, in a paper con- 
tributed to the Historischcs JahrbucJi 
(\^ol. XXVI, pp. 299-313; XXVII, 66- 
74), showed that Paolo Sarpi, in writ- 
ing his history of that council, used no 
sources that are not available to-day ; 
that any assertions of his, therefore, 
which cannot be proved from the pres- 
ently available sources deserve no cre- 
dence, and that it is a notorious fact 
that Sarpi arbitrarily doctored the doc- 
vmients which he used and thus gave 
an altogether incorrect and unreliable 
account of the famous synod. 

In the Jahrcsbcricht of the Goerres 
Society for 1920 (Cologne: J. P. 
Bachem), Dr. Ehses reverts to the sub- 
ject (pp. 39-68) under the title, "Neues 
zu Paolo Sarpi's Geschichte des Kon- 
zils von Trient." He demonstrates 
that even where there is no apparent 
reason for not telling the truth, Sarpi 
is unreliable, and that his history, there- 
fore, is absolutely worthless as a source, 
or as a substitute for alleged lost 
sources, of the history of the Council. 

Paolo Sarpi, born at Venice in 1552, 
as most of our readers are probably 
aware, was a Servite monk, who fell 
away from the Church, but hypocriti- 
cally continued to perform the offices 
of a Catholic priest until his death, in 
1623. His "Istoria del Concilio Tri- 
dentino," first published in London, 
1619. later at Geneva, 1629, is a bitter 
invective against the papacy. It has 
been translated into Latin and several 
modern languages and, though prompt- 
ly refuted by Pallavicino, has become 
a source of many and grave prejudices 
against the Council of Trent. 

Dr. Ehses, who is himself editing a 
monumental work under the title "Con^ 
cilium Tridentinum," savs that the 



authentic sources almost invariably bear 
out Pallavicino against Sarpi. 

Unfortunately, the lies spread by 
Sarpi have found their way into books 
and minds which the truth cannot 
reach, even at this late day. But it is 
consoling to see the truth finally and 
triumphantly vindicated by modern his- 
torical science against another base pre- 
varicator. 

•-»<♦>.•-• 

The Penitentes 

Father Zephyrin Engelhardt, O.F.M., 
the well-known historian, in a letter to 
hi Palacio (Vol. VIII, Nos. 3 and 4), 
severely criticizes a paper on the Peni- 
tentes that appeared in the January 
number of that magazine, and incident- 
ally suggests a method of ending what 
he calls "the folly and wicked abuse" 
of these pseudo-religious rites. Let 
the Hermano Mayor and whatever 
rogues abet him in the nonsense, he 
says, be seized on Ash Wednesday and 
given twice a week, on Monday and 
Thursday, till Holy Wetk inclusive, 
twenty-five lashes each on the bare 
back with a rawhide, at the hands of a 
cowboy, to the lively tune of Yankee 
Doodle, and then let them be locked up 
and fed on bread and water, except on 
Sundays, when they could have their 
fill. As for the writers, paid and un- 
l)aid, who endeavor to bolster up "this 
blasphemous abuse," Fr. Zephyrin sug- 
gests that they study history a little bet- 
ter and stick to the facts, instead of 
exploiting dreams. 

It is perhaps just to say that there 
are priests in New Mexico to-day who 
view the customs of the Penitentes 
more leniently than Fr. Zephyrin. One 
of them. who. as pastor of several Mex- 
ican parishes, has made a study of the 
subject for many years, has promised 
us to give the public a true picture of 
the Penitentes through the Fortxigiit- 
Lv Review. 



1% 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 1 



The Voice 

By Charles J. Quirk, S.J. 

Great doubts assailed me for loved ones 
dead, 

Whether or no God's peace was o'er them 
shed ; 

Then, while I prayed. His voice soft- 
answered me — 

"Why should'st thou judge? Know I am 
Charity !" 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 
(Tenth Installment) 

.\t tlie small convent in St. Benedict wc 
would rise at 3:30 A. M. and start tlie matins 
at 4. I never felt as cold as there in the early 
morning. The thin planks of the building 
were no protection against the cold. About 9 
o'clofk the thermometer would rise to 80 and 
sometimes 90 degrees. I had never experi- 
enced such intense heat. The monastery had 
two rooms for the priests, and the rest of the 
building served as church. Some distance 
away was an old log house, which we used 
as refectory and kitchen. In another small 
wooden building a few lay brothers lodged. 
We were, in all. three priests and three broth- 
ers. All helped to clear the land, attend to 
the crops, plant trees and start a vineyard. It 
was a busy place, and everything was novel 
and of interest to me. ' 

Once, when Father Boniface and I were 
walking to the top of the mountain to the 
spring from which the water ran in wooden 
cliannels to the monastery, he suddenly called 
my attention to three snakes on the path 
upon which we were walking. The country at 
that time was full of snakes. At one time, 



when Father \\\ilfgang was walking up and 
down his room, reading, he saw a rattlesnake 
peep from behind his books. At St. Scholas- 
tica's, where I used to play the organ in the 
sacristy, with the door open, a snake would 
ofien crawl up the steps and listen to the 
music, but leave as soon as I stopped, crawling" 
away and huHiig again under the church I 
never could catcli it. Of course, I was afraid 
of tliese reptiles and used to look all over my 
room and under the bed before retiring. How- 
ever, 1 soon became accustomed to them like 
the others. I know of but two deaths from 
snakebite; the majority of those bitten were 
saved by the use of large doses of whiskey. 
They say, as soon as the effects of the whis- 
key are felt by tlie person becoming dizzy, the 
danger is past. A living chicken cut in two 
and the fresh tlesh applied to the wound 
will also extract the poison, I was told. How- 
ever, the snakes were little trouble compared 
to the numberless insects — mosquitoes, gnats 
and Hies. Centipedes and tarantulas were 
also numerous. Myriads of lizzards were in 
the woods. They were not dangerous, but 
would run by the hundreds in every direction 
whenever I rode on horseback through the 
forest. In spite of all this, accidents were 
rare, nothing in proportion to the accidents 
caused by automobiles in our days. Electric 
liglits. ice, telegrapli, telephones and railroads 
were not within our reach, but we enjoyed a 
peace and quiet unknown in our present rest- 
less age. Tlie Catholics were mostly new set- 
tlers, living on farms from one to several 
miles from tlie monastery, louring the week 
hardly anybody was seen, and this worried me 
at first, for I could not see what good I could 
do here as a missionary. I waited anxiously 
for a letter from my Bishop, and was deter- 
mined to return to the old country as soon as 
I could do so decently, for I tliought I could 
just as well bury myself in some forest out 
there as here. Wlien Sunday came and people 






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New Stubiaco Befiediclinc Abbey in I.oaan Co., Ark. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



197 



:ippeared in wagons from every part of the 
woods, I was surprised. I preached with 
great zeal and did all I could for the spiritual 
comfort of these settlers. Thus, by and hy, 1 
saw that a great deal of good, real missionary 
work was done here, after all. 

One beliolding the great stone building of 
the stately Abbey of New Subiaco, in our 
(lays, with its tine schools, gardens and lawns, 
can hardly realize how humble were its be- 
ginnings. 

Chapter VII 
Mission Lh'E at St. Scholastica 

Soon after my arrival in Arkansas the 
saintly Prior, Father Wolfgang, sent me as 
pa.stor to St. Scholastica to finish the church 
and attend to the people of that new mission. 
There, for weeks, I had a room in the rear 
of the church, but no bed. I had to go 
about two miles over the next mountain to 
sleep in the house of a land agent, Mr. An- 
tony Helmicli. Beds and furniture had been 
sent from 
Ferdinand, In- 
diana, for St. 
S c h o la stica 
and were on 
the w a y, but 
the steamboat 
was stuck on 
a sand bank 
in the Arkan- 
sas River, and 
we had to 
wait for high 
water that it 
might proceed 
and bring 
those neces- 
sary articles 
to our land- 
ing. The two 
sisters wh o 
were then in 
St. Scholasti- 
ca, had bed- 
ding, but no 
bedsteads. 

Here certainly was Apostolic poverty. We 
were living in the midst of the woods. In 
my diary I find marked down as living at St. 
Scholastica, on the first of April, 1879, a 
priest, two sisters, old Mr. Buckelmeyer, a 
cow, a calf, four chickens, and a cat. But im- 
provements came, gradually. 

We soon received a load of lumber from 
Dardanelle, the next sawmill, about sixteen 
miles away. With that lumber Sister AI;iry 
Joseph made some primitive bedsteads and 
wash tables. The worst feature about St. 
Scholastica in those days was the total ab- 
sence of drinking water. The school chil- 
dren would bring each a small Imcket of 
water along in the morning. This water was 
emptied into a tub and placed under the house 
to be kept cool. When I first came we had 




hardly anything for the church, but by and 
by we bought an ostensorium, a censer, etc. 
bister Bonaventure's father sent a nice har- 
luonium. Tliere was at that time no fence 
around the church, and during the cold nights 
tlic pigs, running at large, would seek shelter 
and warnitlT imder there. I remember ottcn 
during high Mass, when the choir stopped, the 
music of the pigs was heard. Once, when 
some of the young men tried to drive them 
away, the effort served only to reinforce the 
porcine music. 

One Sunday, during high Mass, I noticed 
great restlessness and whispering in the 
church. Immediately after Mass I saw all tlie 
men coming towards me, one of them with a 
big stick. A large snake had been iianging 
down over the altar painting just above me. 
In that tlireatening situation the people felt 
very uneasy about me, but I had not seen 
the reptile. The men tried to kill it, but as 
the church was not plastered, the snake hid 
behind the beams, and when we were in the 
sanctuary we saw it looking out again way 

down the 
aisles. 

On Sunday 
after noons 
I taught cate- 
chism. The 
young people 
brought their 
dinner pails 
along and re- 
mained until 
evening. On 
one occasion I 
saw the young 
men engaged 
in a battle 
I royal with a 



very 
I snake 
- I ID or 
: long. 



first Coin'oit at St. SchoUistica 



Urge 
about 
12 feet 
They 
enjoyed the 
sport and 
finally killed 
the beast. 
-V person 
viewing the large convent of St. Scholastica 
to- day, with its beautiful gardens and fields, 
can hardly believe how wild that country 
looked forty years ago. Still, similar changes 
take place everywhere. For instance, the 
beautiful and famous health resort of Hot 
Springs was almost a wilderness fifty years 
ago, and queer things still happen to remind 
us of the olden days. Last summer, 1918, 
Rev. P. P. Arnd. from Elkton, Md., was in 
my room at St. Joseph's Infirmary, one Sun- 
day evening. When he returned to his quar- 
ters in the fourth story, in the dusk, he saw 
something black moving about in the room, 
from time to time hissing at him. When he 
turned on the electric light, he found that he 
had an alligator in his room. How did it pet 
there? Another guest had bought it at the 



198 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Alligator Farm to take it liomo as a curio, 
but the box in which it was kept was not well 
closed, and so the animal crept out and found 
its way into the open room of Father Arnd. 
{To be coiitiiiued') 



July 1 I 



Profiteering in the Light of Catholic 
Moral Theology 

The well-known Dominican moralist, 
Kr. Priimmer. contributes to the Co- 
log^ne Pastorulblatt a paper in which he 
discusses the ethics of buying" and sell- 
ing and shows that profiteering- is for- 
bidden. 

■".Many merchants think that both in 
buying and selling any price is fair, and 
that the less one pays and the more one 
gets, the better. This view is contrary 
to the teaching of Catholic moral the- 
olog>'. which condemns profiteering as 
sinful. A merchant is not allowed to 
charge what he pleases. Some say in 
extenuation of their conduct : T do not 
force anyone to buy here; those who 
think my prices are excessive need not 
buy from me.' The fact of the matter 
is that no buyer would pay an excessive 
price if he were not more or less com- 
pelled to do so. The consumer needs 
the goods which the dealer sells and 
must have them, even though he knows 
the price demanded is exorbitant. In 
other words, the seller takes advantage 
of the buyer's necessities to enrich him- 
self, he derives material benefit from a 
thing which is not his. and conse- 
quently commits an injustice. This is 
the consentient teaching' of St. Thomas. 
St. Alphonsus. and the majority of 
modern theologians." 

I'n fortunately, says Dr. I'riinimer. 
this teaching is not sufficiently known. 
It ought to l)e emphasized in catecheti- 
cal instruction and from the pulpit. 
The peo|>le should be told that charging 
excessive j)rices is sinful and whatever 
is taken over and above a just and fair 
price is unlawful gain and has to be 
restored to the buyer. Catholic moral 
theoloj.fy is inexorable in matters of jus- 
tice and knows only an cither — or. 
There is no getting around the duty of 
restitution. .\nd this ai>i>lies not only 
to the professional sf>eculators who live- 
on inflating the f)rices of things pro- 



duced by others. It applies likewise to 
those business men who take advantage 
of the present condition of affairs and 
raise the prices of the goods they han- 
dle beyond the limit of fairness and 
justice. 

'J'he author adds that money made by 
profiteering cannot possibly bring any 
blessing. Rather will it entail upon its 
possessor the curse of God. Job 
XXI \', 9 sqq. : "They have violently 
robbed the fatherless and stripped the 
poor common people, . . . and 
God doth not suffer it to pass iiiirc- 

»-»<$>-•-• 

A Study in American Freemasonry 

The Builder, a "Joinmal for the Ma- 
sonic Student," published monthly by 
the IMasonic Research Society, at Ana- 
mosa, la., in its May issue (p. 120), 
refers to the late Albert G. Mackey as 
an '*atithority on all Masonic subjects," 
and in a list of "standard works on 
r^Iasonry" (p. 137) mentions his fa- 
mous "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry" 
(1920 edition, in two volumes), his 
"Symbolism of Freemasonry," his 
"Alasonic Jurisprudence," and his "Ma- 
sonic Parliamentary Law."' 

Such references to Mackey and his 
writings are frequent in contemporary 
Masonic ])eriodicals. Still, when, some 
twelve years ago, we published our 
"Study in American Freemasonry," 
which is ba.sed chiefly on the works of 
Dr. Mackey, certain Masonic critics of 
the book contended that this writer was 
no longer regarded as an authority by 
.American Freemasons. This conten- 
tion is obviously false, and we may take 
this op])ortunity to add that none of the 
cf)nclusions laid down in the "Study" 
have ever been refuted or shown to be 
I'.nfoimded. 

"A .Study in American Freemason- 
ry" went into its third edition in 1914, 
and is now sold at $1.80 net. Pub- 
li.'-hcrs, the P>. Herder Book Co., 17 S. 
Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 
•-•-(^♦-« 

— It is still time to keep that promise you 
made lo yourself last year to help the Re- 
view along by sending in a new subscriber. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



19« 



A Criticism of the Gregorian Congress 

Some dissatisfaction has l)een voiced 
among our readers with the recent Gre- 
gorian Congress in New York, and we 
are requested to reproduce a criticism 
of the same by Father C. A. Sander- 
Ijeck in the Pittsburg Obscrz'er^ of June 
i/tli. We have not space for the entire 
article, but give its salient passages : 

The chant offered during the con- 
gress as a demonstration of proper in- 
terpretation, was slow, mechanical and 
monotonous. To use the words of Dom 
JXIocquereau, the melodic body had been 
almost reconstructed, . . 

Of the thirty-tive hundred children 
supposed to sing the Mass on the open- 
ing day of the congress, those who sang 
gave no heed to anything but a monot- 
onous chant of syllables — not words. 
The movement was so slow as frequent- 
ly to necessitate breathing when real 
musical rhythm and the sense and 
phrasing of the words would dictate 
otherwise. The tone was ever the same. 
Words lost their meaning in a slavish- 
iiess to even notes. The "Et incarna- 
tus"' was the same as the "Kyrie elei- 
son ;" the "Agnus Dei" the same as the 
"Tu solus altissimus." One was given 
the impression of a great music lesson 
in which the first endeavor is to acquire 
an accurate notion of the melody with- 
out any regard to shading or expression. 
And yet many religious were suffering 
the impression that this was perfected 
Gregorian. 

The impression oU a music lesson 
was accentuated by the waving arms of 
a director in the pulpit, and similar ges- 
ticulation of eight or twelve assistant 
directors in various parts of the cathe- 
dral. The children gave little or no evi- 
dence of attention to this gymnastic ex- 
hibition and the distraction caused those 
attending Mass was unjustifiable. If it 
v^ ere true that so much machinery is 
necessary to induce the people to sing 
tiieir praise of God, then the day of con- 
gregational singing would be very far 
distant indeed. 

The seminarians taking [)art in the 
demonstration v^•ere also slaves of the 
notes. Seminarians, we know, under- 
stand the words which they are singing; 



ijut here there was little evidence of 
such understanding in the outward ex- 
pression. ( )ne body of seminarians in 
particular created the impression of 
Having surrendered their wills to the 
guidance of some huge metronome, 
which demanded absolute loyalty to its 
incessant "tick-tock" commands. . . . 

Xow all of those taking part in the 
singing were using musical notation 
marked with occasional rhythmical char- 
acters. These rhythmical characters 
were ec^ually disregarded by all. There 
was evidence of great inconsistency be- 
tween the demonstration or interpreta- 
tion of Gregorian and the findings and 
convictions of Dom Moctiuereau 
( Rcviic Grcgoricnnc, I, i ). A most un- 
fortunate impetus was given to the 
even-note Gregorian, which is lifeless 
and which is not the pure Gregorian of 
ancient times. 

In defense of the music rendered it 
might be alleged that Dom Mocquereau 
I'.ad little time to work w'ith the singers 
or to correct faulty interpretation. This 
is inexcusable. At a congress of such 
pretension, the nearest thing to perfec- 
tion should have been insisted upon and 
should have i)revailed. 

An additional regrettable circum- 
stance with regard to the congress was 

the exclusion of polyphonic music. 
,^,^$^*^ 

The Anti-Christ? 

Occultist papers are full of hints 
about the coming of a "Teacher," who 
is to be the "New Messiah." the "Star 
out of the East." It seems that a young 
Hindu is being trained for this role :uid 
that he is identical with an unfortunate 
youth over whose body a most distress- 
ing litigation was waged in Kngland 
some time ago. .\n Irish correspondent 
of the London Universe (No. 3088) 
says : "When it is possible that a repul- 
sive heathen joss [PZpstcin's statue] can 
be exhibited in London as a sculptor's 
idea of our Divine Lord, it is quite 
within the bounds of possibility that a 
section of the sensation-loving public 
may welcome an antichrist in the flesh 
when he is presented to them. These 
horrors will sadden, but not astonish 
Catholics; for they are merely jiart of 
the devil's masquerade." 



200 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 1 



Homeopathy in the Light of Recent 
Research 

The British Homeopathic Associa- 
tion has published "An Introduction to 
the Principles and Practice of Homeop- 
athy/' by Charles E. Wheeler. M. D., 
which may be taken as an authoritative 
and up-to-date exposition of homeop- 
athy. The book is divided into two 
parts, tiie hrst dealing with the prin- 
ciples of homeopathy, the second with 
the homeopathic materia medica. 

That homeopathy is based on a sim- 
ple observation of fact that is as old as 
Hippocrates, and is confirmed by ortho- 
dox medical practice to-day, most medi- 
cal men admit. That certain drugs 
can remove, in the sick, the very symp- 
toms that they produce in the healthy 
was observed by Hippocrates — but he 
made no practical use of the observa- 
tion. It was not until the eighteenth 
century that the observation was en- 
larged into an experimental procedure, 
which finally issued in the rule of "Si- 
milia similibuscurantur." When Hahne- 
mann discovered that cinchona bark, 
the great remedy for ague, .produced in 
his own healthy body the chief symp- 
toms (and some of the lesser ones) of 
ague, he devoted the rest of his life to 
direct experiment with drugs, and to re- 
search into past records to discover ac- 
cidental confirmations of the likelihood 
of cures by "similar" remedies. As, in 
addition to his native German, he knew 
English (he was translating Cullen's 
Materia Medica when he made his fa- 
mous experiment with cinchona bark), 
French, Italian. Greek. Latin. Hebrew, 
Arabic and Spanish, and had been en- 
gaged for years in translating medical 
works, his researches were extensive 
and successful. Rut he learned most, 
of course, from his direct experiments 
with drugs; and it cannot be too often 
re peated that homeopathy was based on 
experiment, was elaborated by exixri- 
nient, is continued by experiment. 

The prescription of quinine for ague, 
mercury for syphilis, cantharides for 
nephritis, opium for constipation, eme- 
tine for dvsentery Tthe late Dr. Dyce 
P»rown collected from general medical 
practice some seventy examples of such 



homeopathizing) ; all these are appli- 
cations of the homeopathic principle. 
\^accine-therapy is a most obvious in- 
stance of the application of the homeo- 
pathic principle ; and it is evident that 
a rule so often confirmed, consciously 
and unconsciously, has some validity. 

The homeopathic materia medica is 
based, primarily and chiefly, on the 
deliberate, systematic testing of medi- 
cines on the healthy. In addition to 
this source of knowledge, is the knowl- 
edge derived from poisoning by drugs, 
accidental or intentional. Here are re- 
vealed the gross effect of massive doses 
and the morbid tissue anatomy pro- 
duced by these drugs in quantities. 
Drug experiments on animals have a 
value only as hints of possible action to 
the homeopathist ; although the veteri- 
nary practitioner, of course, finds them 
of special value. It is the effect of drugs 
upon human beings that it is most nec- 
essary for the physician to know, and 
the homeopath derives his knowledge 
from both the quick and the dead. It 
is admitted that this knowledge, al- 
though extensive and precise, is not 
complete ; but homeopathy lives by ex- 
pieriment, and not until man becomes 
fixed and unalterable in constitution and 
reaction will the necessity of continual 
experiment be relieved. 

Of the infinitesimal dose (which is 
all that the general pubHc knows of 
homeopathy), it need only be said that 
it recommends itself in practice to the 
physician. 

In antisejitic surgery Lister first ap- 
plied crude carbolic to the wound and 



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1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



201 



developed his dressing until, at last, he 
kept the carbolic as far away from the 
exposed surfaces as he could. 

When Dr. Wheeler talks casually 
about the 60th or the 200th potency he 
may be talking magic, but his magic is 
scientific. Arndt's law, that small stim- 
uli encourage life activity, medium to 
strong stimuli tend to impede it, very 
strong stimuli destroy it, confirms what 
the homeopaths since Hahnemann 
have practiced. But homeopathy is not 
limited to the infinitesimal dose ; home- 
opaths prescribe massive doses in some 
cases, and their posology ranges from 
the massive to the infinitesimal, from 
the tincture to the potency — ^and the 
less you have of a drug, the less you 
want of it. and the longer it lasts you. 

It is in prescription that homeopathy 
becomes an art. Dr. Wheeler admits 
that the discovery of the simillimum is 
sometimes difficult (which might be ex- 
pected from the fact that no two human 
beings are exactly alike), and it is not 
made less difficult by the fact that ho- 
meopaths do not treat diseases but pa- 
tients. It is not merely that the homeo- 
path prescribes the simillimum to the 
s\ mptom-complex presented, and varies 
tiie prescription as the symptom-com- 
[ilex varies; the homeopath individual- 
izes, prescribes for idiosyncrasy, as Dr. 
John Weir puts it in his recently pub- 
lished volume, "Homeopathic Philos- 
ophy : . Its Importance in the Treatment 
of Chronic Disease." "All that medi- 
cine can do curatively is to stimulate 
the patient's curative reaction," he says ; 
"it is the ego behind the drug-disease 
Dicture that has to be reckoned with." 
The verv exactness of knowledge of the 
eflfect of drugs possessed by the homeo- 
paths (and the "provings" given in Dr. 
Wheeler's volume are bewildering in the 
complexity and range of their reac- 
tions) compels them to be verv patient 
and painstaking in their diagnosis ; 
there is no "universal specific," no 
"sovereign remedy," although. of 
course, there are enough general resem- 
blances among cases to allow of a gen- 
rral clas'^ification. and to indicate a class 
of remedies. 



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>02 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 1 



The Holy See and the League of 
Nations 

We are contirmed in our idea of the 
attitude of the Holy See towards the 
Leai^ue of Nations plan by ^oine re- 
marks made recently at Geneva b\ 
-Msor. Mai^lione. jKipal charge d'affaires 
in Hern. 

■'The League of Nations." he said. 
"in spite of its moral, military, and 
economic sanctions, will not be able to 
prevent future conflicts unless the na- 
tions become animated by mutual char- 
ity and confidence anil feel united as 
brethren and members of one great 
family. If the nations will it, war and 
all conflicts will become impossible, but 
to will this they must lay aside hatred 
and sincerely love one another." 

The Kath. KirLiicn::citiino, of Salz- 
burg", to which we are indebted for tliis 
quotation, calls attention to the fact 
that Father X'ictor Cathrein. the great 
Jesuit piiilosopher. in his Moral Philos- 
ophy ( \'ol. II. 5th edition, Freiburg- i. 
i;., 191 1, p. 748). pointed out the desir- 
ability of a future League of Nations, 
but at the same time observed that the 
plan was impracticable without the 
guaranty of a common authority which 
would watch over the enforcement of 
international treaties and, when neces- 
sary, compel obstinate governments to 
live u[) to their obligations. 

In this connection it is encouraging 
to learn that the Italian Partito Popo- 
lare has undertaken to bring about a 
union of all the political groups which 
in fJifFercnt countries advocate a reform 
of public life through the application 
of Chri-tian principles. 



Collecting Stamps for th€ Missions 

.V fascinating employment for in- 
valids, pensioners, and the young is to 
conduct a small mail order stamp busi- 
ness for the missions. Any number 
and variety of stamps supplied free. 

There are in Europe and America 
3.000.000 collectors spending annually 
over $400,000,000 on stamps alone. Let 
us p(K)r fellows liere have a little bite 
out of this big melon for the swarms 
of i)oor little brown angels waiting for 
.salvation. 

'J'hose tliat wish to promote this 
world-wide work, please have the appeal 
reprinted and distributed to clerks, so- 
dalities, schools, etc. ; advertise in Cath- 
olic papers, etc. "Pick up the frag- 
ments lest they be lost." 

l{ach stamp cast away is a grain of 
gold thrown awa}-. Money out here 
means souls saved. The stamps thrown 
away daily in a single city would keep 
many a mission running for a whole 
year. For further information write 
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— Ilerl)ert Spencer's cciiteii.'iry (lie was 
horn .Vpril 27, i8jo), falls ;iiiii(l a vast in- 
difVerence. Forty years ago tlie man towered 
impressively among contemporary philos- 
ophers. Long hefore !iis worU ended vSpen- 
cer knew tliat he was defending the last ditch 
of extrt'nie individualism. Hut lie would not 
have admitted that his cause was hopeless, 
whereas to-day we all know that human so- 
ciety can never he held together on the liasis 
expounded in "Man versus the State." 



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1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



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Who is to Blame? 

7 o the Editor : — 

Dr. Culeman says in No. 1 1 of the 
/•". R. that CathoHcs, as a rule, do not 
support their press, and that this is not 
the fauh of the latter. I believe that 
the Catholic press is, to a great extent, 
to blame. The Catholic public has the 
right to demand that the papers that 
appeal to it for support be edited with 
ability, courage, and intelligence. Can 
this be said of our Catholic papers? 1 
;ioubt it. Many seem to have no edi- 
tors at all. Others are monotonous, if 
not silly. Even the farmers are long- 
ing for brain food nowadays and re- 
fuse to be satisfied with slop. A really 
L;ood' paper must have a first-class edi- 
tor, and how many men of that kind 
have we? You can count them on the 
fingers of your hand. It is vain to 
plead for better stipport until our peo- 
ple are offered a better press. It takes 
brains, a solid general edtication. and a 
professional training to make a great 
editor ; where are our yoimg as])irants 
to get these qualifications ? 

Fk. a. p.. 



The Church in Russia 

A correspondent of the Catholic 
Times ( London and Liverpool ; No. 
2753). says that the Catholic Church 
has gained immensely through the 
Rtissian upheaval. There is no longer 
any State protection of schism. Con- 
version to the true Chtirch no longer 
involves legal disabilities. The Church 
has a new freedom which is worth hav- 
ing, even at the risk of official hostility 
on the part of the Bolshevik govern- 
ment, for such hostility is no longer, as 
tinder the czars, a necessary part of 
government policy. 

This correspondent, who is in inti- 
mate touch w^ith Russian aft'airs. says 
that "there is good reason to hoi)e that, 
if i^eace were restored in Eastern Eu- 
rope, the coming years would witness 
a remarkable movement of conversions 
to the Church." L'n fortunately, he 
adds, "desijite all the talk at Paris, 
London, and San Remo. all the signing 
of treaties and protocols. Eastern Eu- 
rope is now in the sixth year of contin- 
uous war, and the end is not yet even 
in siuht." 



ao4 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 1 



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The St. Louis Catholic Historical 
Review 
The St. Louis Catholic Historical Re- 
view has issued the first nunil)er of its 
second volume. It is considerably "be- 
hind time." but none the less interest- 
ing". Father V. G. Holweck describes 
some language troubles in the early his- 
tory of St. I.ouis Catholicity. They 
arose mainly over i)reaching" in French. 
To-flay. curiously enough, the Gospel is 
being preached in St. I^ouis in nearly 
every language of the European conti- 
nent except French, which was the 
mother tongue of most of our first mis- 
sionaries, but has completely died out. 
A paper by the editor-in-chief, Rev. Dr. 
Souvay. CM., deals with efforts of the 
Protestant I'ible Society in New Or- 
leans, about 1HF3. Dr. vSouvay men- 
tions, but does not attempt to extenuate, 
the fact that Fray Antonio de Sedella. 
O.M.Cap.. rector of the Cathedral of 
New C^rleans. gave his unreserved aj)- 
proval to the missionaries of the liiblc 
Society and their work, 'i'here are 
other valuable papers and notes; We 



renew our recommendation of this mer- 
itorious Review. Subscription, $2 per 
annum. Published by the Cath. Hist. 
Society of St. Louis, 209 Walnut St. 

•-^<$>-»~» 

Race Suicide 

Warren S. Tompson, in a paper on 
"Race Suicide in the United States," in 
the American Journal of Physical An- 
thropology^ gives convincing proof that 
native American families arc dying out, 
while the nation is being taken posses- 
sion of by immigrants and their chil- 
dren. El Palacio calls the article 
"rather startling." It is not startling 
to those who have watched the growth 
of "race suicide" in this country. Un- 
fortunately, the children of immigrants 
mostly fall in with the nefarious i)rac- 
tice, so that it is only by ever new immi- 
gration that the ])Opulation can be kept 

"P- ^_ 

•-^J^r^-U 

—The Ciiri.sti;in ideal lias not been tried 
and fonnd wantinp. it has been tried, found 
too (liflTicult and left alone.— G. K. Chester- 
ton. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



205 



The Inevitable Revolution 

Sir Philip Gibbs, the English war 
correspondent (who, by the way, is a 
Catholic), has at last broken the 
shackles of the censorship and in "Now 
It Can Be Told" (Harper's), divulges 
the whole unsavory truth about the 
war. The book must be read from 
cover to cover to be duly appreciated. 
We can quote but one or two specimen 
passages : 

"Modern civilization was wrecked on 
those fire-blasted fields, though they led 
to what we called 'Victory.' More died 
there than the flower of our youth and 
German manhood. The Old Order of 
the world died there, because many 
men who came alive out of that conflict 
were changed, and vowed not to tol- 
erate a system of thought which had 
led up to such a monstrous massacre 
of human beings who prayed to the 
same God, loved the same joys of life, 
and had no hatred of one another ex- 
cept as it had been lighted and inflamed 
by their governors, their philosophers, 
and their newspapers. The German 
soldier cursed the militarism which had 
plunged him into that horror. The 
British soldier cursed the German as 
the direct cause of all his trouble, but 
looked back on his side of the lines and 
saw an evil there which was also his 
enemy — the evil of a secret diplomacy 
which juggled with the lives of humble 
men, so that war might be sprung upon 
them without their knowledge or con- 
sent, and the evil of rulers who hated 
German militarism not because of its 
wickedness, but because of its strength 



in rivalry, and the evil of a folly in the 
minds of men which had taught them 
to regard war as a glorious adventure, 
and patriotism as the right to dominate 
other peoples, and liberty as a catch- 
word of politicians in search of power, 

"The ideas of vast masses of men 
have been revolutionized by the 
thoughts that were stirred up in them 
during those years of intense suffering. 
No system of government designed by 
men afraid of the new ideas will have 
power to kill them, though they may 
throttle them for a time. . . 

"If the new ideas are thwarted by 
reactionary rulers endeavoring to jerk 
the world back to its old-fashioned 
discipline under their authority, there 
will be anarchy reaching to the heights 
01 terror in more countries than those 
where anarchy now prevails. If by 
fear or by wisdom the new ideas are 
allowed to gain their ground gradually, 
a revolution will be accomplished with- 
out anarchy. But in any case, or good 
or ill, a revolution will happen. It has 
happened in the sense that already there 
is no resemblance between this Europe 
after-the-war and that Europe before- 
the-war, in the mental attitude of the 
masses toward the problem of life. . . 
The old gangs are organizing a new 
system of defense, building a \2£\y kind 
of Hindenburg line behind which they 
are dumping their political ammunition. 
But their Hindenburg line is not im- 
pregnable. The angry murmur of the 
mob — highly org-anized, disciplined, 
passionate, trained to fight, is already 
approaching the outer bastions." 



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206 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 1 



NOTES AND GLEANINGS 

— There lias heon a complaint tliat wo are 
losing our masculinity l^ecause of tlie passing 
of the male teacher; that tlie generation with 
us is tiKi much "school-manned." Tlie situa- 
tion, says the CathoUc Citiccn, is aggravated 
by tlie daily, especially the evening papers. 
which are hreeding "two new geiulers. neitlicr 
of them admiralile: the denatured .\niazon 
and her cavalier, the Sissyman." 

^ — The XtUioti (No. -'865) congratulates the 
House of Representatives on its refusal 'o 
enact into permanent legislation the control 
o\er passports now exercised by the Depart- 
n-ont of State. "Notliing in the career of the 
Wilson administration." justly says our es- 
teemed contemporary "has been carried on 
with more glaring partisanship and favorit- 
ism than the issuance of passports" — before, 
ihiring. and after the war. It would be a 
calamity to perpetuate the Wilson regime in 
any department. 

— What Masonry is aiming at in this coun- 
try appears in part from the cctcriiiii cciisi\> 
of the Masonic .Wti' . /.ijt' (see, for instance, 
its May number, page 210), tiiat "no person. 
male or female wiio is not a product of our 
public schools, shttuld be eligible for any of- 
fice of public trust in the U. S. or in any 
State." Quite naturally, the Masons are en- 
thusiastically backing the movement on foot 
in Michigan to close the parochial schools. 

— A society just cstalilished in Germany 
has undertaken to coml)at trashy tiliiis on 
i:s own hook, aside from the national censor- 
ship lately estal>lished by tlie Reichstag. 
The new society believes that a national lihii 
censorship can do away with gross indecency, 
but that s«)metliing more is needed. It pro- 
poses to otablish branches in all tiie larger 
cities to aid the local autliorities in dealing 
with moving picture problems; to assist in 
distributing the productions of approved 
corporations that specialize in educational 
films, and to carry on an active campaign for 
film improvement by means of |)ublicity and 
an information service. 

— .-XppDpos of certain comic songs, a corre- 
spondent of the \. Y. Post inquires how 



long tlie pubHc would listen if some of the 
stMigs that pleased our fathers were sung to- 
day, ('. .1,'.. "Little Sweetiieart, Come and Kiss 
Me," "Too Proud to Beg, Too Honest to 
Steal." "Captain Jinks of the Horse Ma- 
rines," "Silver Tiireads Among the Gold," 
etc. The answer is — probably about a min- 
ute. How tastes do cliaiige ! Saccharine mu- 
sic once ruled the stage. That was succeeded 
by ragtime. Xow we have jazz, and it is 
iiard to say which is the worst. The Post's 
dramatic editor thinks "one of these days 
.someone will lead a crusade against jazz, and 
its de.itli will be like tliat of Mexican presi- 
dents." We hope so. 

— Those who are interested in a Catholic 
Federation of .\rts, are invited to correspond 
with the Rev. P. Raphael. O.S.B., of St. An- 
selm's College, Mancliester, N. H.. who sent 
out an appeal recently for such a federation. 
The purpose of the movement is to bring to- 
gether Catliolic artists and lovers of art for 
consultation and co-operation ; to take 
means to furtlier the development of Chris- 
tian art; to ditTuse and foster a knowledge 
and appreciation of its productions, and to 
safeguard the spiritual welfare of Catholic 
art students. .\ monthly bulletin is to be 
issued. Fatlier Raphael will gladly send a 
lopy of his circular to any address upon ap- 
plication. 

— The CathoUc Transcript, the official or- 
gan of llie Bishop of Hartford, Conn., is per- 
plexed on looking into the plans of the Cath- 
olic News Bureau just inaugurated under the 
auspices of the National Catholic Welfare 
Council. The lUireau appears to our esteemed 
contemporary ;is "a sort of censorship bu- 
reau, giving forth what it considers tit, and 
suppressing wliat it does not approve." And 
at the head of it are two laymen, former em- 
ployees of Hearst, the arch-yellow-journalist. 
Tliese laymen are to be "court of last appeal, 
more powerful than a provincial council the 
voice of Catliolic ,\nierica." Surely the erec- 
tion of this bureau is, in the Transcript's 
words, "a tribute to tlie retiring modesty of 
our national hierarchy." But will it redound 
to the advantage of the Catholic press and of 
the Catholic cause at large? 



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1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



207 



— What with the X. C. W. C. News SiTv- 
ice, the press hulletiiis of the Central lUireau, 
and the syndicateil "editorials" of the Rev. 
B. X. O'Reilly, Catholic weeklies are getting 
so nearly alike that one can hardly be dis- 
tinguished from anotiier. Tlius is originality 
stamped out where it ought to have its prin- 
cipal habitat among us. We cannot sec tliat 
ihe Catliolic cause is gaining by tliis l)ringing 
down of our papers to one dead level of 
mediocrity. 

— Tlie Rev. Dr. Preserved Smith, in a re- 
view of Dean Inge's '"Outspoken Essays" in 
No. 2S65 of the N. Y. Nation, says: "Cardi- 
nal Newman is denounced for the 'rcfmed 
cruelty' (save the mark!) of his attacks on 
tlie Church of England, and for holding an 
illogical position, not intrinsically absurd "Init 
absurd wlien applied to justify belief in gross 
superstition.' And what is gross supersti- 
tion? Wliat Dean Inge does not believe. 
What is faith? What Dean Inge does belie\ e. 
There is not one argument he uses against 
tlie Catholics that the rationalist could riot 
turn against Inge, nor one of his sneers at tlie 
Dissenters and secularists that Newman 
could not have retorted against its author." 

— Bishop Wehrle, of Bismarck, N. D., con- 
tributes another pamphlet to the current dis- 
cussion of "Tiie Non-Partisan League, its 
Causes and Tendencies." As our readers 
are aware, the Bishop opposes the League 
because some of its leaders show Socialist 
and radical tendencies, and suggests the ap- 
plication of less dangerous remedies to the 
existing social and economic evils. His re- 
marks on this latter subject (pp. 16 sqq. j 
will no doubt receive serious attention even 
from those who have not been able to see 
eye to eye witli His Lordship in regard to 
Catholic membership in the League. To 
.Msgr. Wehrle's plea for ''a healthy public 
conscience" as the primary requisite of social 
reform, all good citizens will subscribe. 

— In a pamphlet of 18 pages the Central 
Bureau of the Catholic Central Society (St. 
Louis) sunmiarizes, under the not very 
felicitous title, "The Impartial Shepherd," 
tiio remarkable services rendered to humanity 
by Benedict XV during the war. These 
services are grouped under eleven heads: 



Exchange of i'risoiurs, EtTorts to i%stai>lish 
Communication with Occupied Districts, As- 
sistance to Indiviiluals, Supplying I'ood to 
the Civilian Population of Invaded Districts, 
Protests against Violations of International 
Law, Efforts to liring .About a Just and Per- 
manent Peace, etc. The account is incom- 
plete, but exact as far as it goes, and serves 
to increase respect for the person of the 
lloly b'atlier and for his exalted office. (Price 
10 cents ). 

— Dr. !•". Wet/.el, of Munich, in an article 
on political parties in Germany {Das Ncue 
kric/i. II. ,^4), incidentally deplores the fact 
tliat practically the entire Catholic press of 
tl^at country receives its news from a central 
liureau, wliich has its headquarters at Berlin 
and is controlled by certain leaders. This 
condition of affairs has proved a detriment 
both to the press itself and to the best inter- 
ests of the Centre p.arty. Dr. Wetzel favors 
a policy of decentralization. We in America 
should learn a lesson from the experience of 
our German coreligionists and try to keep our 
newspaper organs individual and independent 
instead of establishing a central news bureau 
with its inevitable control of the press by a 
few men, no matter who they may be. What 
we need is more independence and less cen- 
tralization and control. 

— One or two of our subscribers have com- 
plained about the unusually large amount of 
advertising in the last few numbers of the 
/•'. R. Would they prefer to see the subscrip- 
tion price raised to $3 or $4? The greater 
the volume of advertising tlie less the de- 
mands on the subscriber. The ideal publica- 
tion would be one conducted entirely without 
advertising. We tried that for about ten 
years and found the burden too heavy. 
Priiiiuin vk'crc. . . . To-day it is more 
expensive than ever to publish a magazine, 
and our readers have no doubt taken notice 
of the almost general increase in suliscriptipn 
rates. We are trying to spare them a raise 
by taking in more advertising. Should the 
amount of advertising keep on increasing we 
shall add a few extra pages to each issue. 
Meanwdiile the majority of our subscribers 
will no doubt be pleased to notice the grow- 
ing appreciation of the F. R. as an advertising 
medium. 



Franciscans and the Protestant Revolution 

in Engiand 

By FRANCIS BORQIA STECK, O. F. M. 

\ GRAPHIC STORY of the Anglican schism and the trials and triumphs 
of the English PVanciscan Friars. The author has succeeded admirab- 
ly in presenting the leading actors and incidents in this great tragedy with 
compelling realism and vigor. 

niastrated, Cloth, 250 pages, ^2.50 postpaid 

FRANCISCAN HERALD PRESS Chicago, Illinois 



208 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 1 



Literaiy Briefs 



—Father Edward F. Garesclie, SJ., has pub- 
lished another volume in his series of spir- 
itual readings, under the title. "Your Own 
Heart: Some Helps to Understand It." 
Like its predecessors, this booklet is meant to 
minister to man's desire for self-knowledsje 
and self -betterment. The author has the gTft 
of keen observation and knows how to talk 
of men's faults so as to inspire them witli a 
sincere resolution to do better. (Renzigcr 
Bros.; $1.25 net). 

—The Catholic Times, of Liverpool and 
London, in its Xo. 274J, devotes a friendly 
notice to the third volume of Koch's "Hand- 
book of Moral Theology," adapted into Eng- 
Ish by Arthur Preuss. "Most treatises on 
Catholic ethics, being in Latin," says our con- 
temporary, "have not llie interest and facility 
that as a rule, pertains to a well-written work 
m the vernacular. Tliis.book can be taken up 
and perused with real entertainment, coupled 
with solid, up-to-date instruction." 

—The fact that the successive volumes of 
Fr. Charles Augustine's "Commentary on the 
New Code of Canon Law" are appeariiig 
rapidly in new editions before the work is 
finished, is sufficient proof that the commen- 
tary tills a real want. Volume V has just been 
reprinted for the second time. It deals with 
marriage law and matrimonial trials, and is 
indispensable to the pastoral clergy. The 
latest decisions of the Roman congregations 
up to the time of going to press have- I)cen 
studied and, as far as necessary, cited in the 
text or notes. The price is remarkably low 
as books sell nowadays. (B. Herder Book 
Co. $2.50 net). 

— "Penal Legislation in the New Code of 
Canon Law," by the V. Rev. H. A. Ayrin- 
hac, S.S., is a brief commentary on the fiftli 
hook of the new Code, which" contains the 
whole legislation now in force on ecclesiasti- 
cal offences and penalties. The order fol- 
lowed is that of the Code itself, and the text 
of the law is adhered to closely. Of special 
importance for all. especially for coiirc'ssors, 
i."- that portion which concerns censures. Tlie 
classified list of censures latre sententiae in 
the appendix, with its references to the Code, 
is a real convenience. The index nngl:t be 
a '.'ttle more elaborate. (Bcnziger Bros ; ?i 
net). 

—In his book "Sexual Ethics" (London: 
Walter Scott), Mr. Robert Michcls, with 
some of whose principles we cannot agree, 
has much to say that is admirable on the 
question of sex education. Positive instruc- 
tion on matters of sex, either in school or 
home, he thinks is harmful; even physiologi- 
cal explanation by medical men he rejects. 
He argues that children will grrnv normally 
into knowledge of themselves and tluir po- 
tentialities, provided that they are not delilj- 
ciately deceived concerning their oi:igin or 



educated into unreasonable prejudices. It is 
natural development, not unnatural distortion 
into ignorance or precocious knowledge, that 
should be the aim; the taboo is dangerous, 
even to health and sanity, because it issues in 
initiation without preparation. Although M. 
maintains the single standard of morality for 
botli sexes, and holds, as an ethical ideal, the 
need of male chastit.y before marriage, he 
does not fall into the delusion that chastity is 
a necessary qualification for marriage. 



Books Received 

Missionary Mass Hymns. Words by Mrs-. Evelyn L. 
Thomas. Music bv AI. Karczynski. L? pp. 8vo. 
Techiiy, 111. : Mission Press S. V. D. 1 5 cts.. Si.x 
or more copies, 10 cts. per copy, postpaid. 

The Impartial Shepherd. Services Rendered the 
Nations by Pope Benedict XV. During the War. 
Timely Topics Series No. 10. 18 pp. 8vo. St. 
Louis, Mo.: Central Bureau of the Catholic Cen- 
tral Society, Temple Bldg. 10 cts. (paper). 

lite Non-Partisan League: Its Causes and Ten- 
dencies. By Vincent Wehrle, Bishop of Bismarck. 
19 pp. 8vo. 'lO cts. per copy; $7.50 per 100 (paper). 
Address orders to the Rt. Rev. Vincent Wehrle, 
Bismarck, N. D. 

Talks to Nurses. The Ethics of Nursing. By Henry 
S. Spalding, S.J. vi & 197 pp. 8vo. Benziger 
Brrs. $1.50 net. 

The Foutidation of True Moralitv. By Rev. Thomas 
Slater, S.J. 88 pp. 12mo. Benziger Bros. $1.25 
net. 

The Official Catholic Directory. 1920. U. S. Edi- 
tion. New York: P. J. Kenedy & Sons. 

.] Manual of the Ceremonies of Low Mass. Com- 
piled and arranged by the Rev. L. Kuenzel, Priest 
of the Arcbdiocese of Dubuque. 191 pp. 8vo. 
New York: Fr. Pustet & Co., Inc. $2.50 net. 

Moods and Memories. [Poems] by Edmund Leamy. 
149 pp. 12mo. New York: The Devin-Adair Co. 
$2 net. 

.1 .Safe I'iezv of .Spiritism for Catholics. By Rev. 
Joseph C. Sasia, S.J. 32 pp. 16mo. San Jose, 
Cab: Popp \' Hogan. (For free distribution). 



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1920 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 209 



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210 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 15 



ii 



Turning to HIM 



99 



Is Cirili:atio)i Caving hit The Entire World Is An Inferno of Bolshevism — of 

Murder, Stealing,' Hypocrisy, Lnst, Famine, Sickness, Pestilence, Death. 

Is an ignored God scourging the human race to remind all that He 

reigns supreme! Is Religion a hopeless failure f Is Christ 

again '^asleep in the vessel of the Church'^? 

"We await the day of revenge." "I would sacrifice ten millions of lives." "Peace is 
Hell." Quoted from sermons by prominent clergymen in New York. But contrast all 
such tongue-souled utterances with the following from THE HEUOTROPIUM : 

"Let the Universe be disturbed by tempests from every quarter, let armed battalions 
close in deadly fray, let fleets be crippled and destroyed by fleets, let the law courts ring 
with endless litigation, and still this is my chief busines in life, to conform myself entirely 
to the one and and only Will of God." 

For many years in Great Britain, the Continent and America educated Protes- 
tants, Catholics and men and women of no creed at all have turned to The 
Heliotropium. It has comforted thousands, so too will it solace and strengthen 
you and yours — especially in sickness, affliction and bereavement. As a tonic 
for zcUl and thought even tlie mercenary pagan will find it worth a baker's 
dozen of the books tliat aim no higher than tlie fattening of a bank account. 

The Heliotropium 

"Turning to Him" By JEREMIAS DREXELIUS, S. J. 

The only %vork In the history ol civilization that deals solely and successfully 
with the DIVINE WILL and your will — that links the two. Your Wtll — God's Will. 
The God of old. ol the Old Testament and the Neiv. the God that men, women and 
pulpiteer politicians have tossed aside — forgotten — the God that flctlon-theologlans 
have destroyed, selling you In His place their own carefully copyrighted God — 
all *^finlte." but as palpable, po%vertul and responsive to the human misery of the 
day «s a deified London fog. 

"Greedy?" No! "Controversial?" No! —Just God and You 



THE HELIOTROPIUM is one of my Favor- 
ite books and one which I have often recom- 
mended to others. It gets down to the very 
root of spirituality — absolute submission to the 
Will of God. 

In a quaint, attractive way, the author treats 
this most essential and important point from 
every possible angle, and one who rcadr. it 
carefulfy cannot fail to have his or her spir- 
itual life deepened and purified. 

REV. J. ELLIOT ROSS, C.S.P.. Ph.D. 

A saintly Jesuit of Sixteenth Street said: "A 
copy of THE HELIOTROPIUM was given to 
me by a very young woman. I liked the work 
to much that I read it through — and use it for 
my meditations. I urge my pentifents and 
others to read THE HEf-IOTROPIUM, for it 
if a book that makes saints." 



My dear : 

I have gone nearly through THE HELIO- 
TROPIUM and find it a most extraordinary 
book, one to thank God for. I do not know 
any book on the spiritual life more valuable. 
The one truth in it is, of course, a central fact 
in life, and the old Bavarian hammers at it, 
hammers at it after the skilled manner of the 
classic rhetorician, with an amplification worthy 
of Cicero, until he gets it into one's soul. The 
English, too, is worthy of the original text. 

Read the book yourself slowly two or three 
times and it will correct your liver. It is worth 
any fifteen books of the so-called classics. 
Yours sincerely, 
.AUSTIN O'M.M-LKY, M.D., Ph.D., LL.D. 



Delivered to ;iiiy juldress in tlie world, #2 



THE DEVIN-ADAIR COMPANY, Publishers 



425 Flltb Avenue 



New York, U. S. A. 



r 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXVII, NO. 14 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



July 15, 1920 



English Opinions of Koch's Moral 
Theology 

Catholic Book Notes, published by the 
English Catholic Truth Society and ed- 
ited by Mr. James Britten, says in its 
No. 253 : 

"The third volume of the 'Handbook 
of Moral Theology,' by Koch-Preuss 
(Herder), applies the fundamental 
principles already established to man's 
personal and vocational duties. In 
these days when purely materialistic 
views are so prevalent even Catholics 
need a reminder that there are other 
aims in life besides that of temporal 
success. In this volume they will find a 
guide to keep them on the path of strict 
rectitude in regard to the due care of the 
body and of the mindj^ sane views on 
the thorny questions of labor and wages 
and the relations of employers and em- 
ployees ; and sound doctrine in regard to 
property and the rights and duties aris- 
ing from its possession ; and practical 
suggestions regarding the taxation of 
large fortunes. There are sensible re- 
marks on the subject of suitable recrea- 
tion — the theater, cinema and dance- 
halls receiving their share of attention. 
The treatment is constructive as well 
as critical, and the avoidance of extreme 
views conduces to the adoption of con- 
clusions that satisfy an honest con- 
science. There is a useful index." 

The London Tablet (No. 4178) says 
of the same work : "Former volumes of 
this work have been well received, and 
this volume is even more practically use- 
ful and interesting. The matter of 
the volume is the duty of man to him- 
self, including the duty of self-love, care 
of mind and body, vocational duties, the 
duty of labor, the right and duty of ac- 
quiring and holding property, the notion 
and value of honor, and the duty of pre- 
serving it. As in the former volumes, 
the bibliography is extremely full and 
the notes valuable. We would call par- 



ticular attention to the author's — or ed- 
itor's — remarks on housing, art, cine- 
mas , dancing. . . . We are cer- 
tainly looking forward to the concluding 
volumes of this work of Dr. Koch ; the 
unconventional method of treating a 
well-worn subject is a great merit in a 
treatise on Moral Theology." 



^^ 



Themselves to Blame 

Mr. Lauck's investigations show 3(X) 
per cent profiteering in sugar, 400 per 
cent in meat packing, 375 per cent in 
milling, etc., etc., and, according to an- 
other expert, the corporations of the 
country, after paying all their taxes, 
cleaned up a total net profit of thirty- 
four billion dollars in the last four 
years. The Freeman has no sympathy 
for the American people in their present 
plight. Our contemporary points out 
(I, 15) that the people might and should 
have foreseen all this. "Wliat are wars 
for, anyway? The American people let 
themselves be stampeded into a war that 
they now see for themselves, and have 
President Wilson's word for it, to boot 
— given, to be sure, when it would do 
no good — was a straight trade- war. 
They cannot even plead that their fore- 
sight could not be as good as their hind- 
sight, for the history of every modern 
war lies open to them, and they had 
plenty of warning about this one. They 
worked feverishly to produce the very 
conditions under which they would be 
fair game for the profiteer of every 
kind and degree; and if they are now 
])eing mulcted as Mr. Lauck and Mr. 
^lanly say they are, and as this paper 
fully believes they are, they have no 
one but themselves to blame. They had 
only hard words, mobbings. lynchings 
and the like, for those who tried to tell 
them what they were letting themselves 
in for ; and, therefore, sympathy with 
them under the regime of the profiteer 
seems misplaced and gratuitous." 



212 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 16 



Ignatius of Loyola 

By Charles J. Quirk. S.J., 

St. Charles College, Grand Coteau, hi\. 



With iron strength which only those may 
know, 
Who loving things created find at last, 
Through pain and travail Love itself un- 
masked. 
And kneeling there within that piercing glow, 
Casting abroad its dauntless rays to show 
To eyes and heart, clean-swept, those loves 

that blast 
And leave the soul, 'mid ruins. Love's out- 
cast. 
Betrayed and dying by sucli overthrow ; 
You, to the world your life-long service gave, 
Fired witli the love of God's sheer rliap- 
sody, 
Forever seeking, striving e'er to save — 

To win again for Love immortally, 
Souls snatched from Death that ends not 
with tlie grave, 
And write their names on Heaven's bla- 
zonry! 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 
{Hlczruth Jnstalhitcnt) 

During the month of April, 1879, we were 
all very busy at St. Scholastica's, preparing 
for the dedication of the church. We cer- 
tainly did our best with the limited means we 
had. The front of the church and the belfry 
were decorated with reeds and twelve ilags, 
five of them papal flags and one a very large 
I'nitcd States banner. I made a number of 
inscriptions. In front of the church we 
planted cedar trees. We succeeded also in 
making a very decent throne for the Bishop. 
On April 20, 1879, the first Sunday after 
EaFtcr, Bishop Fitzgerald, of Little Rock, 
dedicated the church, gave Confirmation, and 
preached a most impressive sermon. Me was 
surprised and pleased at all he saw; however, 
he was easily satisfied. .Vfter dinner the 
Bishop took me out for a walk and told me 
that he needed a missionary, with Pocahontas 
as headquarters, for Northeastern Arkansas, 
and another for the Southeast. He asked me 
to take charge of one of those two missions; 
I might choose whichever I preferred. I 
replied that 1 would consider the proposition. 

The fir.sf funeral I had in St. Scholastica 
was that of Katharine Huben, who hafl come 
from Holland in .April and died May iHth 
fallowing. I could hardly prepare her for 
death. She died with malarial fever, 95 
years of aRc. Kvcr and a^'ain she would re- 
peat: "WcTt' I am, dyini;; had T only re- 
mained in Holland, I could have lived many 
more yearji." 

By the time the beautiful month of May 
ai rived I was sore with boils on my hands 



and back, and wearied from the heat. When 
1 would ask, "Is it going to get still hotter?" 
I was told that tlie present heat was nothing 
compared to what it would be in June and 
July. Whenever I mentioned the painful 
eruptions they replied that I was fortunate, 
as the boils would keep away the fever. The 
almost tropical heat of Arkansas is certainly 
one of the greatest trials for anybody accus- 
tomed to tiie mild climate of Switzerland. 

Father Fidelis Brcm, anotlier Swiss priest, 
liad started congregations at Conway and 
Atkins. The former parish at that time he 
had given over to the Holy Ghost Fathers. 
In the latter place (Atkins) he had just 
tinished a small church in honor of St. Fi- 
delis. He invited me to preach at the dedi- 
cation, but the letter of invitation arrived 
about a month after the celebration. It had 
betn lying at the post office at Prairie View 
all that time. At my ne.xt visit Father Brem 
told me how he, the Bishop, and the Provin- 
cial of the Holy Ghost Fathers, V. Rev. F. 
Strub, had delayed tiie dedication services 
until II o'clock, expecting that I, the ap- 
pointed preaciier, would come on horseback. 
At the time of my visit Father Brem was in 
bed with a chill, covered with heavy blankets. 
The iieat was almost unbearable, but the poor 
priest shook and shivered. I expressed a de- 
sire for cooler weather, whereupon poor 
Fatiier Brem replied: "Wait until you get a 
chill, and you will never wish for more cool- 
ness." I found out he was right a few years 
later. I asked Father Brem about starting 
new colonies, as Bishop Fitzgerald had asked 
mc to do. Father Brem was very enthusias- 
tic, and thought I should try it by all means. 
He himself, after having finished his studies 
in Switzerland, had come as a missionary to 
America and worked a number of years in 
Oliio. Bishop Fitzgerald, on one of his visits, 
invited iiim to come to Arkansas. After 
establishing two missions here, he gradually 
lost his eyesight, and, therefore, returned to 
his native country, where his father had de- 
posited twelve tliousand francs for him in 
case he should ever return. However, even 
then he was not idle. For several years he 
was auxiliary priest in Biittikon, helping out 
in tlie neigliboring parishes, thougli he had to 
be led to tlie altar, the pulpit, and the con- 
fessional. But once in the pulpit he preached 
witii great enthusiasm, and the people liked 
to hear him. I visited him in 1882. After a 
few years the zealous missionary, nolwith- 
.standing his blindiics.s, started a new parisli 
and built a nice churcli and rectory in the 
Swiss diaspora. He died in 1901, lamented 
by i)riests and people. 

Soon after I had to visit Little Rock to 
get a dispensation from the Vicar General, 
Father I 'at rick (XRc'iUy. The good priest 
had a kindly, winning expression; he was 
very affable and was held in the highest 
esteem by all. Unfortunately, I could not 
nndcrstaiifl him well; lie talked very fast. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



213 



He was just reading the Gazette when I 
came in. Informed of my wish, he tore off 
part of the rim of the newspaper and wrote 
the dispensation upon it. Those were rude 
days. 



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V. Rev. Patrick O'Reilly, V. G. 

In June, 1879. I had what I then thought 
was a remarkable sick call. Later I had 
many more, far more remarkable, both as to 
distance and other circumstances. But I was 
still "green," and all new things impressed 
me greatly. On the i6th I was informed 
that there was a very sick man in Clarksville, 
twenty miles away. I got a big white horse 
from George Anhalt and rode through the 
woods saying my office. The old animal was 
rather weak in the knees and every now 
and then would stumble and fall. Quite 
naturally, I would fall over his head to the 
ground. However, I was still young and 
limber, and did not mind the falls. After 
riding several miles, I came to a high and 
long bridge. I had gone quite a distance on 
it when I noticed it was only a foot bridge. 
I realized my danger, but it was too late, and 
the bridge was too narrow to turn around 
on with the horse. Besides there was a 
plank missing in the bridge every now and 
then, and a look into the deep valley and 
creek below made me dizzy. I was afraid 
and prayed to all the saints. My chief con- 
solation and hope was the Holy Sacrament, 
which I cai ried with me. Happily, the bridge 
was crossed without an accident. Finally 
arriving in Clarksville, in the evening, I went 
at once to the house of the sick man, a Cath- 
olic Frenchman, married to an American lady 
who was a Protestant. They were living at 
a hotel. It took me quite a long time to 



adjust their marriage difficulties. Meanwhile 
the news of the arrival of a priest had spread. 
\yhen I was finished with my mission to the 
sick man, some Catholic ladies, the Misses 
Hite, invited me to their house. From there 
I had to go with them to the courthouse, 
v/here they gave an entertainment that night. 
I would rather have gone to a restaurant or 
hotel, for I had had neither dinner nor sup- 
per that day, I)ut no opportunity was given 
me to escape. No mention was made of 
such trivial matters as eating and drinking. 
I was still too "green" and too shy to men- 
tion anything aljout hunger and thirst. Thus, 
like a lamb led to slaughter, I allowed myself 
to listen to their singing and to admire their 
calisthenic exercises until midnight. On/C 
may easily imagine how much I enjoyed a 
luncheon, being as hungry as a wolf. The 
next morning, refreshed by a short, healthy 
sleep, I went to the house of Mr. August 
Mayer, who lived about two miles in the 
country, to say Mass. Mr. Mayer had been 
a school teacher and organist at St. John's 
Church, Cincinnati, and later in Jasper, Ind. 
Still later, he became my iirst organist in 
Pocahontas, Ark. 

Returning on my "Rosinante" through the 
virginal forest, I pictured myself as the first 
Catholic priest traveling through this wilder- 
ness. I began to sing the vespers and differ- 
ent hymns which I knew by heart. I was 
immensely happy in thethought that I was the 
first one to sing the praises of God in the lan- 
guage of our holy Mother, the Church, in 
this vicinity. But in my rejoicing night over- 
took me in the midst of the woods, and I no 
longer knew the direction. However, the 
horse, following his instinct, headed directly 
for home through the woods, not minding 
the road at all. While going straight through 
the brush my spectacles were knocked off by 
low branches. I went a few steps farther 
and then bent a number of twigs in order to 
mark the route. In those days I was ex- 
tremely short-sighted, and naturally feared I 
might have to go about as a blind man for 
st)me time if those spectacles were not found, 
as they did not carry spectacles for myopia 
in the country stores. Riding farther I saw 
a light through the woods. I directed the 
horse that way and found a Dutch family by 
the name of Simmons. They received me 
very hospitably, and though people of no re- 
finement or higher education, had sense 
enough to offer me, first of all, some refresh- 
ments. Afterwards, an elderly man, Peter 
Joerrison, volunteered to bring me back to 
vSt. Scholastica. We arrived there early in 
the morning. This Peter Joerrison became 
the first settler in the colony which I later 
started in Pocaliontas. The boys of Mr. Sim- 
mons, after daylight, followed my horse's 
trail and luckily found my glasses, whole and 
uninjured, near the broken limbs. They 
brought them to me that afternoon, to my 
great joy and comfort. 



214 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 15 



The <umor of 1S79 was very dry, and the 
Sisters had to carry water for washing quite 
a distance from Shoal Creek. As I said be- 
l\>re, we had no good drinking water. A 
Yankee settler, living about a mile from the 
church, iiad a cistern to wliich wo now and 
then went for a fresh drink. But about tlie 
middle of June, the good man, fearing his 
cistern would go dry. refused to give us any 
more water. He said henceforth nobody but 
the priest and tlie Bisliop could get a drink. 
L'nder such circumstances a person learns to 
appreciate tlie blessings of good water. As 
in Franco and Switzerland the people are 
proud to talk about their good wines, so liere 
the people feel proud of a good spring and 
boast aljout it. .Almost daily I lielped to 
carry water from Shoal Creek to the Sisters' 
house. I knew that a great deal of sickness 
and fever would have been prevented if the 
people everywhere had been provided witii 
pure drinking water. Mr. Buckelmeyer one 
day went about with a peach brancli, search- 
ing for water. Tlie branch refused to turn in 
his hands. I had little faith in tlie divining 
rod but I took the twig into my hands, as I 
was told to do, and every time I passed a 
certain place it would be pulled downward. 
There -Inust be water liere, they declared. 
John Schroder began digging, and after a 
few weeks he found a spring which furnished 
us good and wholesome water. 

Whilst Mr. Schroder was digging tlie well 
hi- was one day overcome by gas. In tlie 
ntar-by Sisters' house Mother Mary Xavicr, 
the superior, lay sick in the garret with fever 
and chills. She had a keen sense of hearing 
and luckily heard the man groaning down in 
the well. She quickly gave the alarm, and 
Schroder was pulled out of the well. lie 
was half dead, but soon recovered conscious- 
ness. (To be continued) 



The Pope's Encyclical on the Re- 
Establishment of Peace 

\o. 6 of ilk- Acta ApostuUcac Srdis, 
of June 1. prints the text of the Holy 
Fathers' latest encyclical letter, "De 
I'acis Keconcilialione ( hristiana." An 
]''nplish translation was |mblisliecl in the 
I^jndon Tablet of June 12th and is now 
jjoing the rounds of the Catholic i)ress 
of America. Xo dotiht most of our 
readers have seen it in the weeklies, hut 
the pontifical docinnent is so iniport.inl 
that we cannot forhear reprinting,' at 
least a few of its salient passages: 

"Christian charity," he says, "(ui^ht 
not to he content with not hating our 
enemies and loving them as brothers ; 
it alsr^ demands that we treat them with 
kindness, followinpj the rule of the Di- 



vine ^Master, who 'went about doing 
good and healing all that were oppressed 
by the devil' (^Acts x, 38), and finished 
His mortal life, the course of which was 
marked by good deeds, by shedding His 
blood for them. So said St. John : 'In 
this we have known the charity of God, 
because He hath laid down His life for 
us, and we otight to lay down our lives 
for the brethren. He that hath sub- 
stance of this world and shall see his 
brother in need and shall shut tip his 
bowels from him ; how doth the charity 
of God abide in him? My little chil- 
dren, let us love not in word nor by 
tongue, but in deed and in truth.' (I 
Johniii, 16—18). 

"Never indeed was there a time when 
we should 'stretch the bounds of charity' 
more than in these days of universal 
suffering and sorrow ; never perhaps as 
to-day has humanity so needed that uni- 
versal beneiicence which springs from 
the love of others, and is full of sacrifice 
and zeal. For if we look around where 
the fury of the war lias been let loose 
we see immense regions utterly desolate, 
uncultivated and abandoned ; multitudes 
reduced to want of food, clothing and 
shelter ; innumerable widows and or- 
jjhans reft of everything, and an incred- 
ible number of enfeebled beings, par- 
ticularly cb-iklren and young people, who 
carry on their bodies the ravages of this 
atrocious war." 

And again : 

"Venerable F)rethren : We pray you 
and exhort you in the mercy and charity 
fif Jesus Christ, strive with all zeal and 
diligence not only to urge the faithful 
entrusted to your care to abandon hatred 
nnd to ]iardon offences; btit, what 
is more iiumediately practical, to pro- 
mote all those works of Christian be- 
nevolence which bring aid to the needy, 
comfort to the afflicted and protection 
to the weak, and to give opportune and 
,-.pi)ro])riate assistance of every kind to 
all who have suff('red from the war. It 
is Dur especial wish that you should ex- 
hort yotir priests, as the ministers of 
peace, to be assiduous in tirging this love 
of one's neighbor and even of enemies 
.which is the essence of the Christian 
life, and by 'being all things to all men' 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



216 



(I Cor. IX, 22) and giving an example 
to others, wage war everywhere on en- 
mity and hatred, thus doing a thing most 
agreeable to the loving Heart of Jesus 
and to him who, however unworthy, 
holds His place on earth. In this con- 
nection Catholic writers and journalists 
should be invited to clothe themselves 
'as elect of God, holy and beloved, with 
pity and kindness.' (Col. HI, 12). Let 
them show this charity in their writings 
by abstaining not only from false and 
groundless accusations, but also from all 
intemperance and bitterness of language, 
all of which is contrary to the law of 
Christ and does but reopen sores as yet 
unhealed, seeing that the slightest touch 
is a serious irritant to a heart whose 
wounds are recent. 

"All that \\> have said here to indi- 
viduals about the duty of charity We 
wish to say also to the people who have 
lieen delivered from the burden of a 
long war, in order that, when every 
cause of disagreement has been, as far 
a.~ possible, removed, and without preju- 
dice to the rights of justice, they may 
resume friendly relations among them- 
selves. The Gospel has not one law of 
charity for individuals and another for 
States and nations, which are indeed but 
collections of individuals. The war be- 
ing now over, people seem called to a 
general reconciliation not only from 
motives of charity, but from necessity ; 
the nations are naturally drawn together 
by the need they have of one another, 
and by the bond of mutual good will, 
bonds which are to-day strengthened by 
t'le development of civilization and the 
marvellous increase of communication. 

"Truly, as We have already said, this 
Apo.stolic See has never wearied of 
teaching during the war such pardon of 
olTences and the fraternal reconciliation 
of the peoples, in conformity with the 
most holy law of Jesus Christ, and in 
agreement with the needs of civil life 
and human intercourse ; nor did it allow 
that amid dissension and hate these 
luoral principles should be forgotten. 
With all the more reason then, now that 
the treaties of peace are signed, does it 
]Vroclaim these principles as, for ex- 
amj^le, it did a short time ago in the 



Letter to the Bishops of Germany and in 
that addressed to the Archbishop of 
Paris." 



The First Catholic American Daily 

Mr. Conner has kept his promise. On 
July 1st appeared in Dubuque, la., the 
hrst muuber of the Daily Antcrican Tri- 
bune, the first Catholic daily newspaper 
in the English language every published 
in America. We hail the venture as a 
step in the right direction. The new 
daily supplies a long-felt want, and we 
hope it Viill succeeded and, what is 
more, lead to the establishment of other 
Catholic dailies in some of the larger 
cities of the country. 

The Fortnightly Review, whose 
twenty-six volumes are full of notes 
and articles on the necessity, the feasi- 
bility, and desirable features of a Cath- 
olic daily press, welcomed the Daily 
American Tribune long before it was 
born, and is supporting it by its sub- 
scription. The price is $8.00 a year, 
and we trust all our readers, especial- 
ly those residing in the IMiddle West, 
will give the new paper their active sup- 
port. The issues so far published are 
creditable and augurs a useful and pros- 
perous career. The paper has the Inter- 
Kational New's telegraph service and an 
extensive mail service of its own, built 
up during the five years that it has ap- 
peared in semi-weekly and tri-weekly 
editions, together with practically all 
the features that distinguish the regula- 
tion American daily — sporting news, 
market reports, a daily short story, etc. 
The tone of the Tribune is frankly and 
l^.ronouncedly Catholic, and the reading 
matters, news, editorial and selected, 
deals predominantly with Catholic sub- 
jects. Greater variety of secular infor- 
mation and more careful editing of the 
dispatches furnishedby various agencies 
will no doubt increase the value of the 
Tribune in the future. Ad niulfos 
a nil OS'! 



— The power of self-control means to do 
on all occasions the right thing because it is 
right. Keeping back tlie hard word — utter- 
ing tlie tender one, when every impulse of 
our nature tends to force us to do otherwise, 
is indeed hard, but it can be done. 



816 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 15 



The Holy Father and the League of 
Nations 

The encyclical letter "Paoeiii. Dei iiui- 
nus pulcherrimuni." from which we 
quote the most important passages on 
another page of this issue, contains also 
a reference to the League of Nations. 
It is as follows: 

"Things being thus restored, the order 
required by justice and charity re-estab- 
lished and the nations reconciled, it is 
nnich to be desired. \'enerable Brethren, 
that all States, putting aside mutual sus- 
picion, should unite in one league, or 
rather a sort of family of peoples, calcu- 
lated both to maintain their own inde- 
pendence and safeguard the order of 
human society. \\ hat specially, amongst 
other reasons, calls for such an associa- 
tion of nations, is the need generally 
recognized of making every effort to 
abolish or reduce the enormous burden 
of the military expenditure which States 
can no longer bear, in order to prevent 
these disastrous wars or at least to re- 
move the danger of them as far as pos- 
sible. So would each nation be assured 
not only of its independence, but also 
of the integrity of its territory within its 
just frontiers. 

"The Church will certainly not refuse 
her zealous aid to States united under 
the Christian law in any of their under- 
takings inspired by justice and charity, 
inasmuch as she is herself the most per- 
fect type of universal society. She i)os- 
sesses in her organization and institu- 
tions a wonderful instrument for bring- 
ing on this brotberhood among men. not 
only for their eternal salvation, but also 
for their material well-being in this 
world; she leads them through temj)oral 
well-being to the sure acquisition of 
eternal blessings. It is the teaching of 
history that when the Church pervaded 
with her spirit the ancient and barbarous 
nations of Kurope, little by little the 
many anrl varied differences that di- 
vided them were diminished and their 
quarrels extinguished; in time they 
formed a homogeneous society from 
which sprang Christian Europe which, 
under the guidance anrl auspices of the 
Church, whilst preserving a diversity of 
nations, tended to a miitv that favored 



its pr«)Sperity and glory. On this point 
St. Augustine well says : 'This celestial 
city, in its life here on earth, calls to 
itself citizens of every nation, and forms 
out of all the peoples one varied society; 
it is not harassed by differences in cus- 
toms, laws and institutions, which serve 
to the attainment or the maintenance of 
peace on earth ; it neither rends nor de- 
stroys anything but rather guards all 
and adapts itself to all; however, these 
things may vary among the nations, 
they are all directed to the same end of 
peace on earth as long as they do not 
hinder the exercise of religion, which 
teaches the worship of the true gupreme 
God.' (De Civ. Dei, xix, 17). And 
the same holy Doctor thus addresses 
the Church : 'Citizens, peoples and all 
men. thou, recalling their common 
origin, shalt not only unite among 
themselves, but shalt make them broth- 
ers.' " {Dc Mor. Red. Cath. I, 30). 

The Holy Father's encyclical has al- 
ready given rise, in France, to a move- 
ment for the revision of the peace treaty 
according to the i^ontifical suggestions 
and the substitution for the Wilsonic 
Teague of Nations of a Christian Broth- 
erhood of Peoples in the sense of St. 
Augustine and Benedict XV. 
_»<$>.,-., 



Frequent Confession 
According to Dr. O. D. Watkins, in 
his lately published "History of Pen- 
ance" (Longmans; see Catholic Book 
Azotes, No. 253), the practice of fre- 
c[uent confession in place of the one 
|>enance of early days, arose originally 
among the Irish monks ; was transferred 
to Saxon h^ngland, where first it became 
the common custom ; was spread, main- 
ly by English missionaries and scholars, 
throughout the northern countries of 
luirope ; established itself after much 
opposition in Italy and Rome, and so at 
last became, by papal authority in the 
I'ourth Lateran Council, the law of the 
whole Church. 



-♦-»<$.-•-•- 



— A $50 Liberty Bond will make you a life 
siil'scrilitT of tlic KkviKw niul procure you 
a place on tlie roster of tlie journal's bene- 
factors. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



217 



Let Us Teach Our Children to Sing! 

To the Editor: — 

In No. II of the F. R. Father P. W. 
Leonard, S.J., pleads for the preserva- 
tion of the beautiful hymn melodies 
which the Germans have brought to 
this country, for the benefit of their de- 
scendants. -It would indeed be a loss 
if these stirring songs were to die out. 
This is the time when they should be 
often repeated, since many Germans 
are in a slough of despondency just 
now. 

A propos, do children sing to-day? 
In how many churches and schools is 
the voice of God's little ones silent? In 
tlie past music and song was a part of 
tlie daily curriculum. Boys and girls 
sang in chorus, guided by the teacher's 
violin. .Aged people still love to sing 
the songs they learned during their 
school days and renew their spirit by 
rehearsing them. 

Let us teach our children to sing; 
tliey will thank us when we are no more. 
(RKv.) Raymond X'ernimoxt 

Denton, Tex. 



Need of a Middle Class Movement 

The Rev. Jos. Wentker. in his address 
to the Catholic Union of iMissouri, inter 
alia regretted that we have as yet no 
strong national middle class movement. 
"We have organizations of the various 
middle class groups," he said, "but they 
do not seem to have become sufficiently 
conscious of the solidarity of their in- 
terests and the duties which bind them 
together. We have organizations of 
farmers, of the various groups of re- 
tailers, of small manufacturers, etc., 
but they do not seem to realize suf- 
ficiently that they have an important 
function to perform in our economic 
system. There are many who believe 
that the middle classes with the excep- 
tion of the farmer are doomed to ex- 
tinction and for this reason give only a 
half-hearted support to the middle 
class movement. This is a great mis- 
take. Recent developments in other 
countries have shown that these groups 
are well able to maintain themselves 
against the encroachment of Big Busi- 



ness by suitable organization. Further- 
more, it can be easily shown that they 
are destined to play a very important 
part in the conflict between capital and 
labor. It would be a very deplorable 
development of affairs if the so-called 
social question would ever narrow down 
to a contest of strength between capital 
and labor. We would then have every 
reason to fear as a final result of this 
conflict either the dictatorship of the 
proletariat or that of plutocracy. The 
one is as undesirable as the other. It is 
Cjuite plain that the middle classes are 
called to perform the function of a me- 
diator between the warring elements 
by their very position and by their nat- 
ural interests. It is in the interest of 
the middle classes to resent the en- 
croachment of Big Business, it is also 
in their interest to oppose radicalism 
of every kind. I say, therefore, a 
strong aggressive middle class move- 
ment is one of the greatest needs of our 
day. Here is an immense field of labor 
for our Catholic social reform move- 
ment, which should not be overlooked." 



Catholic Educational 
Institutions 

H The Catholic Press does not reach the entire 
Catholic population of anj- given comninnity. 

H There is always a religiously indifferent and 
mentally slothful element that it does not 
reach. 

t However, a Catholic paper like THE KCHO 
goes to Catholic families that are mentally 
alert and loyal to their faith. 

^ It is on such families that Catholic Higher 
Education depends for its development and 
extension. 

1 It is the sons and daughters in such families 
that are prospective pupils of ovir Catholic 
educational "institutions. 

t To reich them and their parents, use the col- 
umns of THE ECHO, whose circulation is 
second to that of no other Catholic paper in the 
State of New York outside of New York City 



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564 Dodge St. 



Buffalo, N. Y. 



218 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 18 



Spiritism and the Scientists 
^lessrs. Keiran Paul, we see from the 
London Tinus Literary Supplement, 
have in press an English translation of 
Haron Dr. von Schrenck-Xotziner's sen- 
sational work. "Materialisations-Pha- 
nomene : ein Beit rag zur Erforschung 
der niediuinistischen Teleplastik" (Mu- 
nich. Ernst Reinhardt. 1*^M4). which has 
heen on our table for several months 
and has i-uzzled us not a little. The 
l>ook embodies the results of certain sci- 
entific experiments carried out by the 
author, who is a i)ract icing phvsician 
and a scientist of considerable renown, 
assisted by other physicians and scien- 
tists, with two mediums — the one a 
French woman and the other a Polish 
girl, partly in Paris and partly at Mu- 
nich, shortly before the war. There are 
numerous photographs showing "tele- 
plastic structures" in various stages of 
development. The English translation 
is by Dr. E. E. Eournier l)'Al])e and will 
be published under the title "The Phe- 
nomena of -Materialization : A Contri- 
bution to the Investigation of Medium- 
istic Phenomena." 

Dr. von .Schrenck-Notzing is the first 
scientist who has undertaken to ascer- 
tain whether the "ghosts" that materi- 
alize at -Spiritistic seances actuallv exist 
and of what substance they arc made. 

The first and main series of experi- 
ments was made with a French girl. 
"Eva C," whom Dr. von .Schrenck- 
Notzing describes as having moral senti- 
ments "only in the egocentric sense." as 
riot a virgin, and as having "a very erotic 
imagination." She had interested M. 
P.isson, a well-known FVcnch writer of 



>ome reputation, and especially his wife, 
Mme. Bisson. in her performances. 
^Ime. Bisson became Eva's patroness 
and attended most of the seances. Dr. 
von Schrenck-Notzing took the phenom- 
ena very seriously, devised the most rig- 
orous control of the medium, raised the 
lights to a high pitch of illumination, 
lired live cameras at a time at the 
"ghost," and even installed a cinemato- 
graph. The young woman was stripped 
before every performance and sewn into 
something like "tights" of black cloth. 
Her mouth, nostrils, ears and armpits 
were carefully examined. There was a 
superficial examination also of the lower 
l)art of her body. After three years of 
research under these rigorous condi- 
tions. Dr. von Schrenck-Notzing pub- 
lished the results in his above-mentioned 
book. He was convinced that the phe- 
nomena were real, but offered no ex- 
planation of the manner in which they 
were produced. He disdains Spiritism 
and claims only a mysterious teleplastic 
power on the part of the medium. The 
special value of his liook lies in the 150 
photographs of "materializations" 
which it contains. You see the "ecto- 
plasm," as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle 
calls it, pouring from the medium's 
nose, eyes, ears, and skin. You see 
sjjirit hands reaching out and mysteri- 
ous faces and figures hovering in the 
air. etc. 

Quite natural]}', the l)Ook has given 
rise to a lively controversy, which will 
now be transplanted to English-speak- 
ing countries. It is asserted (sec, c. g., 
Mr. Joseph McCabe's jiaper, "Scientific 
Men and .Spiritualism: a Skeptic's 



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920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



219 



Analysis" in the English Review, repro- 
duced in the Living Age, of Boston, No. 
3962, pp. 652 sqq.), that Eva C is iden- 
tical with Alarthe Beraud, who was un- 
masked by Prof. Richet in 1905 and 
1906 in the famous "Villa Carmen man- 
ifestations," and who confessed to AI. 
]\Iarsault that "it was all humbug." 
The "ectoplasm" is said to be bits of 
chiffon or muslin, white gloves, possibly 
inflated hsh bladders, and other com- 
pressible and expansible articles hang- 
ing from the medium's mouth or fast- 
ened to her hair, clothing, or breasts, or 
to the curtain behind which she sits. 
The trance (Eva was hypnotized before 
every session), is said to be a sham. 
Attention is called to the fact that when- 
ever a real "ghost" is visible, Eva's 
hands or feet are not to be seen. A\'hen 
human forms appeared, the curtain was 
kept closed until the girl was ready, mu- 
sic was supplied at her request (to 
drown the noise of her movements), 
and she had a quarter of an hour or so 
to arrang'5 the marvelous "peep-show." 
The faces appearing on the photo- 
graphs are explained as illustrations cut 
out of the French papers ; they are 
very crude and resemble flat paper sur- 
faces. Baron von Schrenck-Notzing 
admits that on several occasions Eva 
deceptively smuggled pins into the cab- 
inet in spite of his rigid control. Critics 
of his book point out that one or two of 
the photographs plainly show the marks 
of pins and that on one, which was 



taken prematurely, Eva is dangling the 
"ghost" on the end of a string. An- 
other doctor pointed out that there are 
human "ruminants" who can lower 
things into their gullet or stomach and 
bring them up at will, and he remem- 
bered that Eva occasionally bled from 
the mouih or gullet after a sitting. For 
seven sittings ( four of which were 
(luite barren), a net was put over her 
head, but she stipulated that her dress 
be left open when the net was on, and 
\ery soon forced- them to lay it aside. 

In short, says Mr. AlcCabe, "although 
Baron Schrenck, Professor Richet, 
Doctor Geley, and other scientific and 
medical men cling to the "abnormal" 
theory, the whole three years' investiga- 
tion really turned into a farce. It was 
admitted that 'Eva C was Marthe Be- 
raud ; and it is clear that she concealed 
her light and compressible material 
about her body." He adds that it has 
not yet been demonstrated that some 
\\ omen mediums may not develop an ab- 
normal secretion of mucus and blow or 
trail it from the mouth, making it as- 
sume fantastic appearances in the red 
light. 

We need not wonder that, if scientists 
are fooled by mediums and their tricks, 
the uneducated public is misled. What- 
ever truth there may or may not be in 
the alleged manifestations, it is becom- 
ing clearer from year to year that some 
sinister power is using them for nefari- 
ous ends. 



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220 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 15 



A Twentieth-Century Saint 
In the life of "Father \\ ilhani Dovle. 
S.J." by Prof. Alfred 0"Raliilly (, Long- 
mans), there is a chapter on his "holy 
follies." In midwinter Father Doyle 
went out at three in the morning and 
stood up to his neck in a pond, praying 
for sinners. He wore hot chains, and 
once he undressed and walked back- 
Y.'ards and forwards through a bed of 
nettles until he was in a "sweet and hor- 
rible agony.*' To him the war was a 
new opportunity to achieve holiness by 
service and sulTering. "I am learning 
here better every day/' he wrote from 
the front, "that there is no life of hap- 
piness like one full of 'hard things' 
borne for love of God." Yet even war 
could not satisfy his thirst for suffering. 
or make him feel that he endured 
enough. He rebukes himself for being 
"irritated by the ceaseless annoyances 
ar.d inconveniences of his life" in the 
trenches, and resolves "never to com- 
plain or grumble even to myself." Even 
en leave he would not relax, and when 
home for a week from the Somme was 
l)itterly unhappy because he had "delib- 
trately resisted the urging of the Holv 
Spirit to do many hard things," such as 
rising early in the morning. He might 
have leave from the trenches, but he 
would allow himself none in his fierce 
warfare with himself. Of his "holy 
follies" on( need say no more than his 
own biographer says : "The signifi- 
cance of the lives of the saints does not 
lie in the fact that they did foolish and 
even whimsical things, which they them- 
selves often regretted ; it lies rather in 
the inner love and heroism of which 
these are the manifestations." Of that 
inner love and heroism his eighteen 
months' service in the trenches anrl that 
.serenity which made his men think him 
more than mortal are the proof. 

His "holy follies" may have injured 
his health, but they left miimj)aired his 
kindness, devotion, and gay, almost 
impish humor. He saw iicjthing incon- 
gruous in religious fervrir and a very 
human scn.se of humor going together. 
•'Sometimes." he writes in one i)lace. "I 
kneel down with outstretched arms and 



pray God, if it is part of His divine 
plan, to rain down fresh privations and 
sufferings. But I stopped when the 
mud wall of my little hut fell in upon 
me — that was too nuich of a good joke." 
.\nd the two go hand in hand in this 
strange story of an absolution in No 
Man's Land. A raiding party had been 
sent out unexpectedly, and Father 
Doyle, hurrying up to give them abso- 
lution, found them already gone. He 
crawled out after them towards the 
German trenches. 

"That was a strange scene ! A group 
of men lying on their faces, waiting for 
certain death to come to some of them, 
whisjx'ring a fervent act of contrition, 
and God's priest, feeling mighty uncom- 
fortable and wishing he were safe in 
bed a thousand miles away, raising his 
1 and in absolution over the prostrate 
figures ; one boy, some little distance 
otT, thinking the absolution had not 
reached him, knelt bolt upright, and 
made an act of contrition you could 
b.ave heard in Berlin, nearly giving the 
whole show away, and drawing the en- 
emy's fire." 

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1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



221 



Mr. Wilson and Liberty of Speech 

Clear proof of what the pubHc has 
long suspected — that the facts of much 
of what is going on are withheld from 
the President — is afforded by Mr. Wil- 
son's declaration in his interview with 
Mr. Seibold that no Republican could 
assert that "any citizen has been unwar- 
rantably punished for any act of aggres- 
sion or disloyalty against the nation ; 
that any man has been punished for ex- 
pressing his opinion." The statement is 
so far from the truth as to make it im- 
possible, of course, to attribute it to 
ether than utter ignorance. No man of 
Mr. Wilson's high position could delib- 
ately set afloat so false a statement. The 
truth is that there have been 988 persons 
convicted under the espionage act, not 
one of whom was an enemy agent or 
spy. The great majority are American 
citizens, the bulk of whom are behind 
prison bars for expressions of opinion 
in print or by word of mouth. There 
was Kate Richards O'Hare whom the 
President pardoned only a few weeks 
ago; there is Eugene Debs himself, and 
there are hosts of others — one, for in- 
stance, sentenced in Minnesota to thirty 
years in jail for an expression of opin- 
ion within his ozvn home! More than 
that, there has been the greatest uneven- 
ness of prosecution, some men being 
properly impunished where others were 
unjustly convicted. So far from Mr. 
Wilson's statement being the truth, his 
administration has committed in hun- 
dreds of instances that gravest of crimes 
— sinning against the noble American 
spirit of freedom and truth-telling just 



as it has permitted one violation after 
another of our Constitution. {The Na- 
tion, No. 2869). 

.-►<j>*-.^ 

A New History of Penance 

The Rev. O. D. Watkins, an Anglican 
clergyman, has published (Longmans) 
a two-volume "History of Penance," 
which is favorably reviewed in Catholic 
Book Notes (No. 253). In the first 
volume Mr. Watkins studies all the evi- 
dence bearing upon the institution and 
administration of the Sacrament of 
Penance, throughout the whole Church, 
down to 450. In the second he traces 
the development of teaching and prac- 
tice in the Western Church as far as 
1215, when the Fourth Council of the 
Tateran fixed) the modern discipline. 
His method is objective and practical. 
At the head of every chapter, each cov- 
ering a convenient period, are set out 
in the original Greek or Latin all the 
passages from the sources which bear 
upon the matter in hand. Then follows 
a careful study of the material thus sup- 
plied, in the course of which most of the 
texts reappear in an English dress. Dr. 
W^atkins makes it quite clear that the 
Church from the earliest days claimed 
the power of the keys, which involved 
the confession of sins, but when she ex- 
ercised this power, forms and observ- 
ances varied greatly. She used a large 
and wise liberty and adapted herself to 
the ever-changing conditions of her 
struggle with the forces of evil. 
—^S)-".^ 

— If you do not bind your Review, hand 
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•i22 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 16 



NOTES AND GLEANINGS 

— An old joke about statistics whicli de- 
serves to be revived every once in a wliilo is 
the one about an increase of 400 per cent in 
the criminality of the Polish Catholics in a 
certain town. The pastor took this report 
seriously to lioart and investigated it. He 
found that in the preceding year one of his 
tkx'k had been arrested once because he was 
drunk, but that in the year of the alarinins 
increase, the same man had been arrested 
four times for tlie same offense. 

— The Americanism the F. R. stands for 
is that so tersely and sanely defined by Father 
Joseph Wentker in the speech from which we 
quoted in our Xo. 12. p. 188. Needless to 
say, it differs loto cacio from that spurious 
kind whicli accepts its doctrines in the form 
of pink pills put up in Washington according 
to a formula furnished by Wall Street, and 
the principal tenet of which is to obey the 
politicians that are in power and, in the ele- 
gant language of ex-.\ttorney General Greg 
ory, to "keep one's mouth shut." 

— About the most foolish thing going is the 
pious furore over boodle. Everyone who 
knows his right hand from his left knows 
what "necessary expenses" mean in a political 
campaign, knows the sources that are regu- 
I.'.rly tapped to meet them, and the obligations 
incurred in the transaction. Why then play 
up an outraged morality? The spectacle of a 
gang of politicians engineering an investiga- 
tion of slush-funds in the name of pul)lic 
morality is an anomaly of the first order: 
nnfl the solemnity of the performance would 
make a brass monkey laugh. 

— TheOfficial Catholic Directory for 1920 was 
again late this year, but as it is completely 
reset and conditions in the printing trade are 
very much unsettled, we must not complain. 
The publishers Messrs. P. J, Kenedy & Sons, 
plainly did the best that could be done in the 
circumstances. If they could induce tlie 
chancery offices to furnisli them complete and 
tip-to-date information, and to supply that 
information promptly, the Directory would, 
in course of time, no doubt, become an ideal 
work of reference. Even as it is, it .serves 



its purpose as an address book admirably, 
and only wlien one turns to the statistical 
portions is one inclined to criticise. Why 
does not the National Catholic Welfare 
Council's press bureau undertake to give us 
a first-class Catholic Directory instead of 
supplying the weekly press with stale and 
sensationally "played up" news item.' 

— The Xation (No, 2868) reviews Mr. A. 
-Mitchell Palmer's activities as alien property 
eustoilian. It shows tiiat, whereas, with 
triHing exceptions, American property in Ger- 
many seems to have been kept intact, German 
property in America was recklessly confis- 
cated and dissipated by Mr. Palmer on the 
vicious pretext that this ruthless programme 
of spoliation was in the interest of the own- 
ers. Even since the armistice sales of Ger- 
man investments have continued. This ac- 
tion is diametrically opposed to justice and 
international law, and we share our contem- 
porary's liope that Congress will show more 
foresight than the executive and right the 
grievous wrong done by Mr. Palmer, for if 
tlie revolutionary doctrines upheld by that 
otiicial should prevail, no American invest- 
ment abroad would be safe and international 
commerce would be seriously impaired. 

— Catiiolic street preaching has been re- 
vived at Royston, England. The pastor goes 
out, accompanied by members of his congre- 
gation, who alternately recite the Hail Mary 
or sing hynms, and preaches in the streets on 
simple points of Christian doctrine. The 
I'lik'rrse says that "a great and favorable im- 
pression has been created, despite the au- 
dacity of the venture." It is not a more 
audacious venture than that of the Apostles 
when, at the bidding of the Divine Master, 
tlicy went out to preach the Gospel to all the 
v>orId. And it is a move in the right direc- 
tion. An intelligent Methodist was recently 
quoted as saying that tlie main obstacle to 
liie spread of tlie Catholic faith is ignorance 
and that Catholics ought to "come out and 
explain to tlie public what they believe." To 
convince the masses of the truth of our re- 
ligion we must reach them, and we cannot 
reach them unless wc go out and preach upon 
the highways and l)yways. 



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1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



223 



— The Episcopalians, according lo the 
Catholic Sentinel, have estabhshed a lihn con- 
CL-rn to elevate tiie "movies." It is called 
"The Historical Film Corporation of Amer- 
ica," and has its offices at Vancouver, Wasli., 
and its studios in Southern California. Tlie 
Sentinel praises one of its films, "The Letter 
to Philemon," as "an altogether reverent and 
beautiful production, which retains the dra- 
matic interest required for success in the 
commercial theater." It would be well if 
Catholics acquainted themselves with the pro- 
ductions of this firm, both with a view to the 
possible use of its films in parish theaters 
and for recommendation to commercial 
houses. The possibilities for good contained 
ill the motion-picture business are by no 
means exhausted. 

— The Vineyard of the East is a new mis- 
sion magazine established by the Dominican 
Fathers of Rosaryville, La. These fathers 
come to America from the Philippine Islands 
about ten years ago and founded a House for 
Foreign Missions near New Orleans. Their 
field lies mainly in the Philippines, Japan, 
p.nd China, where the Order of St. Dominic 
lias been engaged in mission work for over 
300 years. The new magazine tells about 
their work and, in general, aims to foster 
the mission spirit. The first number (May. 
1920), is a very creditable performance and 
promises well for the future. The subscrip- 
tion price is $2 per annum. Address, The 
Dominican Fathers, Rosaryville, Pontcha- 
toula, La. 

»"»<*,' • • 

Literary Briefs 

—Father Antony Huonder, S.J., of Exge- 
ten. Holland, has done the F. R. the honor of 
dedicating to the editor a copy of the tenth 
edition of his charining work, "Zu Fiissen 
des Meisters" (Freiburg i. B.: B. Herder), 
As a good many of our clerical readers are 
aware, the little volume contains 204 very 
brief meditations for priests engaged in the 
cure of souls. These meditations average 
only about two small duodecimo pages each, 
and, though they do not follow the beaten 
track, contain much sound doctrine and time- 
ly advice, in language as simple as it is beau- 



tiful. Several priests liave told us tiiat this 
is the ideal meditation book for the busy 
pastor and expressed the wish that it be 
adapted into iCnglish by some one familiar 
wiili American conditions. We hope this will 
be done. .\n Englisii edition would be a 
godsend to tiiousands of clergymen who have 
neither time nor taste for the conventional 
meditation books. 

— "A Catechism of the Religious Profes- 
sion according to the Xormae, Revised to 
Conform with the New Code of Canon Law," 
from tlie French, by a Brother of the Sacre<l 
Heart, is a handbook oi information for re- 
ligious comnuniities witii simple vows. Tlie 
author solves many questions religious are 
likely to scruple about. Tlie New Code has 
been made use of, but we should have wished 
to see it conmiented upon more precisely. The 
\iews expressed on formal contempt (p. 42) 
and poverty (pp. 77 f. ), are rather severe. 
On p. 65 the "celebrated theologian" Bizzarri 
might be cited as secretary of the S. C. of 
Bishops and Regulars. In spite of these and 
a few other minor defects, the little book is 
worthy of careful study and will prove help- 
ful to superiors and religious generally. 
(Metuchen. N. J.: Brothers of the Sacred 
Heart: $1.50 net). — P. Chas. Augusti.nk, 
O.S.B. 

— "The Brazen Serpent," by the Rev. Joiin 
A. McClorcy. S.J., is a neatly printed volume 
of 182 duodecimo pages, which embodies a 
series of six Lenten sermons preached last 
year in Detroit. They deal witii such timely 
subjects as "The Profanation of Love." "The 
Monopoly of Wealth," "Safeguards of Mar- 
riage," "Religion and Culture," etc., in clear- 
cut, vigorous, and sometimes picturesque lan- 
guage. The author's heart is on the right 
side in regard to the social question, but his 
mind seems to be obfuscated to some extent 
by capitalistic prejudice. A course in the 
classic text-book of political economy of his 
fellow- Jesuit, Henry Pesch, would give him 
the point of view of the Christian solidarist. 
who knows that "greater economic proximity 
between rich and poor" will not solve the 
labor question, but that social justice must be 
applied radically, and that the ideas of the 



Franciscans and the Protestant Revolution 

in England 

By FRANCIS BORGIA STECK, O. F. M. 

P^ GRAPHIC STORY of the Anglican schism and the trials and triumphs 
of the English Franciscan Friars. The author lias succeeded admirab- 
ly in presenting the leading actors and incidents in this great tragedy with 
compelling realism and vigor. 

Illustrated, Cloth, 350 pages, $2.00 postpaid 

FRANCISCAN HERALD PRESS Chicago, Illinois 



8M 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July IB 



An Exceptional 
Investment Opportunity 

It' you have fuiuls to invest at this time — whether the amount be 
hirire or small — please ask for our New Special Investment 
Offering, free from payment of the Federal Income Tax, paying 
6H%. These bonds come in denominations of $1,000. You may 
make reservations for August delivery. Other bonds in $100 and 
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taken in exchange at full value. 



Foreign Exchange and Foreign Securities 
also handled and Correspondence invited. 

BOWMAN, COST & COMPANY 
Investment Securities 

Room 703 — 506 Olive Street St. Louis, Missouri 



iciornicrs whom tlie autlior condemns in 
globo as "the brood of Bolsheviki, I. W. W., 
and Socialists," are by no means all wrong. 
(B. Herder Book Co.; $1.50 net). 

— "The Pope and Italy," a brochure trans- 
lated from the Italian of the V. Rev. N. Ca- 
sacca. O.S.A.. D.D., by Fr. J. A. Mickey, of 
the same order, is a discussion of "the Ro- 
man question" in the ligiit of recent political 
developments. The aullior justly and con- 
vincingly contends that, wiiile the papacy can 
do without the states of wiiich it was de- 
spoiled, it must have some territory not sub- 
j«*ct to another ruler to ensure its liberty 
and independence. How extensive that ter- 
ritory should be is a detail that could easily 
\>c arranged between the Pope and tlie Ital- 
ian government. The other nations of the 
world should combine to help bring about a 
satisfactory agreement and to make the same 
binding forever. The present Law of (Guar- 
antees is insufficient and unstable, as the 
Italian Parliament may revoke it at will. 
Ihcrc is a commendatory preface by the 
Archbishop of Philadelphia. (Philadelphia: 
John Joseph McVey ; 50 cts. ; wrap|)er). 



Books Received 

/I C ommtntary on thf \ rw (ode of Canon l.a7V. 
V.r Ibc krv. V. (ha*. Aii-»tinc, O.S.IJ., I).]). 
Vol, IV': On the Sacramcntu (Kxccpt .Matri- 
mony) and .Sacrament* f(an. 726-1011, 1144- 
IIS3». IK k 571 vp. 12mo. 1!. Herder liimk Co. 
12.50 net. 



Outline of a Religions Retreat. By an Oblate of 
Mary Immaculate. No pagination. Aurora, 
Kas. : The Oblate Fathers. 

.S~/. Bonaventtire's Seminary Year Book. Buffalo 
Xumher. 1920. Kdited by the Duns Scotus Theo- 
logical Society and published by the students of 
St. ]'onaventure's Seminary, Allegany, N. Y. 176 
pp. 8vo. Illustrated. 



FOREIGN MISSIONS 

The Missionary Sisters, Servants of the Holy 
Ghost are a Congregation working primarily in 
the foreign missions. The Mother House is the 
Holy Ghost Institute at Techny, 111. Here the 
postulants and novices receive their training 
for their future work. Ask for our "Vocation 
Leaflets and Booklets" representing scenes from 
the life of a Mission Sister. Any number will 
be sent upon request, free of charge. Address 
Mother Provincial, Holy Ghost Institute, 
Techny. 111. 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Ki{,'l»tli Street 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 

has produced repeat orders for printing in the 

SIOUX INDIAN, LATIN, ITALIAN, FRENCH, 

HUNGARIAN, SPANISH, GERMAN languagee 

lis (jicilitifs for quick delivery of printed 
boolcs, booklets, i)atnphkts, folder.s, etc., 
in any language arc not excelled. 
I'riceH vety reasonable. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



226 



In 1904—16 years ago— St. Louis had 
9,356 users of electric light 



May I, 1920, Union Electric Light 

& Power Company had 117,653 electric 
service customers, distributed as follows: 



Cit}- of St. Louis . , 


. 102,482 


St. Louis couuty . . 


. 11,767 


Jefferson county . . 


1,317 


Franklin county . . 


1,134 


St. Charles couuty 


672 


Perry couuty . . . 


281 



117,653 

These figures suggest three inter- 
esting facts: First, the rapid growth of 
St. Louis and the St. Louis industrial 
district; second, the rapid growth of the 
electrical industry; third, the success of 
Union Electric, ON MERIT, iu acquiring 
WITH PUBLIC APPROVAL, almost the 
entire volume of electric service business 
iu St. Louis and the St. Louis industrial 
district. 

The public has approved because 

Union Electric's gradual absorption of this 
great field of public service has meant 
MORE SERVICE AND BETTER SERVICE 
every year; good service at less cost eveiy 
year until wartime operating costs halted 
the Company's regular yearly rate reduc- 
tions; and GOOD. SERVICE, STEADILY 
IMPROVING EVERY YEAR, AT LOWEST 
POSSIBLE COST INCLUDING A FAIR 
YEARLY RETURN ON INVESTMENT. 



>y 



Union Electric has good neighbors 
because Union Electric has always tried to 
BE a good neighbor. 

Nearly 4,000 of Uniou Electric's 
customers and other friends have bought 
shares of its 7 per cent preferred stock. 
Others are daily coming iu or writing in 
to buy shares of the issue now on sale. 
They know their savings invested in this 
business are safe, and their dividends 
dependable. 

Issuance and sale of this stock was 
authorized by the State to finance growth 
of the Company's public service properties. 

PRICE : $iOO a share for cash ; 
f 102 ou a ten-payment plan, under which 
bu5'ers draw 5 per cent interest on install- 
ment payments, and can withdraw all 
payments, WITH INTEREST, any time 
before the final installment is paid. 

SALES OFFICES: Room 201 Union 
Electric Building, St. Louis, and Union 
Electric's Offices in Franklin, Jefferson, 
Perry, St. Charles and St. Louis counties. 

MAIL ORDERS : Bank draft, cer- 
tified check, postoffice or express money 
order should be sent with mail orders. 
Prompt delivery of shares will be made 
by registered mail. 



Union Electric Light & Power 

Company 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August 1 



Clean literature and clean womanhood are the Keystones of Civilization: 
— this aphorlstically defines the Ideals of the Devln-Adair Imprint. 



The Census Btireau ptiblished figures that 'prove that "every ninth marriage the 
countri/ over terviiiiatcs in divorce — that divorce is increasing nearly twice 
as fast as marriage.^^ If yoxCre married or if yoxi^re about to be mar- 
ried any Annalist, Actuari/ — or shrewd "sporV- will lay you from 
eight to ten to one that YOUR marriage will be a failure — 
that YOU will ivind up in the Divorce Court. 

The Devil's way is the divorce way; the ratio in the larger cities is one in seven to one in three — ^ 
bad enough, truly: but just as surely as "you cannot be a little l)it married — or a little bit dead," the 
thousands of thoughtless, hasty and fly-by-night war marriages will send the average of domestic up- 
heavals to panic figures. Read GREAT WIVES AND MOTHERS, lend it to others— to your mis- 
mated friends and neighbors — ibove all send it to the youth of both sexes, graduates and undergradu- 
ates of fashionable colleges who (at the most fateful of periods — the adolescent) are being rounded 
into adult life on the works of male and female wantons — men and women who if alive would not 
be allowed within smelling distanc* of a cotter's cottage. The subtle hypocrisy of such impelling 
exemplars makes for cumulative far ifaching harm — harm that fairly snuggles into church. State and 
society — that inspires and supports "the lust-lucred leading theatres with their bedroom art — their 
publicity barkers, flaunting "girl from a convent" for the gaze and thoughts of the tired shekel 
getter. GREAT WIVES AND MOTHERS will help to turn houses into homes— will assuredly lead 
to marriage and happiness of the kind that's worth a picayune — the kind that lasts. 

No good JVomati ever married a man except for love — for life 

No real Man evet married a wo.man except for love — for life 

With this book the comrade of all men and women a Bachelor in time will be an 

ignored novelty — and as for Spinsters there will be few if any in the 

world old enough to shy at a mirror. 

Great Wives and Mothers 

By HUGH FRANCIS BLUNT 

(The Boston Editor, Writer and Poet) 

Tills 1« the age ol War — and Woman, in the War history repeated with horror- 
laden emphasis, in Woman's dominating activities are ^e to have a rebirth of the 
Eleventh Century? There Is no middle course for Woman; her Influence Is Infinite 
and eternal la results, lor she leads to Heaven or lures to Hell. 



"One after another the great wives and 
mothers pass over the pages, a noble procession 
that thrills the reader and makes him proud of 
his Catholic ancestry. From land to land, from 
age to age, they have handed down the torch 
of faith and piety, and the sweet odor of their 
holy lives purifies the atmosphere of any home 
which is privileged to make their scquaintance. 
The book is intended principally by its author 
to lighten the labors of priests who are direct- 
ing sodalities, but it has a place in every Cath- 
olic family. Convent-schools also would be 
wise to place it on their shelves, it wni oe an 
inspiration to their pupils and a stimulus to 
maice their lives sublime. 

The style is simple, careful and entertaining. 
The book deserves a warm welcome." 

REV. J. HARDING FISHER, S J. 



"Possessed of genuine interest for readers of 
either sex and all ages. The work is especially 
timely at present, when, as the author remaiks 
in his preface, 'the world in many different ways 
is seeking to turn our women from the pursuit 
of the Christian ideal in wifehood and mother- 
hood.' The appetizing contents of the book may 
be jud^'cd by these selections from the cha|)ter 
headings: Margaret Roper, Elizabeth Seton, 
Jerusha Barber, Mary O'Connell, Margaret 
Haughery, Lady Gcorgiana Fullerton, Pauline 
Craven, and 'Some Literary Wives and Moth- 
ers.' " — THE AVE MARIA. 



L;ir<i:»! Crown Octavo — Postp.'ii*! $2.50 id liookstoi'es or 



THE DEVIN ADAIR COMPANY, Publisliers 



425 Filth Avenue 



New York 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXVII, NO. 15 



ST. I.OUIS, MISSOURI 



August 1, 1920 



American Masonic Systems 

The systems of Freemasonry prac- 
ticed in the United States, and generally 
known as the York Rite and the Scot- 
tish Rite, are described in an article by 
Bro. Jesse Whited in The Builder (Vol. 
VI, No. 2), from which we cull the 
following paragraphs : Properly speak- 
ing, the York Rite should be termed the 
American Rite, for it is peculiar in its 
organized^ proceedings to the United 
States. 

The American Rite embraces the 
Symbolic, the Capitular, the Cryptic, 
and the Templar degrees. 

The Symbolic degrees are conferred 
in a Lodge and are the entered Appren- 
tice, the Fellow Craft, and the blaster 
Mason. They are called Symbolic be- 
cause their mode of instruction is by 
symbols. 

The Capitular degrees are conferred 
i.i a Royal Arch Chapter and are the 
Mark JMaster, the Past Master, the Most 
Excellent IMaster and the Royal Arch. 
The supplemental and honorary degree 
of "High Priesthood" is conferred in a 
"Council of High Priests" upon those 
who have been regularly elected to pre- 
side over a Chapter of Royal Arch Ma- 
sons. These degrees are called Capitu- 
lar because they are conferred in a 
Chapter. 

The Cryptic degrees are conferred in 
a Council. They are the Royal Master, 
the Select Master, and the Super-Excel- 
lent Master. 

The Templar degrees are conferred 
in a Commandery and are the Red 
Cross, the Temple, and the Malta. 

The Scottish Rite embraces the de- 
grees from the 4th to the 33d, inclusive. 
In the Southern Jurisdiction of the 
United States (which includes all terri- 
tory south of the Ohio River and west 
of the Mississippi) the organization of 
the different bodies, and the degrees 
conferred by them, are : Lodge of Per- 



fection, 4° to 14°, inclusive; Chapter 
Rose Croix, 15° to 18° ; Council of Ka- 
dosh, 19° to 30°; Consistory, 31° to 
32° ; Supreme Council, Z?)"^ . 

In the Northern Jurisdiction (which 
includes all States north of the Ohio 
River and east of the Mississippi), the 
degrees conferred are : Lodge of Per- 
fection, 4° to 14°, inclusive; Council 
Princes of Jerusalem, 15° and 16° ; 
Chapter Rose Croix, 17° and 18° ; Con- 
sistory, 19° to 32° ; Supreme Council, 
ZZ\ 

•-».$H»-« 

Overstating the Case Against Spiritism 

We are glad to see the Rev. Dr. 
Charles Bruehl, professor of philosophy 
in Overbrook Seminary, reduce to 
proper proportions the unreserved 
praise that has been given by uncritical 
reviewers to "Spiritism, the Modern 
Satanism," by Thomas F. Coakley, 
D.D., published by the Extension Press. 
Dr. Bruehl says in a review of this vol- 
ume in the Saleslanum (Vol. XV, No. 
3), that Father Coakley's book is "little 
more than a popularization of Mr. Rau- 
pert's more scientific works," and adds : 
"There are features about the book 
which do not appeal to us at all. Its 
method is somewhat sensational and 
savors of the yellow press. Exaggera- 
tions are not infrequent. The tone of 
assurance which the author assumes is 
not always sufificiently warranted and 
borne out by the facts. It is not well 
to overstate a case ; a reaction may set 
in and arouse suspicion even with re- 
gard to the things that are certain. The 
worst thing that can happen to a good 
cause is to be bolstered up by a bad 
argument. We are the last to minimize 
the dangers attendant upon the practice 
of Spiritism, yet we could hardly sub- 
scribe to the author's sweeping and gen- 
eral statement of these j^erils. A warn- 
nig that is overdone will defeat its own 
purpose." 



228 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August ll 



Red Seed 

By Fannie Stearns Davis in ihe Atlantic 
Monthlx 



Now perhaps there is peace. 
But dare you say that you know it?. . . 
The Wind caught a wild red seed, 
And is wild to blow it 
Far — far — far — 

Over crags, soft pastures, dead sands, 

It will plunge and leap to a fire 

In white frozen and hot green lands. 

The Wind will fan it. and fan it. 
The fierce red stems will flash. 
For the secret seed that began it 
Is flame — sheer flame — and no ash. 

So it will snatch and devour, 
And only God knows when 
He will reap its rank red flower. 
Lest it bite and burn all men. 

Now perhaps there is Peace. 
But dare you dream that you know it?. . . 
The Wind caught a wild red seed — 
He will blow it — and blow it — and blow if. • 
• •<g)-»-» 

Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

{Ticclftlt Installment) 

On the 27th of June I left, at 5 o'clock A. 
M., with an acolyte, J. A. Smith, to visit the 
next mountain. It seemed very near, Init we 
required almost the whole day to climb it. 
We had long sticks, wliicli helped us greatly 
in ascending. Arriving on top, we found a 
level space about a mile wide, with a mag- 
nificent view of the valley and the churcli of 
St. Scholastica. .An old German named Pe- 
ters, lived on this plateau. He had settled 
there about thirty years before. A few times 
a year lie would go down to the valley and 
sell or exchange coon skins for coffee, corii- 
nical and salt. He seemed as happy as a 
bird. He knew notliing about Bismarck and 
the changes in Germany, and was greatly sur- 
prised at the news we brought Iiiin. He pre- 
pared the best lodging he could for liis 
guests. His boys had to sleep on the floor. 
The morning being quite chilly, he called tlie 
boys to build a fire. Tlicy did not answer 
and he reached out from his bed to pull them 
by the hair. Meanwhile they had crawled 
under his bed, anfl he sairl : "As I cannot 
get the rascals I guess I will have to make 
the fire myself." And he did. 

Gradually I began to like the missionary 
life in the woods, and declined several invi- 
tations to places in towns. 

In my diary, still kff)t in French, I rcarl, 
under date of July 2nd, the following entry: 
"What a difference between F.nropc and 



America ! There you can hardly take a step 
without being confronted with an official, a 
policeman or the burgomaster; the Word of 
God is hampered by laws and regulations ; to 
build a church, a school or a convent, you 
must get permits world without end, whereas 
here we enjoy absolute independence in all 
matters." However, after forty years, I may 
ask: "What difference now remains between 
Europe and America? What a great differ- 
ence exists between the America of those 
(lays and ours !" 

in July of tliat year we had a number of, 
showers, so that our garden looked very fine. 
I helped planting and hoeing whenever I 
could. Sister, Bonaventure, the organist, 
looked after the flowers and vegetables. Sis- 
ter Mary Xavier, from Cincinnati, the supe- 
rior, who held a first-grade teacher's certili- 
cale, devoted all her leisure time to working 
and clearing the land. She could cut down 
trees as well as any woodman. By this time 
file Sisters had metamorphosed tlie place 
about their house and church from a wilder- 
ness into a garden. On some cleared land 
belonging to the Sisters they raised corn and 
fodder. The neighbors would lend thenv 
their horses for plowing and other heavy 
work. On one occasion I saw from my 
sacristy window a team of mules hitched to 
a big load of fodder running away; the team- 
ster, John Schroder, fell between the mules 
and the wagon ran over him. Finally, the. 
nniles ran into some trees and could go no 
farther. The wagon tongue was broken. Mr. 
Schroder was considerably bruised, but not 
seriously hurt. The two Sisters, following 
the wagon, were greatly scared. 

There was considerable sickness among the 
new settlers at that time, and the graveyard 
in front of the church already showed quite 
a number of interments. When I first came 
but one grave was there, that of Henry 
Kotte, who was buried in the absence of a 
priest by his neighbors. The sick calls were 
now numerous, and at times came from a 
considerable distance, so tliat I could not get 
along without a horse. Happily, I. was al- 
ways well, and though I suffered from boils 
and "prickley lieat," the cool nights would 
regularly bring relief. I always enjoyed a 
refreshing sleep and in the morning was 
ready for another day's hardships. 

Ji:ne 24th I I)egan, with my congregation, 
a jubilee mission. I preached twice daily, in 
the forenoon and in the afternoon, and also 
gave catechetical and vocational instructions. 
Practically the whole congregation spent the 
entire day, from morning until niglit, at the 
church. They brought their dinner along, 
and between time worked with axes and 
picks to clear the graveyard and the church 
grounds. The. jieoplc also volunteered to 
rlig a cellar for the Sisters and to clear some 
land south of the convent. All tin's was done 
voluntarily during the mission. The people 
of this new Catholic colony had come from 
all parts of the United States and Europe. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



229 



They were loyal Catholics, and had come 
mostly because the land was reserved for 
Catholic settlers. They desired their families 
.to be protected against the temptations of in- 
tidelity. They were a united body, easily 
ruled and working in harmony. An elderly, 
poor and childless couple had a little farm 
about a mile from the church. The husband 
was old and weak and the wife was stone- 
deaf, but they eked out a living, raising the 
food they needed, and seemed to be as happy 
as "Philemon and Baucis" of old. However, 
lhey lived in a miserable little shack ready 
to collapse. One Sunday morning I called 
the attention of the congregation to that 
fact and appointed a day for the men to 
meet and build a new house for the old 
couple. After Mass the congregation held a 
meeting, elected a Mr. Schneider, who had 
built the church, to preside over this work, 
and appointed a day for all the men to meet 
with axes, saws, etc. A collection was taken 
up then and there to buy the needed flooring, 
doors, and windows. On the appointed day 
almost every man arrived, and work began. 
Some cut the timber, others hewed the logs, 
again others made clap-boards; the carpen- 
ters, whilst directing the work, also worked 
very hard, and that same night a small, neat 
log-house was finished and ready for the 
happy old couple. Those days of great 
poverty were at the same time days of 
neighborly love. The memory of this in- 
tense Catholic life of brotherly co-operation 
remains forever fresh with me. Though we 
hrid but little nobody went hungry. If we 
suffered many privations, they were borne 
patiently, and envy had no room in tliose 
simple hearts, full of good will toward their 
Creator and their fellowmen. The Sunday 
collections varied from 50 cents to a dollar, 
but tlie people had many Masses said and 
brought ample provisions, so that money was 
not much missed. Meat, flour, and all other 
necessaries of life were cheap and could 
easily be exchanged. The devil, mammon, 
did not disturb our sleep or interfere with 
our happiness. 

It was with a heavy heart, therefore, that 
I took leave of these good people, in October, 
to establish a Catholic colony in Pocahontas, 
which was to be the headquarters of Cathol- 
icity in Northeastern Arkansas. The pre- 
vious Septcml)er I had preached a mission in 
St. Benedict's, now Subiaco. It was the 
first mission ever given at that place and was 
well attended. People came not only from 
the neighl)orhood. but also from Paris, Rose- 
ville, and Morrison's Bluff. For a whole 
week the church was filled at every exercise. 
The great attendance astonished even good 
Father Wolfgang, who was not easily sur- 
prised. After the solemn conclusion, the 
whole congregation went in procession to the 
graveyard, where a large wooden cross was 
erected in memory of the event. At my 
leaving each one of the school children wrote 
a letter of thanks to me. I still have those 



lelters. They are good examples ofbcautiful 
calligraphj', in English, as well as in German. 
Almost every cliild with an average under- 
standing in those days learned to write a 
good hand, and to write the English and the 
German alphabets without mixing them. And 
this in spite of the fact that the children 
could not go regularly to school except in 
the hot sumer months. In spring they had 
a so-called vacation because they had to re- 
main at home to hoe cotton. In September 
Ix'gan the second vacation, when they must 
pick the cotton. Pnit when they did attend 
school, in June, July and August, the heat 
did not bother them. They did not need the 
Gary system for exercise; they appreciated 
the bodily rest which they enjoyed in the 
shady school building. They did not have to 
learn many things, but reading, writing and 
arithmetic they learned well. This continued 
for about ten years, and the first ones to 
grumble about the summer school were teach- 
ers coming from the Northern States. I 
remarked later, when the children had 10 
learn many more things, that they mixed 
their German and English letters, so that a 
page would remind you of a little vegetable 
garden with all sorts of plants. For this 
reason I abolished the German script in 
school. 

The good people did their very best to 
show me their gratitude and love, and on the 
day of my departure almost the whole con- 
gregation accompanied me as far as Prairie 
View. 

With those simple, faithful Catholics the 
priest means everything; he is the king of 
their hearts, whereas in congregations where 
wealth and luxury have weakened the faith, 
the priest is often regarded merely as a sal- 
aried officer, and you may hear them remark 
aliout their pastors, "Kelly died and then 
Miiller came." {To he continued). 



KjH 



— The Nation (No. 2871) states its belief 
tliat the sins committed by the Wilson ad- 
ministration against liberty will steadily react 
upon the President's head. One of the last 
to say this emphatically is President Schur- 
man of Cornell. No species of freedom, he 
declared in an address before the Northern 
Baptist convention at Buffalo the other day, 
has been so seriously impaired in this coun- 
try as freedom of speech. "During our war 
the government carried suppression too far. 
and certainly went much farther than did 
the government of England in its intolerance 
of honest, thougii hostile critics. For this 
narrow and bigoted intolerance impartial his- 
tory will hold President Wilson himself large- 
ly responsible." Meanwhile Mr. Wilson is 
getting one reply after another to the mon- 
strous assertion that his opponents could not 
find a single case in which men had been un- 
justly sentenced to prison under the espion- 
age act. 



•230 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August 1 



Mr. Creel and His Committee of War 
Propaganda 

Mr. George Creel, in a book pub- 
lished under the excruciating title, 
"How We Advertised America" (Har- 
per), gives an account of the doings of 
President Wilson's famous Committee 
on Public Information during the late 
war. If there had been any doubt as 
to the real purpose of this committee 
and the way in which it discharged its 
business, this doubt would be dispelled 
bv the perusal of Mr. Creel's book, even 
though that book is an apologia. The 
Committee on Public Information was 
not an agency to spread the truth, but a 
govemmtnt agency of war propaganda. 
"a vast enterprise in salesmanship," Mr. 
Creel calls it. He denies that it worked 
through corruption and deceit, but it 
was a propaganda, as distinguished 
from a pure information service in view 
of the fact that it did not transmit news 
of what was, but assertions and argu- 
iTients which were designed to put Amer- 
ica in the best possible light and to sus- 
tain the fighting morale. Any system 
of information which recognizes any 
other standard of values than that of 
the unswerving pursuit of truth is a 
propaganda and by implication a cen- 
sorship. It is disingenuous to pretend 
that it is anything else. It is misleading 
to argue that the committee was de- 
voted to information alone. If it was, 
why should Mr. Creel describe it as a 
war agency which had no function in 
time of peace? 

A critic in the X. Y. Evening Post 
Jiook Review (July 3rd) says: 

"I can speak with some knowledge of 
\.hat the committet- did in France, 
where the fruits of victory were t(j be 
won or lost. .So far as it had any effect 
on I'rench opinion, it taught Frenchmen 
to regard .America as not only disinter- 
ested in the settlement, but as uninter- 
ested, as inexhaustibly rich and end- 
lessly ready to make all tlic problems of 
France first charges ujjon the United 
Slates. ( h\r propaganda strove to 
please in the easiest way. And in con- 
sif|uencc il built up in the minds tven 
r»f official Frenchmen a set of expecta- 



tions that were grotesque. Parallel 
with this, a public opinion was devel- 
oped in America which transfigured 
FVance so utterly, suppressed her nor- 
mal human failings so completely, that 
nothing but an exaggerated disappoint- 
ment could have come from contact with 
the realities. The detente between 
France and America is the inevitable 
let-down from this war propaganda. 
Neither ration could readjust itself to 
facts which conflicted with the senti- 
mental nonsense perpetrated for the 
sake of morale. For the propaganda, 
instead of preparing shrewdly for the 
shock which always accompanies the 
meeting of alien peoples, did everything 
by bedazzlement to soften the fiber of 
l>oth nations. The American propa- 
gandists in France must share the re- 
sponsibility for creating that French 
opinion behind M. Clemenceau which 
the President had to conciliate." 



The Friar of Foggia 

We see from a communication ad- 
dressed by Fr. Nicholas, O.S.F.C, to 
the London Universe (No. 3103), that 
there is living at Foggia, in Italy, a 
young Capuchin friar who has the stig- 
mata. The five wounds came to him 
suddenly one morning in September, 
1918, while he was making his thanks- 
giving after Mass. They are real 
wounds. Those in the hands and feet 
bleed occasionally ; the wound in the 
side is always bleeding. His compan- 
ions have frequently seen the friar in 
ecstasies and have taken note of won- 
derful things he has said during those 
times. He asserts that he has been at- 
tacked by the Devil and has seen our 
Lord many times. Those who know 
him intimately regard him as a great 
saint. 

Articles on "The Friar of Foggia" 
have appeared in a number of newspa- 
pers, including the London Daily Mail, 
which tried to explain the case by nat- 
ural causes ; but, according to I'r. Nich- 
olas, pre-natal influence and a highly 
sensitive subject do not account for the 
phenomenon. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



m 



Soothing Syrup for a Cross Baby 

Mr. Nicholas Gonner devotes nearly 
a quarter of a page of the Daily Ameri- 
can Tribune for July 12th {aet. XI f 
dicnnn) to a criticism of our assertion 
that the N. C. \\' . C. news service, which 
he has engaged for his paper, is "sensa- 
tional," and concludes hy asking for 
"proofs." 

In our hrief and casual note on the 
subject (F. R., No. 12, p. 191) we mere- 
ly meant to register an impression, not 
to formulate an indictment, and, there- 
fore, omitted to collect and preserve 
such N. C. W. C. news items as seemed 
to us unduly sensational, i. e., "played 
up" to stir the emotions without a suffi- 
cient basis in fact or without commen- 
surate objective importance. 

Some of those items, by the way. 
never appeared in the Daily American 
Tribune, which proves that Mr. Gonner 
or his editors do not print all the news 
supplied by JNIessrs. McGrath and Wil- 
liams, indiscriminately, but sometimes 
make a prudent selection ; in other 
words, that their practice is superior to, 
and, therefore, refutes their theory. 

The editor of the Fortnightly Re- 
view is represented by Mr. Gonner's 
anonymous "coUaborateur" as a hermit 
who speaks "from the seclusion of a 
scholar's study," and, therefore, infer- 
entially, has no judgment in matters 
concerning the daily press and its 
bustling life. It is true that Mr. Preuss 
is not at present engaged actively in 
daily journalism, but, as Mr. Gonner 
well knows, the editor of the F. R. is 
not by any means a stranger to the pro- 



fession, but served on the daily press 
for quite a number of years, from 1890 
to 1906, and had held practically every 
position on a newspaper staff, from po- 
lice reporter to managing editor, before 
Mr. Gonner or any of his present asso- 
ciates entered upon their journalistic 
career. A man, even though he is a 
"scholar" and has to some extent re- 
tired from active life, surely may be pre- 
sumed to be able to form a fairly sound 
judgment regarding matters with which 
he has been more or less familiar for 
thirty-odd years. Whether that judg- 
ment is worth less because it has behind 
it twenty-seven years of experience as 
editor of what Mr. Gonner's "coUabo- 
rateur" is pleased to describe as "a 
high-class publication which appeals 
only to a small and select clientele," is 
a question we will ask our readers to 
decide. 

For the rest, if we were really af- 
flicted with "the chronic weakness of 
attempting to find flaws in a big and 
good thing." of which Mr. Gonner ami- 
ably permits the same anonymous scribe 
to accuse us without the shadow of a 
"proof," the Daily American Tribune in 
its diaper days would afford us the 
finest kind of an opportunity for flaw- 
picking. But we are fortunately not ad- 
dicted to the habit of "knocking" infants 
and shall continue to "boost" the lusty 
if somewhat impertinent youngster 
from Dubuque with all our might, be- 
cause we recognize the urgent need of a 
Catholic daily press and admire the 
good will and enterprise, even though 
we cannot always approve the judg- 
ment, of Mr. Gonner and his associates. 



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2aa 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August 1 



A Safe View of Spiritism for Catholics 
"A Safe \'ie\v of Spiritism for Cath- 
olics" is the title of a brochure by the 
Rev. Joseph Sasia, SJ., of the Univer- 
sity of Santa Clara, Cal., printed for 
free distribution. 

It is g-ratifyins^ to observe that an in- 
creasing number of really learned antl 
well-informed theologians are making 
it their business to point out to our peo- 
ple what an intelligent Catholic must 
hold respecting the facts of Spiritism 
and the errors and dangers incidental to 
that movement of thought. The excel- 
lent lecture delivered at Philadelphia 
some months ago by the Rev. Dr. 
Charles Bruehl. of St. Charles Sem- 
inary, the lectures and sermons by Fa- 
ther J. Corrigan. S.J., and other Jesuit, 
Franciscan, and Dominican Fathers, 
are illustrations of this fact. The em- 
phatic and uncompromising tone of 
these various utterances make it evident 
that their respective authors have thor- 
oughly informed themselves on the sub- 
ject and that they have seen their con- 
clusions to be inevitable — indeed the 
cnly possible ones. Father Sasia's 
pamphlet further confirms and endorses 
these conclusions, and it is to be hoped 
that its circulation will aid effectually 
in dispersing the fog in which some 
minds are still enveloped with respect 
to the subject, and that the simple facts 
of the case will become apparent to all. 
Father Sasia. well known from his 
book on "The Future Life," makes it 
clear that, in view of the phenomena 
now so well established, independent 
'spirit-agency must be admitted to be at 



work in connection with theiii, and that 
the so-called natural explanations must 
be seen to be both "silly and absurd." 
■ "The mediums," he writes, "give an- 
swers w^iich absolutely exceed the well- 
known limits of their culture, they speak 
ancient and modern languages at the 
bidding of the experimenters, solve in- 
tricate mathematical problems and per- 
form other feats which only a superior 
intelligence could accomplish." . . . 
"Common sense tells us," he goes on to 
say, "that such things cannot be the 
work of any natural forces, however 
powerful they may be." 

We are, of course, in hearty sym- 
pathy with Fr. Sasia in thus enter- 
ing a further protest against a mode of 
thought which still attempts to see in 
these phenomena nothing but fraud or 
the display of natural, though as yet but 
imperfectly known, powers. It seems 
to us that the vague talk, at this hour 
of the day, of "secondary human per- 
sonality" and of "unknown powers of 
the mind" is wholly and utterly out of 
]jlace, and that it is but calculated, as 
the late Prof. Hyslop rightly said, to 
expose us to the charge of ignorance 
and to bring discredit upon Catholic 
science. The facts are too well and too 
solidly established to admit of the possi- 
bility of such an evasion. And, in view 
of what is going on all around us, the 
])ropagation of such explanations is not 
without its dangers to the spiritual well- 
being of our people. We cannot hope 
to guard ourselves effectually against 
an evil, the nature of which we do not 
clearly imderstand. 



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1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



iias 



Unfortunately, we have grown only 
loo familiar in our day, with this kind 
of thing, with this attempt to make com- 
promises with modern materialistic 
tliought, to escape unwelcome conclu- 
sions, and to confound the issues by the 
employment of learned - sounding 
though really meaningless, phrases. It 
is absolutely clear from the mass of lit- 
erature before us that all these natural 
possibilities respecting the phenomena 
have been fully and fairly weighed and 
considered by cautious experimenters 
of the highest standing, and that it is a 
sheer waste of time and a putting back 
of the clock to reconsider them. 

Even Protestant scientists, who have 
no sort of sympathy with Catholic 
thought and teaching, are endorsing the 
views expressed by expert Catholic the- 
ologians. In his recently published 
Vvork on "Modern Spiritism," for ex- 
ample, Dr. A. T. Schofield, a well- 
known English physician and psychol- 
ogist, who has been in intimate touch 
with psychical research for nearly half 
a century, tells us emphatically that "at 
seances spirits other than our own con- 
stantly manifest their presence;" that 
"the man who denies this is not entitled 
to be called a scientist, but is simply 
ignorant ;" that much of the work of 
Spiritism "is not only evil in itself, but 
full of mental and spiritual dangers of 
the gravest character, too often ending 
iii the loss of reason, to say nothing of 
the actual physical dangers that beset 
it;" that "the Spiritist faith, gradually 
being formulated into dogmas, contra- 
dicts categorically, point by point, all the 
fundamentals of Christianity ;" that "we 
must get rid of the fallacious but still 
popular Spiritist theory that the only 
spirits that populate the unseen world 
are those of the departed ;" and that 
"the fact of 'possession' is at least as 
well established as any other fact in 
Spiritism." In view of such striking 
testimony from an eminent physician, 
intimately acquainted with the subject 
and a specalist in the various forms of 
mental abnormality, we are surely justi- 
fied in maintaining that' the theologians 
lef erred to are on very safe and solid 
ground, and that- we may now once for 



all dismiss all other explanations as in- 
adequate and obsolete. 

We can, therefore, but thank Father 
Sasia for his timely and instructive 
pamphlet, and hope that it will prove 
one more of those weapons against a 
subtle and dangerous enemy of which 
we are so greatly in need- to-day. X. 



►^ 



— The German Catholic press of this coun- 
try is publishing an appeal of the Rev. P. Fr. 
Dunkel, CM., superior of St. Paul's Hospice, 
Jerusalem, wliicli institution is favorably 
known to many of our readers as a home 
for German pilgrims in tiie Holy City. Con- 
nected vvitli the Hospice is a Catholic school 
lor girls and a villa in Emmaus. The insti- 
tution is in charge of Lazarist Fathers and 
paid its own way before the war. Now the 
superior is compelled to go begging for alms. 
He says a loan of $5,000 at a low rate of 
interest would enable him to weather the 
present difficulties. Further information can 
he had from the Rev. Joseph Molitor, D.D., 
professor in the Pontifical College Josephi- 
nuni, who spent two years in Palestine and 
knows conditions there. Dr. Molitor is also 
willing to forward donations for St. Paul's 
Hospice to P. Dunkel. 



Catholic Educational 
Institutions 

H The Catholic Press does not reach the entire 
Catholic population of any given community. 

11 There is always a religiously indifferent and 
mentally slothful element that it does not 
reach. 

H However, a Catholic paper like THE KCHO 
goes to Catholic families that are mentally 
alert and loyal to their faith. 

][ It is on such families that Catholic Higher 
Education depends for its development and 
extension. 

H It is the sons and daughters in such families 
that are prospective pupils of our Catholic 
educational institutions. 

H To reach them and their parents, use the col- 
umns of THE ECHO, whose circulation is 
second to that of noother Catholic paper in the 
State of New York outside of New York City 



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234 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August 1 



The Catholic Press 

To the Editor:— 

It is in no carping spirit thai I desire 
to say a word in answer to Fr. A. B., 
writing in the July 1 issue of the F. R. 
about the Catholic press. He believes 
"that the Catholic press is. to a great 
extent, to blame" tor the lack of sup- 
port of which it is constantly complain- 
ing. 1 have discussed this question at 
s>ome length in the Novenier, 1919. is- 
sue of the Ecclesiastical Review. For a 
fiuarter of a century at least the argu- 
ment has been rehashed in practically 
the same terms : Our Catholic papers 
are poorly supported because thev are 
poorly edited. And the editor retorts : 
Give us your support, so as to enable us 
to hire better talent. It looks like a 
vicious circle, and if we are going to 
accomplish anything in the way of 
Catholic journalism, we must simply 
break through that circle: ;. e.. stop ar- 
guing. 

Our Catholic press is not what it 
ought to be. But what human institu- 
tion is? The past record of our press 
is not altogether inglorious, and in 
many (juarters there is a serious at- 
tempt at improvement. The first Cath- 
olic daily in English began publication 
in Dubuque. Iowa, on July i. No doubt 
a number of people will find fault with 
it. I am quite sure the editor is willing 
'*to be found fault with." as he is very 
anxious to have the Daily American 
Tribune reach people of all classes and 
tastes, and, therefore, is ready to itn- 
prove his paper wherever possible. 
Criticism comes all the more graciously 
from those who appreciate what is 



being done right now, support it with 
their subscriptions, and help it along on 
tlie road to progress. 

It is well to aim high, but it is also 
well to realize our limitations. Just ex- 
actly how is the Catholic press to be im- 
proved? And more especially Catholic 
weeklies and dailies? It was thought 
at one time that an Associated Press 
niembership was indispensable for a 
daily. This is no longer the case. Other 
news associations are just as good, just 
a complete in their reports, and neither 
more nor less reliable. Great news as- 
sociations with international connec- 
tions are necessary in modern journal- 
ism, and we must depend on them to a 
large extent. The Associated Press is 
known to be unreliable in Catholic mat- 
ters. Nor is it more reliable in its inter- 
national news. In a recent volume, 
"The New Map of Africa," Herbert 
Adams Gibbons notes: "A study of 
Renter's Agency telegrams at this pe- 
riod [the Moroccan trouble when 
France was allowed by England to get 
a foothold in Morocco] shows how im- 
portant it is for the American press to 
endeavor to become independent of 
London in representing foreign news to 
the public. Our Associated Press gives 
Renter telegrams to its subscribers 
without independent verification and 
with no indication of the source." Its 
recently established connection with 
The Times leaves us all the more at the 
mercy of London. The only way out 
of the diiYiculty is to establish some sort 
iif independent control. But in order to 
do so we must have a powerful agency 
of our own ; nor can this be built up in a 



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1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



235 



clay. And then, if we establish one such 
central agency, while the news we do 
get will be reliable, there is the danger 
that some things worth knowing will 
be withheld from the press. \^est much 
power in one individual or association, 
and the tendenc\- to unwarranted cen- 
sorship becomes almost irresistible. 

We might improve our press by get- 
ting a few good writers and by syndi- 
cating their articles. This is done to 
some extent now. It leads to .a deadly 
sameness in our Catholic papers that is 
not noticed by him who reads only one 
publication, but becomes rather dis- 
agreeably obvious to him who reads 
several. 

We all agree on fimdamentals when 
vve speak of our Catholic press. But to 
outline in detail a hard and fast policy 
lor it seems neither wise nor possible. 
You can train almost anything ;that 
grows, but to constrain it is to kill it. 
Our press is a living thing that needs 
some liberty if it is to expand and in- 
crease with the years. We do not cut 
down a tree because it grows a crooked 
limb ; but we may prune it, the while 
keeping on fostering its growth. I firm- 
ly believe that with a little less criticism 
— although criticism there must be — 
and an immensely increased support in 
the way of subscriptions and advertis- 
ing, our press will forge ahead faster 
than it has ever done in the past, ex- 
tending its usefulness in proportion. 
(Rev.) J. B. Culemans 



"EI Santo Cristo de la Agonia" 

For some time wonderful phe- 
nomena have been reported from Lim- 
pias, a small town near Santander, 
Spain, where an ancient figure of the 
Crucified Redeemer is said to open the 
eyes, turn the head, bleed from the 
mouth, and show other symptoms of 
the agony that usually accompanies the 
death of a human being. 

We have before us a photographic 
copy of this figure, together with a num- 
ber of clippings from Spanish newspa- 
pers containing reports of the phenom- 
enon. These reports are enthusiastic, 
but uncritical. Among those who wit- 
nessed the "miracle" was the bishop of 
Pinar del Rio, Cuba, who has since is- 
sued a pastoral letter relating his expe- 
rience. 

It is too early to form an opinion on 
the alleged wonder. The cable says the 
Roman authorities are investigating the 
phenomenon, as something like 200,000 
pilgrims are said to have been drawn to 
Limpias from all parts of Spain in the 
course of the past year. 

One feature of the newspaper reports 
leads us to doubt the objectivity of the 
phenomenon, namely, the fact that the 
signs of agony are seen not by all pres- 
ent, but only by some favored persons. 

The figure itself is a real work of 
art. The body is carved of wood with 
eyes of porcelain. The features are 
very striking. 



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236 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August 1 



Telling the Truth 

The JVinona Courier (Vol. 11, No. 4, 
p. 39), the official organ of the Diocese 
of Winona, Minn., censures the Catholic 
HistoriciU Rci'iczc for publishing select 
chapters from Dr. Zwierlein's Life of 
Bishop jMcQuaid, because the docu- 
ments reveal some disagreeable things 
with regard to the late Archbishop Ire- 
land's political and financial transac- 
tions, in particular that it was widely as- 
serted, and believed by many, among 
them the Bishop of Rochester, that 
MsgT. Ireland, who was a great politi- 
cian, "received a large sum of money 
from his grateful friends in the Repub- 
lican party in order to help him out of 
his financial difficulties, occasioned b\' 
his speculations in lands and railroad 
stocks." The Jriiio)hi Courier says that 
this statemenet, quoted from a letter of 
Bishop McQuaid's, contains "a sinister 
implication," and should not have been 
published. It also blames the Fort- 
xiGHTLY Review for "gloating over the 
incident approvingly." The F. R. never 
even mentioned the incident ; but it docs 
believe in following the golden rule laid 
down for historians by Pope Leo XIII 
— always to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, no mat- 
ter what the "implications" may be. 

We sincerely trust Dr. Zwierlein will 
not be discouraged by such adverse crit- 
icism, or by the "silent disapprobation" 
v.'ith which his work is meeting in some 
quarters, but will complete the life of 
.Bishop McQuaid in the same way in 
which he has begun it, namely, by truth- 
fully telling us just what he has found 
in the sources. Ainicits Ireland, sed 
inagis arnica Veritas! 



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eleven million of our peojjle bought war 
bonds," says the freeman (Vol. I, No. 
18), "and it is a fair guess that ten 
millions out of the eleven never before 



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1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



237 



absurd premium in no time at all. Now 
that these bonds are obstinately below 
par and are being sucked up in a steady 
stream by the great finance companies, 
how can the ten million help wonder- 
ing, restlessly if vaguely, whether this 
state of afifairs was not more or less 
premeditated, and whether their honest 
emotions were not adroitly played upon 
for gain ?" 

.^.^>^^^^ 

I^OTES AND GLEAOTNGS 

— We hail with pleasure the resurrected vS".'. 
Leo Cadet, published by St. Leo College, St. 
Leo, Fla. The June number contains some 
interesting and valuable information about 
the past history and present condition of the 
Benedictine missions in Florida. 

— The Society for the Propagation of the 
Faith has printed in pamphlet form an Eng- 
lish translation of the Holy Father's Apos- 
tolic Letter "JMaximum illud," of Nov. 30, 
1919. Copies can be had from the office of 
the Society, 343 Lexington Ave., New York. 

— With the cordial approbation of Cardinal 
Gibbons, the Baroness Elise von Rast and 
I'ather John Egger, O.S.F.C., are soliciting 
contributions in the U. S. on behalf of the 
destitute women and children of war-stricken 
Austria. They have been delegated by the 
Cardinal-Archbishop of Vienna. Contribu- 
tions should be forwarded to the Baroness 
von Rast, c. o. the Kolping House, 165 E. 88th 
Str., New York City. 

— Studies, in its current issue (IX, 34), 
prints an appreciative review of the first vol- 
ume, recently published, of Prof. Ulrich von 
VVilamowitz-Moellendorff's "Platon" (Ber- 
lin: Weidmann), which, the reviewer says, 
is more than a literary biography and em- 
bodies an enormous amount of erudition. 
Unfortunately, "in his estimate of Plato, Wil- 
amowitz writes as a Hellenist, not as a 
Christian," and therein, concludes the critic, 
"lies the tragedy of modern science." 



— A subscriber calls our attention to the ex- 
istence of the Clergy Casualty Company of 
America, which is conducted by priests for 
priests and insures against accideiital death 
and other disabilities. The company has 
Archbishop Harty for its honorary president 
and is incorporated under the laws of the 
State of Nebraska. Its headquarters are at 
6304 N. 30th Str., Omaha, Neb. Why does 
it not advertise? 

— One of the few articles of the peace 
treaty that have met with general approval 
provides that Germany shall repair in full, so 
far as this is possible, the damage done to the 
University of Louvain and its library. We 
see from Studies (Vol. IX, No. 34) that the 
process of restitution has already begun and 
that the University has resumed the duties 
and responsibilities of pre-war days. Flem- 
ish courses are now offered in medicine and 
science, in order to prevent the exodus of 
about one-half of the students in the event 
of the foundation, by the State, of a Flemish 
university. 

— We heartily join R. C. Gleaner, of the 
Catholic Columbian (Vol. XLV, No. 26) in 
his protest against theatricals as a feature 
of parochial school commencements and sup- 
port his plea for making these exercises more 
literary. How vaudeville and comic songs 
ever came to be substituted for essays and 
orations at school commencements is a ques- 
tion we have never been able to answer. Let 
us hope that this abuse — ^'for an abuse it is 
— will disappear as rapidly elsewhere as, ac- 
cording to Gleaner, it seems to have disap- 
peared in his own neighborhood in Ohio. 

— We see from the Indian Sentinel (Vol. 
11, No. 3) that the educational work of the 
Church among the Indians is in a precarious 
condition because of the advance in the price 
of necessaries and the apathy of those who 
could and should support this noble cause. 
We know of no better means of awakening 
an active interest in. the Catholic Indian 
schools and missions than circulating the 
Sentinel, which is edited with real ability by 
Miss Inno McGill and published quarterly by 



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satisfactory, pack well and return by Parcel Post. 
Money and Postage Refunded by return mail. 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Established 18C6 

58 North Pearl St., BUFFALO, N. Y. 



838 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August 1 



the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, joji 
H Str.. X.W., Washington, D. C. ($i per 
annum). 

— The newspaper story how Senator Hard- 
ing made his tirst speecli sinuce his nomina- 
tion into tiie recording horn of a phonograph. 
surrounded by experts from the talking ma- 
chine world, a secretary or two. and the nec- 
essary publicity agent, reading such purple 
passages as this: "America headed the for- 
ward procession of civil, human, and religious 
liberty, which ultimately will effect the lib- 
eration of all mankind:" "The Federal Con- 
stitution is the very base of Americanism, tlie 
ark of the covenant of Americanism, the very 
temple of ecjual rights," etc., etc., suggests tlie 
well-known advertisement of "His Master's 
Voice." 

— The legislature of Nebraska recently 
passed a "foreign language law." The first 
case under it began June 29, against a de- 
fendant named Meyer, whose "crime" was 
that he had taught the German language in 
a Lutheran parochial school. We have not 
yet learned how the case was decided, but 
agree with the freeman (I, 18) that "a good 
round term of imprisonment would be a 
splendid clincher for the accumulated evi- 
dence that we are truly a great people, worthy 
of leadership in world affairs, with nothing 
petty, childish or spiteful about us, and that 
our institutions are thoroughly and especially 
proof against "Prussianism." " (Later: Meyer 
was fined $20 and costs I ) 

— "R. C. Gleaner," of the Catholic Colum- 
bian, while not yet fully convinced that tlie 
alleged Lentulus letter (see our note, F. R.. 
N'o. 12 p. 183) is spurious, grants (Cath. 
Col.. Vol. XLV, No. 28) "the great prob- 
ability of its being apocryphal." The best 
ai-.thorities (Funk, Dobschiitz, Harnack, Du- 
chesne, etc.) say there is no doubt whatever 
concerning the spuriousness of the letter. 
Then why quote it as genuine? R. C. 
Gleaner says that the editor of the /•'. R. 
"has a distinct mania for historical microbes" 
which he "destroys liy the Prussic acifl of iiis 
pen." If he means errors and lies, we accept 
the compliment. We will continue the figlit. 



even though we readily admit the truth of 
Gleaner's quotation that "Die Kritik nimmt 
oft dcm Baumc Rauf>eii unci BlUtcn mitein- 
andcr." 

— Mr. I. F. Marcosson has published "Ad- 
ventures in Interviewing." Among the fa- 
mous men whom he interviewed was Wood- 
row Wilson when still Governor of New Jer- 
sey. The wily journalist, in order to draw 
cut his victim, dangled the presidency before 
Mr. Wilson's eyes. "I spoke of tlie kind of 
president he would make. He looked up and 
sKid : 'Perhaps you are a little previous.' " 
If there is one thing more than another that 
strikes the reader of Mr. Marcosson's book, 
it is that prominent men, whether writers, 
politicians, financiers, soldiers or actors, are 
very vulnerable in regard to their self-esteem. 
Men in high positions are mostly egotists : 
by warming their egotism with flattery — no 
matter liow blatant — most people can get their 
way. 

— Dr. John Bach McMaster has retired 
from the University of Pennsylvania. When 
h? published the first volume of his History 
of the U. vS., in 188.3. Hildreth and Bancroft 
were the only two first-rate historians whom 
this country was able to boast. Schouler and 
Von Hoist were just rising into prominence. 
Later came Fiske, Rhodes, Channing, and 
the authors of the American Nation series. 
McMaster himself occupies a unique position. 
He laid under contribution an immense va- 
riety of sources before unused, and demon- 
strated the value of newspapers as historical 
material. He was the first, moreover, to give 
an account of the progress of society apart 
from the conventional "events" of political 
and military history. His eight volumes are 
unflaggingly interesting and show a consistent 
l)oint of view; but the matter is loosely ar- 
ranged and there are some surprising omis- 
sions. Also, McMaster is not always strictly 
accurate. The fertilizing quality of his work 
lay in liis thorougli realization of his prefa- 
tory announcement that "the subject of my 
narative is tlie history of the people." His 
influence in democratizing American history 
has been remarkable. 



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THE S/STER DIRECTRESS 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



239 



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Literary Briefs 

— "A Study in American Freemasonry," 
edited by Arthur Preuss, has appeared in a 
new, the fourth, edition. (B. Herder Book 
Co.; $i.8o net). 

— .\n English translation will soon be pub- 
lished of Tixeront's "Precis de Patrologie 
It is much needed, as Bardenhewer-Shahan's 
manual is out of print. 

— The B. Herder Book Co. has in prepara- 
tion an Introduction to Biblical Science by 
the Rt. Rev. Msgr. Charles P. Grannan, D.IX. 
former vice-rector of the Catholic University 
of America. The work is to appear in four 
volumes. 

— "Ireland in Fiction," by the Rev. Stephen 
J. Brown, S.J., is described in the sub-title as 
"A Guide to Irish Novels, Tales, Romances, 
and Folk Lore." The author's aim has been 
to collect and print in convenient form a clas- 
sified list of novels, tales, etc., whether by 
Irish or by foreign writers, bearing on Ire- 
land, that is, depicting some phase of Irish 
life or some episode of Irish history, and to 
append to each title a short descriptive note. 
The work is intended for the general reader, 
and we have no doubt it will serve its pur- 
pose well. We are surprised at the mildness 
of the author's judgment of George Moore 
and his writings. ( Dublin and London : Maun- 
sel & Co. ; St. Louis, Mo. : B. Herder Book 
Co. $3-75 net). 



— The Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, London, has just published the 
liist volume of an English translation, by 
J. H. Freese of the "Bibliotheca" or "My- 
nobiblion" of Photius. It is the first time a 
complete translation of this important work 
has been attempted into any modern lan- 
gi'-age. 

— A "Devotion for the Propagation of the 
Paith," specially adapted for the CInirch 
L'nity Octave, Jan. 18-25, has been compiled 
"from Holy Writ, Missal, and Breviary" by 
a Franciscan Father and published with the 
imprimatur of the Archbishop of San Fran- 
cisco. Its use will aid the mission movement 
in more ways than one. Copies can be had 
at the Franciscan Friary, 133 Golden Gate 
.Vve., San Francisco, Cal. 

— The fourth volume of "A Commentary 
on the New Code of Canon Law." by the 
Rev. P. Chas. Augustine, O.S.B., has just been 
published. It covers canons 726-101 1 and 
1144-1153, and deals with the Sacraments 
(except matrimony, already treated in the 
fifth vohnre. which appeared before the 
fourth). We are pleased to learn that this 
commentary is finding a large sale. It is by 
tar the best and most exhaustive work of its 
kind at present available in any language 
and will serve the purposes of l>oth the pastor 
and the student of Canon Law. Volume VI 
of ihe Commentary is in press. (B. Herder 
Book Co. Price, $2.50 net). 



240 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August ) 



The Most Noteworthy Coiitribation to Sermon Literature of Recent Tears 



Sermons for All the Sundays 

and for the Chief Festivals of the Year 

By the Right Rev. John S. Vaughan, D. D. 

Bishop of Sebastopolis 

With an Introduction by 

Most Rev. John J. Glennon, D. D. 

Archbishop of St. Louis, Mo. 

Two Volumes, octavo, about 640 pp. Per set, bound in cloth, net $6.00 



Bishop A'aughan, one of the famous six Vaughan 
brothers who went to the Altar, has devoted himself 
particularly to pulpit and missionary work, and 
while he gained distinction from the publication of 
a number of books of delightful literary qualities, 
his chief renown came to him through his remark- 
able performances in the pulpit. 

He is regarded as one of the greatest living pulpit 
Speakers and hence this collection of his SERMONS 
will be received with the greatest interest. 



BISHOP VAUGHAN'S SERMONS breathe the- 
very spirit of virility that characterizes their, vig- 
orous author. He treats his subjects in orfginal, 
striking ways, and his command of effective illustra- 
tion is exceptional. 

.\breast of the times in feeling, these SERMONS 
will be found to be full of life and spirit, and a 
treasure trove of thought and suggestion for pulpit 
teachers. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 

23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

St. Louis: £. Herder Book Co. 



— It has always been known that St. Ire- 
nacus wrote ".\ Discourse in Demonstration 
of the Apostolic Teaching," but no copy of 
it could be found. Quite recently, however, 
the lost treatise reappeared in an Armenian 
manuscript. The text was promptly trans- 
lated into German, and now we are indebted 
to Dr. J. Armitage Robinson for the first 
English translation (S.P.C.K.). The editor 
provides us with an illuminating exposition 
of Irenaeus and his relation to St. Justin 
Martyr. The treatise itself sets out the main 
points of the Apostolic teaching and seeks to 
demonstrate its truth, principally by an appeal 
to the Old Testament. 

—Vol. I of ".\ General History of the 
Christian Era" by the Rev. N. A. Weber, 
S M. dealing with the period from Christ to 
the Protestant Reformation, is intended for 
high schools and colleges. The book is well 
gotten up typographically, and embellislicd 
with a number of useful maps and illustra- 
tions. One is somewhat disappointed at lirst 
upon perusing the meagre and one-sided 
"General Bibliography," but the impressif)n 
grows more favorable as one gets along in 
the well-balanced text. The author takes par- 
ticular pains to show how the history of the 
Catholic Church is bound up with the history 
oi nations. His textbook, in consef|uencc-, is 
not merely a bald narrative of facts, i>ut at tlic 
fame time an introduction to the philosojihy 
of hi.story. Washington, D. C. : The 
Catholic Education Press; 1919; $2.20 net). 



Books Received 

Adz'cnturcs Perilous. Being the Story of that Faith- 
ful and Courageous Priest of God, Father John 
(jerard, S.J., who, after a Life of Adventure and 
Many Hair-breadth Escapes, Came at Length into 
a Place of Peace. Jiy E. M. Wilmot-lJuxton. iv 
& 230 pp. 12mo. London: Sands & Co., St. 
Louis, Mo.: B. Herder Book Co. $1.80 net. 

In an Indian Abbey. Some Straight Talking on 
Theology. By Joseph Rickaby, S.J. xii & 150 
pp. 8vo. London: Burns, Gates & VVashbourne; 
St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder Book Co. $2.40 net. 

Ireland in Fiction. A Guide to Irish Novels, Tales, 
Romances, and Folk-l.orc. New Edition. By 
Stephen J. Brown, S.J. xx & 362 pp. 8vo. Dublin 
and London: Maunsel & Co.; St. Louis, Mo.: B; 
Herder Book Co. $3.75 net. 

.?t. Teresa (lSlS-1582) and Her First English Daugh- 
ters. (Notre Dame Series of Lives of Saints), 
iv & 276 PI). 12mo. London: Sands & Co.; St. 
Louis, Mo.: ]',. Herder Book Co. $1.80 net. 

Dante, "The Central Man of all the World.". A 
Course of Lectures Delivered Before the Student 
Body of the New York State College for Teach- 
ers, Albany. 1919, 1920, by John T. Slattery, 
Ph.D. Wiih a Preface by John H. I'inley. vii & 
285 pp. «vo. New York: P. J. Kenedy & Sons. 
$2.15 postpai<l. 

The Crime of the Congo and the German Atroci- 
ties. With an .Xpiiendix by (Jiovaiuii dc Sasso 
Rosso. St. Louis: "Amcrika" Print. (Wrapper). 

A .Study in American Freemasonry, ]5ascd upon 
Pike's "Morals and Dogma of the Ancient atifl 
Accepted Sroltish Rite," Mackc^f's "Masonic Rit- 
ualist," "The Encvcloi)edia of ]• reeinasonry," and 
Other American Masonic Standard Works. Edited 
by Arthur I'rcuss. Fourth Edition, xiv & 433 pp. 
8vo. B. Herder Book Co. $1.80 net. 

Ila-e Anglicans Any Right to Call Themselves Cath- 
olics r By Herbert E. Hall. 20 pp. 12mo. C. T. 
S. pamphlet. 2d. 

7 he Knad Home. I!y P. Rudkin. 12 pp. 12mo. C. 
T. S. pamphlet. 2d. 



1920 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



241 



In 1904—16 years ago— St. Louis had 
9,356 users of electric light 



May I, 1920, Union Electric Light 

& Power Company had 117,653 electric 
service customers, distributed as follows: 



City of St. Louis . . 


. 102,482 


St. Louis county . . 


. 11, "le? 


Jefferson county . . 


1,317 


Franklin county . 


1,134 


.St. Charles county 


672 


Perry county . . . 


281 



117,653 

These figures suggest three inter- 
esting facts: First, the rapid growth of 
St. Louis and the St. Louis industrial 
district; second, the rapid growth of the 
electrical industry; third, the success of 
Union Electric, ON MERIT, in acquiring 
WITH PUBLIC APPROVAL, almost the 
entire volume of electric service business 
in St. Louis and the .St. Louis industrial 
district. 

The public has approved because 
Union Electric's gradual absorption of this 
great field of public service has meant 
MORE SERVICE AND BETTER SERVICE 
every year; good service at less cost eveiy 
year until wartime operating costs halted 
the Company's regular yearly rate reduc- 
tions; and GOOD SERVICE. STEADILY 
IMPROVING EVERY YEAR, AT LOWEST 
POSSIBLE COST INCLUDING A FAIR 
YEARLY RETURN ON INVESTMENT. 



Union Electric has good neighbors 
because Union Electiic has always tried to 
BE a good neighbor. 

Nearly 4,000 of Union Electric's 
customers and other friends have bought 
shares of its 7 per cent preferred stock. 
Others are daily coining in or writing in 
to buy shares of the issue now on sale. 
They know their savings invested in this 
business are safe, and their dividends 
dependable. 

Issuance and sale of this stock was 
authorized by the State to fioance growth 
of the Company's public service properties. 

PRICE: $101) a share for cash; 
$102 on a ten-payment plan, under which 
buyers draw 5 per cent interest on install- 
ment payments, and can withdraw all 
payments, WITH INTERP;ST, any time 
before the final installment is paid. 

SALES OFFICES: Room 201 Union 
Electric Building, St. Louis, and Union 
Electric's Offices in Franklin, Jefferson, 
Perry, St. Cliarles and St. Louis counties. 

MAIL ORDERS: Bank draft, cer- 
tified check, postoflfice or express money 
order should be sent with mail orders. 
Prompt delivery of shares will be made 
by registered mail. 



Union Electric Light & Power 

Company 



242 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 

Can You Talk to the Dead? 



August 15 



=N 



"// frill he of the greatest value to Con